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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 85-90, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893398

RESUMEN

Delayed orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a minor subset of orthostatic dysregulation (OD). Cerebral blood oxygenation in juvenile patients with delayed OH has not been studied. We investigated the bilateral changes in cerebral oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex during an active standing test in 23 juvenile patients with delayed OH using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We measured the oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb, and total-Hb during the active standing test. Four observations were made during the test: t1 in a resting supine position, t2 when maintaining blood pressure, and the remaining two (t3, t4) during hypotension. The concentration of oxy-Hb significantly decreased prior to satisfying the diagnostic criteria of delayed OH after standing and did not change thereafter. The concentration of deoxy-Hb increased gradually during the measurement periods. In addition, total-Hb increased from t2 to t3. There was no significant difference in the change in each Hb parameter between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Our results indicate that NIRS parameters are more sensitive than blood pressure for the interpretation of cerebral autoregulation in juvenile patients with delayed OH.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Cardiovascular , Circulación Cerebrovascular , Hipotensión Ortostática , Oxígeno , Posición de Pie , Adolescente , Presión Sanguínea , Circulación Cerebrovascular/fisiología , Humanos , Hipotensión Ortostática/sangre , Hipotensión Ortostática/diagnóstico , Oxígeno/sangre , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
2.
Hernia ; 23(2): 317-322, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327983

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify any potential correlation between postoperative mortality and bowel resection in patients with obturator hernias. METHODS: In total, 21 patients who underwent emergency surgery for a primary incarcerated obturator hernia during a 9-year period were retrospectively assessed regarding the correlation between postoperative mortality within 30 days from surgery and bowel resection. RESULTS: The 21 hernias occurred in 20 women and 1 man. The mean age at presentation was 83.3 years. Eight hernias required bowel resection, and operations using mesh were performed for eight hernias. Complications occurred in association with nine hernias, and three patients died. Postoperative mortality was correlated with complications (p = 0.016) and bowel resection (p = 0.010). Patients undergoing bowel resection had a significantly longer operation time (p = 0.009) and a higher rate of postoperative complications (p = 0.018). The systolic blood pressure, pH, and base excess were significantly lower in patients who did than did not undergo bowel resection (p = 0.017, 0.009, and 0.015, respectively). CONCLUSION: As the aging population continues to expand, the number of patients with obturator hernias is speculated to increase. Elderly people with comorbidities require immediate operative procedures because their general condition tends to be exacerbated by bowel obstruction. Postoperative management may be carefully performed in patients with bowel resection because the postoperative mortality rates may be higher in these patients.

3.
Transplant Proc ; 50(10): 3496-3500, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577227

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite reported associations between intrapulmonary vascular shunting (IPVS) and morbidity and mortality in pediatric liver transplantation (LT), there are no guidelines for screening. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IPVS before and after pediatric LT. METHODS: Retrospective records review of all pediatric LT (n = 370) from 2005 to 2015 at a single institute in Japan. All children with cirrhosis and clinical suspicion of IPVS without cardiac or pulmonary conditions were included. 99mTechnetium labelled macroaggregated albumin (99mTcMAA) scans were performed before and after LT. The severity of IPVS was graded using shunt ratios. RESULTS: Twenty-four children fulfilled inclusion criteria and underwent Tc99MAA scans. All revealed mild (<20%) to moderate (20%-40%) grades of IPVS. Following LT, the mean shunt ratio regressed from 20.69 ± 6.26% to 15.1 ± 3.4% (P = .06). The median (range) follow-up was 17 (4-85) months. Mortality was zero. The incidence of portal vein thrombosis (4.2%) biliary strictures (12.5%) and graft loss (4.1%) in the study group was not statistically significant compared to the remainder of the 370 transplants (3.2%, 9.4% and 3%, respectively). Sub-group analysis revealed hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 2 out of 24 children. The mean shunt ratios before and after LT were 39.2 ± 0.77% and 16.2 ± 8.5%, respectively (P = .08). There was 1 complication (intra-abdominal abscess). CONCLUSIONS: HPS is less likely in mild to moderate IPVS. LT may achieve comparable results when performed in the presence of mild to moderate IPVS.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Hígado , Pulmón/irrigación sanguínea , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/etiología , Humanos , Lactante , Japón , Trasplante de Hígado/efectos adversos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Imagen de Perfusión/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Neurosci Res ; 137: 23-29, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522783

RESUMEN

Signaling by glutamatergic synapses plays an important role in visual processing in the retina. In this study, we used an enzyme-linked fluorescence assay system to monitor the dynamics of extracellular glutamate in a slice preparation from the mouse retina. High K stimulation induced an elevation of fluorescence in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina when glutamate transporters were inhibited by dl-threo-ß-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA). The high K-induced fluorescence signals in the IPL were inhibited by the calcium channel blocker Cd2+. Blockade of GABAergic and glycinergic circuits by picrotoxin and strychnine also elevated the fluorescence signals in the IPL. Thus, the enzyme-linked fluorescence assay system might be useful for monitoring the bulk concentration of extracellular glutamate released by synapses in the inner retina.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Animales , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Aspártico/farmacología , Compuestos de Cadmio/farmacología , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/farmacología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Antagonistas del GABA/farmacología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Picrotoxina/farmacología , Potasio/farmacología , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/efectos de los fármacos , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia , Estricnina/farmacología , Sinapsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular de Glutamato/metabolismo
6.
Transplant Proc ; 49(5): 1097-1102, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28583535

RESUMEN

Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder (MRCD) can cause liver failure requiring liver transplantation (LT), although it is often difficult to diagnose before LT. From 2005 to 2016, 9 MRCD patients with the median age at LT of 6 months underwent LT in our institute. Their clinical courses were retrospectively reviewed and the laboratory parameters were compared between the MRCD patients and 10 patients with acute liver failure unrelated to MRCD (non-MRCD). Five patients had extrahepatic manifestations, including developmental disorders in 3 and failure to thrive in 3, before LT. Only 3 patients (33.3%) were diagnosed before LT. Between MRCD and non-MRCD, lactate was significantly high and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) tended to be higher in MRCD. From the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff value of lactate was 50.0 mg/dL and that of L/P ratio was 23.2. Patient survival rate of MRCD was 77.8%, although 2 patients with mitochondrial depletion syndrome suffered from de novo pulmonary hypertension after LT. Our experiences showed the difficulty of preoperative diagnosis, and preoperative extrahepatic manifestations did not always mean poor outcome. Our study showed that lactate value and L/P ratio can be excellent predictors of MRCD.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fallo Hepático Agudo/etiología , Trasplante de Hígado , Enfermedades Mitocondriales/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangre , Fallo Hepático Agudo/cirugía , Trasplante de Hígado/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Mitocondriales/complicaciones , Ácido Pirúvico/sangre , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia
7.
Pediatr Transplant ; 20(7): 981-986, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27534385

RESUMEN

LT for PFIC type 1 is often complicated by postoperative diarrhea and recurrent graft steatosis. A 26-month-old female child with cholestatic jaundice, pruritus, diarrhea, and growth retardation revealed total bilirubin 9.1 mg/dL, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase 64 IU/L, and TBA 295.8 µmol/L. Genetic analysis confirmed ATP8B1 defects. A LT (segment 2, 3 graft) from the heterozygous father was performed. Biliary diversion was performed by a 35-cm jejunum conduit between the graft hepatic duct and the mid-transverse colon. Stools became pigmented immediately. Follow-up at 138 days revealed resolution of jaundice and pruritus and soft-to-hard stools (6-8 daily). Radioisotope hepato-biliary scintigraphy (days 26, 68, and 139) confirmed unobstructed bile drainage into the colon (t1/2 34, 27, and 19 minutes, respectively). Contrast meal follow-through at day 62 confirmed the absence of any colo-jejuno-hepatic reflux. At 140 days, contrast follow-through via the biliary stent revealed patent jejuno-colonic anastomosis and satisfactory transit. Graft biopsy at LT, 138 days, and 9 months follow-up revealed comparable grades of macrovesicular steatosis (<20%). TIBD during LT may be a clinically effective stoma-free biliary diversion and may prevent recurrent graft steatosis following LT for PFIC type 1.


Asunto(s)
Colestasis Intrahepática/cirugía , Trasplante de Hígado , Adenosina Trifosfatasas/genética , Bilis , Conductos Biliares/fisiopatología , Conductos Biliares/cirugía , Preescolar , Diarrea/etiología , Hígado Graso/etiología , Femenino , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Ictericia/etiología , Yeyuno/cirugía , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Prurito/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 9: 4, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25688185

RESUMEN

Neuronal migration in the cortex is controlled by the paracrine action of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Glutamate controls radial migration of pyramidal neurons by acting primarily on NMDA receptors and regulates tangential migration of inhibitory interneurons by activating non-NMDA and NMDA receptors. GABA, acting on ionotropic GABAA-rho and GABAA receptors, has a dichotomic action on radially migrating neurons by acting as a GO signal in lower layers and as a STOP signal in upper cortical plate (CP), respectively. Metabotropic GABAB receptors promote radial migration into the CP and tangential migration of interneurons. Besides GABA, the endogenous GABAergic agonist taurine is a relevant agonist controlling radial migration. To a smaller extent glycine receptor activation can also influence radial and tangential migration. Activation of glutamate and GABA receptors causes increases in intracellular Ca(2+) transients, which promote neuronal migration by acting on the cytoskeleton. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glutamate or GABA receptors during early corticogenesis induce heterotopic cell clusters in upper layers and loss of cortical lamination, i.e., neuronal migration disorders which can be associated with neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases. The pivotal role of NMDA and ionotropic GABA receptors in cortical neuronal migration is of major clinical relevance, since a number of drugs acting on these receptors (e.g., anti-epileptics, anesthetics, alcohol) may disturb the normal migration pattern when present during early corticogenesis.

9.
Neuroscience ; 285: 215-26, 2015 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25450954

RESUMEN

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability in pediatrics, and results in a complex cascade of events including the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A controlled-cortical impact on post-natal 17-day-old rats induced BBB disruption by IgG extravasation from 1 to 3 days after injury and returned to normal at day 7. In parallel, we characterized the expression of three caveolin isoforms, caveolin 1 (cav-1), caveolin 2 (cav-2) and caveolin 3 (cav-3). While cav-1 and cav-2 are expressed on endothelial cells, both cav-1 and cav-3 were found to be present on reactive astrocytes, in vivo and in vitro. Following TBI, cav-1 expression was increased in blood vessels at 1 and 7 days in the perilesional cortex. An increase of vascular cav-2 expression was observed 7 days after TBI. In contrast, astrocytic cav-3 expression decreased 3 and 7 days after TBI. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (via its phosphorylation) was detected 1 day after TBI and phospho-eNOS was detected both in association with blood vessels and with astrocytes. The molecular changes involving caveolins occurring in endothelial cells following juvenile-TBI might participate, independently of eNOS activation, to a mechanism of BBB repair while, they might subserve other undefined roles in astrocytes.


Asunto(s)
Barrera Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Lesiones Encefálicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Caveolina 2/metabolismo , Caveolina 3/metabolismo , Animales , Astrocitos/metabolismo , Astrocitos/patología , Barrera Hematoencefálica/patología , Encéfalo/irrigación sanguínea , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Encéfalo/patología , Lesiones Encefálicas/patología , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Endotelio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotelio Vascular/patología , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo III/metabolismo , Fosforilación , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factores de Tiempo
10.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 31(8): 1099-104, 2014 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24859171

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Morphological assessment of human blastocysts has been effective for selecting embryos with high potential. However, they often show repeated shrinkage and expansion toward their hatching. Here we assessed whether capturing morphological changes over time of vitrified-warmed blastocysts could lead to a better selection of viable embryos from shrunken blastocysts. METHODS: The implantation rates of vitrified-warmed blastocysts that were shrunken or expanded (developing) at the time of loading for transfer were compared among 2,729 cycles that were subjected to single blastocyst transfer. Vitrified (107) and fresh blastocysts (17) were donated for the experimental study. To assess the relationship between morphology (expanded vs. shrunken) and the mitochondrial respiration of blastocysts, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was analyzed for 55 specimens using an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. The remaining 69 blastocysts were used for recording morphological changes every 15 min for 48 h after warming. RESULTS: Because there were no surplus embryos, 7 % of the vitrified-warmed blastocysts were shrunken and transferred. The shrunken embryos had sufficient implantation ability (40 %). The OCR of the shrunken embryos was significantly lower than that of their expanded counterparts. Upon exposure to the uncoupler, the OCR of some shrunken embryos increased to levels similar to the expanded specimens. Time-lapse images revealed some shrunken embryos which formed blastocoel by 5 h following warming exhibited developmental competence to the hatched stage. CONCLUSIONS: Data of the present study suggest a group of shrunken blastocysts contains many viable and clinically available embryos and time-lapse observation of vitrified-warmed blastocysts is a potential method to distinguish viable embryos from shrunken blastocysts.


Asunto(s)
Blastocisto/fisiología , Blastocisto/ultraestructura , Criopreservación , Consumo de Oxígeno , Imagen de Lapso de Tiempo/métodos , Vitrificación , Blastocisto/citología , Femenino , Viabilidad Fetal , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
11.
Transplant Proc ; 46(5): 1371-6, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24836837

RESUMEN

There are few reports about the quality of life (QOL) and morbidities of pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) donors. We evaluated the potential morbidities and identified the predictive factors regarding the QOL of living donors after pediatric LDLT. This cross-sectional study was a single-center analysis of 100 donors for pediatric LDLT. The severity of morbidities was assessed with the Clavien classification, the QOL was investigated with the short form-36 (SF-36), and the decision-making process regarding donation was analyzed with questionnaires. The median follow-up period was 3.8 years (range, 2.2-6.0 years). A total of 13% of the donors developed postoperative complications of Clavien grades I (7%), II (3%), and IIIA (3%). There was no grade IV morbidity or mortality. Eighty-one donors responded to the questionnaire and SF-36. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed that the donors had difficulty in the decision-making process, and suggested that it may be necessary to administer multistep informed consent. We identified unique predictive risk factors for lower SF-36 scores in the donors, which were the time to donation (more than 4 weeks) and the predonation self-oriented perception. The donors who have risk factors require enhanced pre- and post-donation psychological care.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Hígado , Donadores Vivos , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
Case Rep Oncol ; 7(1): 144-8, 2014 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24748865

RESUMEN

A 59-year-old male patient presented with left chest discomfort on admission. His medical history included encephalitis in childhood and his smoking history was 20 cigarettes per day for 40 years. A physical examination showed an anemic and edematous face with weak respiratory sounds in the left lung. The patient had elevated calcium levels and decreased hemoglobin and potassium. His parathyroid hormone-related protein level was elevated. Thoracic radiography showed cardiomegaly and computed tomography revealed a left lung mass with invasion of the heart and pleural effusion. Magnetic resonance imaging showed endocardial invasion of the tumor mass. Gallium-68 imaging revealed positive accumulation in the region surrounding the heart. No diagnoses were possible upon frequent cytology of his sputum and pleural effusion. The patient died from congestive heart failure with anoxia 38 days after admission. An autopsy revealed tumoral mass occlusion in the left main bronchus and tumoral invasion of the left atrium, left ventricle, and aorta.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 4: e371, 2014 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24618690

RESUMEN

Exposure to maternal stress (MS) and mutations in GAD1, which encodes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 67, are both risk factors for psychiatric disorders. However, the relationship between these risk factors remains unclear. Interestingly, the critical period of MS for psychiatric disorders in offspring corresponds to the period of GABAergic neuron neurogenesis and migration in the fetal brain, that is, in the late stage of gestation. Indeed, decrement of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HIP) has often been observed in schizophrenia patients. In the present study, we used GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice (that is, mice in which the Gad1 gene is heterozygously deleted; GAD67(+/GFP)) that underwent prenatal stress from embryonic day 15.0 to 17.5 and monitored PV-positive GABAergic neurons to address the interaction between Gad1 disruption and stress. Administration of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine revealed that neurogenesis of GFP-positive GABAergic neurons, but not cortical plate cells, was significantly diminished in fetal brains during MS. Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptors by different progenitor cell types may underlie this differential outcome. Postnatally, the density of PV-positive, but not PV-negative, GABAergic neurons was significantly decreased in the mPFC, HIP and somatosensory cortex but not in the motor cortex of GAD67(+/GFP) mice. By contrast, these findings were not observed in wild-type (GAD67(+/+)) offspring. These results suggest that prenatal stress, in addition to heterozygous deletion of Gad1, could specifically disturb the proliferation of neurons destined to be PV-positive GABAergic interneurons.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/patología , Neuronas GABAérgicas/patología , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/genética , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Animales , Corteza Cerebral/embriología , Corteza Cerebral/crecimiento & desarrollo , Femenino , Interneuronas/patología , Ratones , Ratones Transgénicos , Neurogénesis/fisiología , Parvalbúminas/metabolismo , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Dis Esophagus ; 27(3): 267-75, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23796261

RESUMEN

To reveal clinicopathological features of narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy and immunohistochemistry in ultraminute esophageal squamous neoplasms. If a lesion diameter was smaller or same compared with a width of closed biopsy forceps, a lesion was defined to be an ultraminute lesion. Twenty-five consecutive patients with 33 ultraminute esophageal lesions that were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection were included in the present study. We conducted two questionnaire surveys of six endoscopists by their retrospective review of endoscopic still images. The six endoscopists evaluated the endoscopic findings of the ultraminute lesions on still images taken by conventional white-light imaging endoscopy and non-magnified NBI endoscopy in the first questionnaire, and taken by magnified NBI endoscopy in the second questionnaire. An experienced pathologist who was unaware of any endoscopic findings made histological diagnosis and evaluated immunoexpression of p53 and Ki67. The 33 ultraminute lesions were all determined to be either 11 high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias (HGIENs) or 22 low-grade intraepithelial neoplasias (LGIENs). The tumor diameters were histologically confirmed to be <3 mm. All of the ultraminute tumors were visualized as unstained areas and brownish areas by real-time endoscopy with Lugol dye staining and non-magnified NBI endoscopy, respectively. All of the ultraminute IENs were visualized as brownish areas by real-time non-magnified NBI endoscopy. Three of the 25 patients with the ultraminute IENs (12%) had multiple brownish areas (more than several areas) in the esophagus on real-time non-magnified NBI endoscopy. All of the ultraminute IENs were visualized as unstained areas by real-time Lugol chromoendoscopy. Twenty of the 25 patients (80%) had multiple unstained areas (more than several areas) in the esophagus on real-time Lugol chromoendoscopy. The first questionnaire survey revealed that a significantly higher detection rate of the ultraminute IENs on non-magnified NBI endoscopy images compared with conventional white-light imaging endoscopy ones (100% vs. 72%, respectively: P < 0.0001). The second questionnaire survey revealed that presence rates of any magnified NBI endoscopy findings were not significantly different between HGIENs and LGIENs. Proliferation, dilation, and various shapes of intrapapillary capillary loops indicated remarkably high presence rates of more than 90% in both HGIENs and LGIENs. Six of 22 LGIENs (27%) and 3 of 11 HGIENs (27%) show a positive expression for p53. None of peri-IEN epithelia was positive for p53. A mean of Ki67 labeling index of LGIENs was 33% and that of HGIENs 36%. Ki67 labeling index was significantly greater in the LGIENs and HGIENs compared with that in the peri-IEN epithelia. There were no significant differences in p53 expression and Ki67 labeling index between the HGIENs and LGIENs. Non-magnified/magnified NBI endoscopy could facilitate visualization and characterization of ultraminute esophageal squamous IENs. The ultraminute HGIENs and LGIENs might have comparable features of magnified NBI endoscopy and immunohistochemistry.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/análisis , Carcinoma in Situ/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Antígeno Ki-67/análisis , Imagen de Banda Estrecha , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor/análisis , Anciano , Carcinoma in Situ/química , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Colorantes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/química , Esofagoscopía , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Yoduros , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2013: 1887-90, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24110080

RESUMEN

This paper describes the development of a human electrical phantom at a low-frequency band. The conventional highly hydrous electromagnetic phantom does not mimic the electrical properties of a living body. The electrical properties of the newly developed phantom, by adding a carbon microcoil (CMC) and NaCl to the conventional phantom, are in good agreement with those of a living body. In addition, the electrical properties of the phantom with a CMC and twice the amount of NaCl added are evaluated at frequency bands above 300 MHz, similar to the conventional highly hydrous gel phantom. The results show that the newly developed phantom can effectively function in the conventional target frequency band by a simple mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Electromagnéticos , Fantasmas de Imagen , Algoritmos , Conductividad Eléctrica , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Cloruro de Sodio/química
16.
Transplant Proc ; 45(5): 1684-9, 2013 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23769024

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Utilization of grafts from donors after cardiac death (DCD) greatly expands the organ pool. However, implementation of such a strategy requires the development of novel preservation methods to achieve recovery from changes owing to warm ischemia. METHODS: To assess potential methods, porcine livers harvested after 60 minutes of warm ischemic time (WIT) were perfused and preserved under the following conditions: Group 1 (n = 3), 2-hour simple cold storage and 2-hour machine perfusion (MP) at 8°C; group 2 (n = 3), 2 hours at 25°C and MP at 25°C and group 3 (n = 3), 2-hour simple cold storage and gradual rewarming to 25°C by MP. The preserved liver grafts were transplanted orthotopically into recipients. RESULTS: The aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels in recipient blood at 2 hours after reperfusion were significantly lower among group 3: AST, 789 ± 258.8, 1203 ± 217.0, and 421 ± 55.8 IU/L; LDH, 1417 ± 671.2, 2132 ± 483.9, and 634 ± 263.9 IU/L; and HA, 1660 ± 556.5, 1463 ± 332.3, and 575 ± 239.0 ng/mL for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Histologically, necrosis and swelling of hepatocytes were less severe among group 3 than groups 1 and 2. Group 3 animals showed better vital responses and started spontaneous breathing within 2 hours after reperfusion; 1 recipient survived for >24 hours, although all animals in groups 1 and 2 died within 2 to 3 hours after reperfusion. CONCLUSION: Rewarming by MP preservation may facilitate recovery and resuscitation of DCD liver grafts.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Hígado , Perfusión , Cuidados Posoperatorios , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Femenino , Ácido Hialurónico/sangre , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Porcinos , Temperatura Ambiental
17.
Case Rep Oncol ; 6(2): 269-74, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23741222

RESUMEN

A 94-year-old female patient presented with anorexia and left axillar lymphadenopathy on admission. Her past history was angina pectoris at 83 years of age and total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer at 87 years. The family history revealed that her son had had a malignant lymphoma, the histopathological diagnosis of which was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A physical examination showed both cervical, axillar, and inguinal lymphadenopathy without tenderness. She had elevated lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R). Whole-body computed tomography confirmed the cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Gallium-68 imaging revealed positive accumulation in these superficial lymph nodes. A right inguinal lymph node biopsy showed features of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder. Immunohistological studies on this lymph node biopsy showed CD20-positive large cells, CD3-positive small cells, and CD30-partly-positive large cells. In situ hybridization showed Epstein-Barr virus-positive, LMP-partly-positive, and EBNA2-negative cells. She refused chemotherapy as her son had died from hematemesis during chemotherapy. She received intravenous hyperalimentation for 1 month after admission. No palpable lymph nodes were identified by physical examination or computed tomography 3 months after admission, and regression of lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and sIL-2R was observed. She recovered from anorexia and was discharged. She died from pneumonia 10 months later after initial symptoms of anorexia. The autopsy showed no superficial lymphadenopathy.

18.
J Oral Rehabil ; 40(5): 368-74, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23438017

RESUMEN

Gender-related risk factors in the survival of transplanted teeth with complete root formation have not yet been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in tooth autotransplantation at dental clinics. We asked participating dentists to provide information on transplantations they had undertaken from 1 January 1990 to 1931 December 2010. The data were screened to exclude patients who underwent more than one transplantation, smokers or those whose smoking habits were unknown, patients under 30 or who were 70 years old and over, cases where the transplanted teeth had incomplete root formation or multiple roots and those with fewer than 20 present teeth post-operation. We analysed 73 teeth of 73 males (mean age, 47.2 years) and 106 teeth of 106 females (mean age, 45.3 years) in this study. The cumulative survival rate and mean survival time were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The cumulative survival rate for males was 88.3% at the 5-year mark, 64.8% at 10 years and 48.6% at 15 years; for females, it was 97.2% at the 5-year mark, 85.9% at 10 years and 85.9% at 15 years. A log-rank test indicated the difference between males and females to be significant (P = 0.011). There was also a significant difference in the main causes for the loss of transplanted teeth: males lost more transplanted teeth due to attachment loss than females (P < 0.05). These results indicate that males require more attention during the autotransplantation process, particularly at the stage of pre-operation evaluation and that of follow-up maintenance.


Asunto(s)
Raíz del Diente/anatomía & histología , Diente/trasplante , Adulto , Anciano , Diente Premolar/patología , Diente Premolar/trasplante , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Supervivencia de Injerto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diente Molar/patología , Diente Molar/trasplante , Odontogénesis/fisiología , Pérdida de la Inserción Periodontal/complicaciones , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo , Pérdida de Diente/etiología , Trasplante Autólogo , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
J Oral Rehabil ; 40(2): 112-8, 2013 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23134328

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors with age in the long-term prognosis of autotransplantation of teeth with complete root formation at dental clinics. Participating dentists were asked to provide information on transplantations they had undertaken from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2010. Data on a total of 708 teeth from 637 patients were collected. The data were screened to exclude patients who were under 25 or 70 years of age and over, those who were smokers or whose smoking habits were unknown, those whose transplanted teeth had incomplete root formation or multiple roots and those with fewer than 25 present teeth post-operation. The participants in this study were 71 men (74 teeth) and 100 women (107 teeth) ranging from 25 to 69 years of age. Third molars were used as donor teeth in 89·0% of the cases. The participants were divided into three age groups of 25-39, 40-54 and 55-69. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test revealed that there were no significant differences in age groups for men or women. Cox regression analysis indicated that the survival of transplanted teeth was not influenced by age. However, although not statistically significant, the clinical success rate was lower in the 55-69-year-old group than that in the younger groups. These results indicate that if suitable donor teeth are available and the conditions are right, autotransplantation is a viable treatment for missing teeth regardless of the age of the patient.


Asunto(s)
Raíz del Diente/crecimiento & desarrollo , Diente/trasplante , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tercer Molar/trasplante , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Trasplante Autólogo
20.
Neuroscience ; 228: 334-48, 2013 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23103796

RESUMEN

Although trigeminal neuropathic pain is one of the most common chronic pain syndromes, the etiology is still unknown. Here, a rat model was generated using chronic constrictive injury (CCI) with ligation of the infraorbital nerve to test the hypothesis that collapse of chloride homeostasis in trigeminal neurons causes impairment of γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) inhibition and induces trigeminal allodynia. Rats showed a reduction and increase in pain threshold and pain response scores, respectively, to mechanical stimulation, 1 and 3weeks after CCI. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis showed that inward-directed Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) mRNA and protein were upregulated in the small-sized and large-sized primary neurons in the injured side of the trigeminal ganglion and in the peripherin-positive terminal, respectively, for the first 2weeks, while outward-directed K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC2) mRNA and protein were downregulated in secondary relay neurons on the injured side of the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C). Optical imaging of evoked synaptic responses using a voltage-sensitive dye revealed that pre- and post-synaptic GABA actions were disinhibited and excitatory in the injured side, respectively, but inhibited in the sham-operated side of the Sp5C. This downregulation of KCC2 in the Sp5C may result in an excitatory switch by impairing postsynaptic GABA inhibition. GABA-mediated presynaptic disinhibition was attenuated by bumetanide, suggesting that NKCC1 upregulation in primary neurons may facilitate pain transmission by presynaptic GABAergic depolarization. Such Cl(-) homeostatic disruption resulting in perturbation of the inhibitory system possibly increases pain transmission, which may underlie the pathophysiology of trigeminal neuropathic pain.


Asunto(s)
Cloruros/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Homeostasis/fisiología , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Núcleo Espinal del Trigémino/metabolismo , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animales , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Neuralgia/patología , Técnicas de Cultivo de Órganos , Umbral del Dolor/fisiología , Terminales Presinápticos/metabolismo , Terminales Presinápticos/patología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Potenciales Sinápticos/fisiología , Núcleo Espinal del Trigémino/patología
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