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1.
Ecol Evol ; 14(2): e10895, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38333093

RESUMEN

Habitat fragmentation can increase the chance of population bottlenecks and inbreeding, and may ultimately lead to reduced fitness and local extinction. Notelaea lloydii is a native olive species endemic to Australia and listed as vulnerable due to its restricted distribution. A recent molecular systematics study has revealed there might be some geographic structuring among N. lloydii populations. Therefore, we undertook a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis to determine levels and patterns of genetic diversity, inbreeding and gene flow within and among N. lloydii populations in south-eastern Queensland. Furthermore, as the reproductive phase of a plant's life history has a profound influence on genetic diversity, life history reproductive traits were also studied. Our SNP analysis revealed low genetic diversity, inbreeding and significant genetic structuring even among proximate populations. Results of a flower and fruit bagging experiment in two consecutive seasons revealed that N. lloydii produced many flowers but only a few fruits survived to maturity. There were no differences in bagged and un-bagged flowering and fruiting rates, and therefore, we conclude that the high fruit abortion rate was probably due to inbreeding depression and/or suboptimal conditions, rather than pollinator availability and insect attack. Overall, results of this study indicate that the populations of N. lloydii are small, inbred and genetically isolated and represent unique management units that require local conservation management due to ongoing threats associated with urbanisation.

2.
Ecol Evol ; 13(10): e10575, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37780088

RESUMEN

Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are a destructive and widespread invasive pest in Australia. An understanding of feral pig movement is required to develop management strategies to control feral pigs in Australia. Because landscape structure can have a strong influence on animal movement, it is important to determine how landscape features facilitate or impede the movement of feral pigs. Consequently, we conducted a landscape genetic analysis of feral pig populations in the Herbert region of far north Queensland, Australia, to determine management units and provide recommendations to better inform feral pig population control strategies. Using microsatellite data obtained from 256 feral pig samples from 44 sites, we examined feral pig population structure at multiple spatial scales for univariate and multivariate landscape resistance surfaces to determine the optimal spatial scale and to identify which of the nine landscape features tested impede or facilitate feral pig gene flow. Only weak genetic structure was found among the 44 sampling sites, but major waterways were identified as a minor barrier to gene flow, and an isolation by distance model was supported. We also found that highways facilitated gene flow across the study area, and this suggests that they may act as movement corridors or indicate translocation of feral pigs. Additionally, incorporating a second spatial scale enhanced the ability of our landscape genetics analysis to detect the influence of landscape structure on gene flow. We identified three management units based on natural barriers to gene flow and future targeted control should be undertaken in these management units to deliver sustained reduction of feral pig populations in the Herbert region. This study demonstrates how a landscape genetic approach can be used to gain insight into the ecology of an invasive pest species and be used to develop population control strategies which utilise natural barriers to movement.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 878: 163080, 2023 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37001677

RESUMEN

Climate change and biodiversity loss are significant global environmental issues. However, to understand their impacts we need to know how fauna respond to environmental and climatic variation over time. In this study, remote sensing techniques (satellite imagery and passive acoustic recorders) were used to investigate the variation in biophony over different timescales, ranging from one day to one year, in a sub-tropical woodland in eastern Australia. The prominent sources of biophony were birds at dawn and during the day, nocturnal insects at dusk and during the night, and diurnal birds and insects (mainly cicadas) over the summer period of December, January, and February. While different environmental factors were found to be key drivers of phenological response in different faunal groups, temperature, humidity and the interactions between temperature, humidity, moon illumination and vegetation greenness were most important factors overall. Using observed temperatures relative to the historical mean for each day of the year, we evaluated the impact of higher-than-average temperatures on calling activity. We found that nocturnal insects call less frequently on days when the temperature was hotter than average in winter months (June, July, and August), and birds call less frequently in hot spring days (September, October, and November) meaning these groups can be susceptible to temperature increase as consequence, for example, of climate change. This study demonstrates how animal calling behaviour is affected by different environmental variables over different temporal scales. This study also demonstrates the utility of remote sensing techniques for assessing the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. It is highly recommended that monitoring schemes and impact assessments account for phenological changes and environmental variability, as these are complex and important processes shaping animal communities.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Insectos , Animales , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura , Aves/fisiología , Cambio Climático
4.
Science ; 363(6433): 1319-1326, 2019 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765607

RESUMEN

In the 1950s the myxoma virus was released into European rabbit populations in Australia and Europe, decimating populations and resulting in the rapid evolution of resistance. We investigated the genetic basis of resistance by comparing the exomes of rabbits collected before and after the pandemic. We found a strong pattern of parallel evolution, with selection on standing genetic variation favoring the same alleles in Australia, France, and the United Kingdom. Many of these changes occurred in immunity-related genes, supporting a polygenic basis of resistance. We experimentally validated the role of several genes in viral replication and showed that selection acting on an interferon protein has increased the protein's antiviral effect.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Biológica/genética , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Myxoma virus/inmunología , Mixomatosis Infecciosa/inmunología , Conejos/genética , Conejos/virología , Alelos , Animales , Australia , Evolución Molecular , Francia , Frecuencia de los Genes , Variación Genética , Interferón alfa-2/genética , Interferón alfa-2/inmunología , Mixomatosis Infecciosa/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Población , Conejos/inmunología , Reino Unido
5.
Ecol Evol ; 8(18): 9413-9425, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377511

RESUMEN

Five new species within the Australian carnivorous marsupial genus Antechinus have recently been named, at least two of which are threatened. Important facets of the habitat use and extinction risk of one of these new species, the buff-footed antechinus, A. mysticus, are not well understood. Previous research has suggested that the species utilizes a broad range of inter-connected forest habitats in southeast Queensland (Qld), Australia. Based on this potentially connected habitat, we predicted that A. mysticus should have low population genetic structure, particularly in relation to its congener, the spatially restricted, high altitude, closed-forest A. subtropicus. We genotyped nine microsatellite loci for six populations of A. mysticus, sampled throughout their known range in eastern Australia, and compared them with four proximate populations of A. subtropicus. Surprisingly, genetic structuring among southeast Qld populations of A. mysticus was moderate to high and similar to that between A. subtropicus populations. We postulate that all A. mysticus populations have declined recently (<100 generations), particularly the northernmost southeast Qld population, which may be at risk of extinction. Our results suggest that A. mysticus is limited to a more scattered and fragmented distribution than previously thought and may be in decline. The identification of population decline in this study and recently in other Antechinus suggests the extinction risk of many Australian mammals should be reassessed.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24919501

RESUMEN

In this paper, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae. The mitogenome was mainly consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 large noncoding regions. The 15,180-bp mitogenome with a high A + T content (84.22%) was arranged in the same gene order as that of the ancestral insect. The repeat region between trnE and trnF included 1.29 copies of a 202 bp repeat unit. Characterization of the S. avenae mitogenome revealed architecture of one of important worldwide agricultural pests, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic diversities and further utilization in phylogenetic analysis.


Asunto(s)
Áfidos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Animales , Orden Génico/genética , ARN Ribosómico/genética , ARN de Transferencia/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e91657, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24614160

RESUMEN

Feral pigs occur throughout tropical far north Queensland, Australia and are a significant threat to biodiversity and World Heritage values, agriculture and are a vector of infectious diseases. One of the constraints on long-lasting, local eradication of feral pigs is the process of reinvasion into recently controlled areas. This study examined the population genetic structure of feral pigs in far north Queensland to identify the extent of movement and the scale at which demographically independent management units exist. Genetic analysis of 328 feral pigs from the Innisfail to Tully region of tropical Queensland was undertaken. Seven microsatellite loci were screened and Bayesian clustering methods used to infer population clusters. Sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA control region was examined to identify pig breed. Significant population structure was identified in the study area at a scale of 25 to 35 km, corresponding to three demographically independent management units (MUs). Distinct natural or anthropogenic barriers were not found, but environmental features such as topography and land use appear to influence patterns of gene flow. Despite the strong, overall pattern of structure, some feral pigs clearly exhibited ancestry from a MU outside of that from which they were sampled indicating isolated long distance dispersal or translocation events. Furthermore, our results suggest that gene flow is restricted among pigs of domestic Asian and European origin and non-random mating influences management unit boundaries. We conclude that the three MUs identified in this study should be considered as operational units for feral pig control in far north Queensland. Within a MU, coordinated and simultaneous control is required across farms, rainforest areas and National Park Estates to prevent recolonisation from adjacent localities.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Clima Tropical , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Análisis por Conglomerados , Intervalos de Confianza , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Filogenia , Queensland , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
8.
Gene ; 533(1): 253-60, 2014 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24095774

RESUMEN

To characterize aphid mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) features, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia. The 15,784-bp mitogenome with a high A+T content (84.76%) and strong C skew (-0.26) was arranged in the same gene order as that of the ancestral insect. Unlike typical insect mitogenomes, D. noxia possessed a large tandem repeat region (644 bp) located between trnE and trnF. Sequencing partial mitogenome of the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) further confirmed the presence of the large repeat region in aphids, but with different repeat length and copy number. Another motif (58 bp) tandemly repeated 2.3 times in the control region of D. noxia. All repeat units in D. noxia could be folded into stem-loop secondary structures, which could further promote an increase in copy numbers. Characterization of the D. noxia mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome architectures, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic diversities and evolution.


Asunto(s)
Áfidos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Proteínas de Insectos/genética , Secuencias Repetidas en Tándem , Triticum/parasitología , Animales , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Conformación de Ácido Nucleico , ARN Ribosómico/genética , ARN de Transferencia/química , ARN de Transferencia/genética
9.
N Engl J Med ; 364(24): 2316-23, 2011 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21675890

RESUMEN

A 44-year-old woman with long-standing common variable immunodeficiency who was receiving intravenous immune globulin suddenly had paralysis of all four limbs and the respiratory muscles, resulting in death. Type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus was isolated from stool. The viral capsid protein VP1 region had diverged from the vaccine strain at 12.3% of nucleotide positions, and the two attenuating substitutions had reverted to the wild-type sequence. Infection probably occurred 11.9 years earlier (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9 to 13.2), when her child received the oral poliovirus vaccine. No secondary cases were identified among close contacts or 2038 screened health care workers. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency can be chronically infected with poliovirus, and poliomyelitis can develop despite treatment with intravenous immune globulin.


Asunto(s)
Inmunodeficiencia Variable Común/complicaciones , Periodo de Incubación de Enfermedades Infecciosas , Poliomielitis/etiología , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/efectos adversos , Poliovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Resultado Fatal , Heces/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Poliomielitis/diagnóstico , Poliovirus/genética , Poliovirus/inmunología , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/inmunología , Alineación de Secuencia , Médula Espinal/patología
10.
J Infect Dis ; 199(3): 391-7, 2009 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19090774

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has not been used in the United States since 2000. Type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) was identified in September 2005, from an unvaccinated Amish infant hospitalized in Minnesota with severe combined immunodeficiency. An investigation was conducted to determine the source of the virus and its means of transmission. METHODS: The infant was tested serially for poliovirus excretion. Investigations were conducted to detect poliovirus infections or paralytic poliomyelitis in Amish communities in Minnesota, neighboring states, and Ontario, Canada. Genomic sequences of poliovirus isolates were determined for phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: No source for the VDPV could be identified. In the index community, 8 (35%) of 23 children tested, including the infant, had evidence of type 1 poliovirus or VDPV infection. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the VDPV circulated in the community for approximately 2 months before the infant's infection was detected and that the initiating OPV dose had been given before her birth. No paralytic disease was found in the community, and no poliovirus infections were found in other Amish communities investigated. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstrated transmission of VDPV in an undervaccinated community in a developed country. Continued vigilance is needed in all countries to identify poliovirus infections in communities at high risk of poliovirus transmission.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis/transmisión , Vacunas contra Poliovirus/administración & dosificación , Poliovirus/clasificación , Poliovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Inmunodeficiencia Combinada Grave/complicaciones , Adolescente , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Antígenos Virales/química , Antígenos Virales/genética , Trasplante de Médula Ósea , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapéutico , Lactante , Minnesota , Filogenia , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Poliomielitis/virología , Poliovirus/genética , Vacunas contra Poliovirus/inmunología , Inmunodeficiencia Combinada Grave/terapia , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 43(3): 1131-7, 2007 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17433725

RESUMEN

Phylogenetic studies on insect social parasites have found very close host-parasite relationships, and these have often been interpreted as providing evidence for sympatric speciation. However, such phylogenetic inferences are problematic because events occurring after the origin of parasitism, such as extinction, host switching and subsequent speciation, or an incomplete sampling of taxa, could all confound the interpretation of phylogenetic relationships. Using a tribe of bees where social parasitism has repeatedly evolved over a wide time-scale, we show the problems associated with phylogenetic inference of sympatric speciation. Host-parasite relationships of more ancient species appear to support sympatric speciation, whereas in a case where parasitism has evolved very recently, sympatric speciation can be ruled out. However, in this latter case, a single extinction event would have lead to relationships that support sympatric speciation, indicating the importance of considering divergence ages when analysing the modes of social parasite evolution.


Asunto(s)
Insectos/genética , Filogenia , Animales , Citocromos b/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Evolución Molecular , Insectos/clasificación , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Factor 1 de Elongación Peptídica/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
12.
Cancer Res ; 66(15): 7724-33, 2006 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16885375

RESUMEN

Phage display has been used extensively in vitro and in animal models to generate ligands and to identify cancer-relevant targets. We report here the use of phage-display libraries in cancer patients to identify tumor-targeting ligands. Eight patients with stage IV cancer, including breast, melanoma, and pancreas, had phage-displayed random peptide or scFv library (1.6 x 10(8)-1 x 10(11) transducing units/kg) administered i.v.; tumors were excised after 30 minutes; and tumor-homing phage were recovered. In three patients, repeat panning was possible using phage recovered and amplified from that same patient's tumor. No serious side effects, including allergic reactions, were observed with up to three infusions. Patients developed antiphage antibodies that reached a submaximal level within the 10-day protocol window for serial phage administration. Tumor phage were recoverable from all the patients. Using a filter-based ELISA, several clones from a subset of the patients were identified that bound to a tumor from the same patient in which clones were recovered. The clone-binding to tumor was confirmed by immunostaining, bioassay, and real-time PCR-based methods. Binding studies with noncancer and cancer cell lines of the same histology showed specificity of the tumor-binding clones. Analysis of insert sequences of tumor-homing peptide clones showed several motifs, indicating nonrandom accumulation of clones in human tumors. This is the first reported series of cancer patients to receive phage library for serial panning of tumor targeting ligands. The lack of toxicity and the ability to recover clones with favorable characteristics are a first step for further research with this technology in cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/terapia , Biblioteca de Péptidos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Bacteriófagos , Clonación Molecular , Humanos , Ligandos , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/virología
13.
Syst Biol ; 55(1): 31-45, 2006 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16507522

RESUMEN

Previous phylogenetic studies of the bee tribe Allodapini suggested a puzzling biogeographic problem: one of the key basal divergences involved separation of the southern African and southern Australian clades at a very early stage in allodapine evolution, but no taxa occur in the Palaearctic or Asian regions that might suggest a Laurasian dispersal route. However, these studies lacked sufficient sequence data and appropriate maximum likelihood partition models to provide reliable phylogenetic estimates and enable alternative biogeographic hypotheses to be distinguished. Using Bayesian and penalized likelihood approaches and an expanded sequence and taxon set we examine phylogenetic relationships between the Australian, African, and Malagasy groups and estimate divergence times for key nodes. We show that divergence of the three basal Australian clades (known as the exoneurines) occurred at least 25 Mya following a single colonization event, and that this group diverged from the African + Madagascan clade at least 30 Mya, but actual divergence dates are likely to be much older than these very conservative limits. The bifurcation order of the exoneurine clades was not resolved and analyses could not rule out the existence of a hard polytomy, suggesting rapid radiation after colonization of Australia. Their divergence involved major transitions in life history traits and these placed constraints on the kinds of social organization that subsequently evolved in each lineage. Early divergence between the African, Malagasy, and Australian clades presents a major puzzle for historical biogeography: node ages are too recent for Gondwanan vicariance hypotheses, but too early for Laurasian dispersal scenarios. We suggest a scenario involving island hopping across the Indian Ocean via a series of now largely submerged elements of the Kergulen Plateau and Broken Ridge provinces, both of which are known to have had subaerial formations during the Cenozoic. [Bayesian; biogeography; dispersal; Gondwana; Kerguelen Plateau; penalized likelihood.].


Asunto(s)
Abejas , África , Animales , Australia , Teorema de Bayes , Abejas/clasificación , Abejas/genética , Evolución Molecular , Especiación Genética , Geografía , Océanos y Mares , Filogenia
14.
Avian Dis ; 49(2): 252-9, 2005 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16094831

RESUMEN

The carcasses of 25 great horned owls and 12 goshawks were investigated for West Nile virus (WNV) infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on various organs, including brain, spinal cord, heart, kidney, eye, bone marrow, spleen, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and proventriculus, using a WNV-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and by WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), performed on fresh brain tissue only. WNV infection was diagnosed by IHC in all owls and all goshawks. WNV-specific RT-PCR amplified WNV-RNA in the brain of all goshawks but only 12 owls (48%). Cachexia was a common macroscopic finding associated with WNV infection in owls (76%). Myocarditis was occasionally macroscopically evident in goshawks (33%). Microscopically, inflammatory lesions, including lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, myocarditis, endophthalmitis, and pancreatitis were present in both species but were more common and more severe in goshawks than in owls. The most characteristic brain lesion in owls was the formation of glial nodules, in particular in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, while encephalitis affecting the periventricular parenchyma of the cerebral cortex was common in the goshawks. In owls, WNV-antigen-positive cells were present usually only in very small numbers per organ. Kidney (80%), heart (39%), and cerebellum (37%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen in owls. WNV antigen was frequently widely distributed in the organs of infected goshawks, with increased amounts of WNV antigen in the heart and the cerebrum. Spleen (75%), cerebellum (66%), heart (58%), cerebrum (58%), and eye (50%) were often WNV-antigen positive in goshawks. In contrast with the goshawks, WNV antigen was not present in cerebral and retinal neurons of owls. WNV infection appears to be capable of causing fatal disease in great horned owls and goshawks. However, the distribution and severity of histologic lesions, the antigen distribution in the various organs, and the amount of antigen varied among both species. Therefore, the diagnostician may choose organs for histology and immunohistochemistry as well as RT-PCR depending on the investigated species in order to avoid false-negative results.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/virología , Halcones , Estrigiformes , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/veterinaria , Virus del Nilo Occidental/genética , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Enfermedades de las Aves/genética , Encéfalo/patología , Técnicas Histológicas/veterinaria , Inmunohistoquímica/veterinaria , Miocardio/patología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/veterinaria , Vísceras/patología , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/genética
15.
Avian Dis ; 48(3): 570-80, 2004 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15529979

RESUMEN

Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/patología , Enfermedades de las Aves/virología , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/veterinaria , Virus del Nilo Occidental , Factores de Edad , Animales , Antígenos Virales/análisis , Encéfalo/patología , Encéfalo/virología , Encefalitis Viral/veterinaria , Endoftalmitis/veterinaria , Endoftalmitis/virología , Femenino , Halcones , Inmunohistoquímica/veterinaria , Masculino , Minnesota , Miocarditis/veterinaria , Miocarditis/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/patología
16.
Int J Cancer ; 111(6): 951-60, 2004 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15300809

RESUMEN

ErbB2 is overexpressed in approximately 30% of breast cancer patients with a correlation to poor prognosis. ErbB2 has been identified as a useful receptor for molecular targeting. A cyclic 20 amino acid phage display random peptide library was constructed using the fUSE5 gene III system. The library was panned against 2 different purified forms of the external domain of ErbB2. This resulted in the identification of several ErbB2-binding phage clones with variable binding to different ErbB2 preparations. One clone (EC-1) bound all preparations of ErbB2 including live cells and fresh frozen human breast cancer specimens. The synthetic peptide based on the deduced sequence of the EC-1 clone and its biotin-conjugated form retained binding affinity for purified ErbB2 and ErbB2 overexpressing cell lysates. EC-1 peptide was able to effectively inhibit the phosphorylation of ErbB2 on residues Y1248 and Y877 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EC-1 peptide selectively inhibits the proliferation of ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. The linear portion of the cyclic EC-1 peptide was shown to be essential for binding ErbB2. In addition, 4 biased phage libraries were constructed allowing 4 different regions of the EC-1 peptide to have random sequence. Screening these EC-1 biased libraries did not result in higher affinity peptides but did demonstrate the importance of amino acids at position 1-4 on the N-terminal flanking arm and 11-15 within the cyclic ring. Interestingly, EC-1 contains homologous motifs with known ErbB receptor family ligands. We have identified a small peptide that binds to the extracellular domain of ErbB2, inhibits ErbB2 autophosphorylation and inhibits the proliferation of ErbB2 overexpressing cells. This supports the notion that small peptides can bind to targets important in cancer therapy even if a target does not have a natural ligand. Continuing research with this peptide includes increasing its affinity to ErbB2, evaluation of pharmacokinetics and evaluation of anti-proliferative effects with conjugate anti-cancer agents.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Fragmentos de Péptidos/farmacología , Biblioteca de Péptidos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Clonación Molecular , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Fosforilación , Pronóstico
17.
J Gen Virol ; 85(Pt 9): 2577-2584, 2004 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15302951

RESUMEN

Enterovirus (EV) 68 was originally isolated in California in 1962 from four children with respiratory illness. Since that time, reports of EV68 isolation have been very uncommon. Between 1989 and 2003, 12 additional EV68 clinical isolates were identified and characterized, all of which were obtained from respiratory specimens of patients with respiratory tract illnesses. No EV68 isolates from enteric specimens have been identified from these same laboratories. These recent isolates, as well as the original California strains and human rhinovirus (HRV) 87 (recently shown to be an isolate of EV68 and distinct from the other human rhinoviruses), were compared by partial nucleotide sequencing in three genomic regions (partial sequencing of the 5'-non-translated region and 3D polymerase gene, and complete sequencing of the VP1 capsid gene). The EV68 isolates, including HRV87, were monophyletic in all three regions of the genome. EV68 isolates and HRV87 grew poorly at 37 degrees C relative to growth at 33 degrees C and their titres were reduced by incubation at pH 3.0, whereas the control enterovirus, echovirus 11, grew equally well at 33 and 37 degrees C and its titre was not affected by treatment at pH 3.0. Acid lability and a lower optimum growth temperature are characteristic features of the human rhinoviruses. It is concluded that EV68 is primarily an agent of respiratory disease and that it shares important biological and molecular properties with both the enteroviruses and the rhinoviruses.


Asunto(s)
Enterovirus Humano D/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterovirus/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Adulto , Línea Celular , Niño , Preescolar , Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Enterovirus Humano D/crecimiento & desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Lactante , Masculino , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Filogenia , Homología de Secuencia de Ácido Nucleico , Temperatura
18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 64(10): 1170-6; quiz, 1274-6, 2003 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14658964

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of mood disorders among consecutively evaluated prepubertal children presenting for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a community mental health clinic. METHOD: 104 children received systematic assessments designed to identify individuals meeting the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), mania, and ADHD. "Standard" and "modified" criteria for mania were employed. Modified criteria, in an effort to minimize false-positive diagnoses of mania, required the presence of euphoria and/or flight of ideas. A child meeting the criteria for MDD or either set of criteria for mania was categorized as having a mood disorder. Mood disorders in first-degree relatives were assessed using a systematic interview. Data were gathered from 2000 to 2002. RESULTS: Sixty-two children (59.6%) had a mood disorder. Compared with those who did not have a mood disorder, they were 3.3 times more likely (54.8% vs. 16.7%) to have a family history of any affective disorder (p <.0001) and 18.3 times more likely (43.5% vs. 2.4%) to have a family history of bipolar disorder (p <.0001). Twenty (32.3%) of the children with and none without a mood disorder had psychotic features (p <.0001). Compared with those meeting only the standard criteria for mania, those meeting the modified criteria were 9.1 times more likely (69.8% vs. 7.7%) to have a family history of an affective disorder (p <.0001) and 7.3 times more likely (55.8% vs. 7.7%) to have a family history of bipolar disorder (p =.002). CONCLUSION: Children who presumably have ADHD often have unrecognized affective illness. Our findings support the view that children meeting the modified criteria for mania have veritable bipolar disorder. These findings, which were derived in the course of delivering routine clinical services in a community mental health clinic, are consistent with those obtained in research settings suggesting that children presenting with ADHD often have occult mood disorders, especially unrecognized bipolarity. We suggest that clinicians encountering children with prominent features of ADHD inquire about the presence of euphoria and flight of ideas. We submit that the presence of these "classic" manifestations of mania strongly suggests the presence of occult bipolarity, even if course of illness otherwise markedly deviates from "classic" descriptions.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Derivación y Consulta , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/genética , Trastorno Bipolar/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno Bipolar/epidemiología , Trastorno Bipolar/genética , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Determinación de la Personalidad
19.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 50(4): 325-32, 2002 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12357308

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In vivo screening of phage-displayed random peptide libraries (RPLs) has been used to identify peptide ligands to targets found on endothelial cells of blood vessels supplying specific tissues such as brain, kidney, and tumor tissue. Peptides that bind specifically to blood vessels supplying tumor tissue have been conjugated to cytotoxic agents and used to successfully eradicate tumors in a mouse model. With the ultimate goal of developing similar methods for treating human cancer, we describe an in vivo RPL screening process that, unlike previous in vivo experiments, does not harm the animal being screened. METHODS: RPLs were administered to FVB, BalbC, and tumor-bearing MRL/MpJ-fas(LPR) mice in a variety of dosing formats. Tumor nodules were excised 10 min following infusion and phage were amplified from the specimens. Phage were reinjected into the same animal within 48 h. This process was repeated twice for a total of three in vivo screens of mouse tumor tissue within the same animal. Mice were observed for systemic side effects, histopathologic damage, and presence of phage in organs. Peptide sequences were determined from several third-pan phage clones. RESULTS: Overall there was minimal toxicity from administration of single or repeat doses of RPLs. Amino acid consensus sequences were identified and some of the sequences were similar to those of peptide ligands that bind matrix metalloproteinases. CONCLUSIONS: Serial administration of an RPL is well tolerated and serial panning in individual mice leading to consensus sequence motifs is possible. Based on these preclinical data the Food and Drug Administration has approved the implementation of human clinical trials with this technique.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Neoplasias Experimentales/terapia , Biblioteca de Péptidos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Colifagos , Secuencia de Consenso , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Ligandos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Tasa de Supervivencia
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