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1.
Virus Res ; 293: 198260, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316352

RESUMEN

Chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is characterized by accumulation of proviral sequences in the genome of target cells. Integration of viral DNA in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy selectively persists at preferential loci, suggesting site-specific crosstalk of viral sequences and human genes. This crosstalk likely contributes to chronic HIV disease through modulation of host immune pathways and emergence of clonal infected cell populations. To systematically interrogate such effects, we undertook genome engineering to generate Jurkat cell models that replicate integration of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences at the BTB and CNC Homolog 2 (BACH2) integration locus. This locus is a prominent HIV-1 integration gene in chronic infection, found in 30 % of long-term treated patients with mapped proviral integrations. Using five clonal models carrying an LTR-driven reporter at different BACH2 intergenic regions, we here show that LTR transcriptional activity is repressed in BACH2 regions associated with proviral-DNA integrations in vivo but not in a control region. Our data indicates that this repression is in part epigenetically regulated, particularly through DNA methylation. Importantly, we demonstrate that transcriptional activity of the LTR is independent of BACH2 gene transcription and vice versa in our models. This suggests no transcriptional interference of endogenous and HIV-1 promoters. Taken together, our study provides first insights into how activity of HIV-1 LTR sequences is regulated at the BACH2 locus as prominent example for a recurrently-detected integration gene in chronic infection. Given the importance of integration-site dependent virus/host crosstalk for chronic HIV disease, our findings for the BACH2 locus have potential implications for future therapeutic strategies.

2.
EJNMMI Res ; 10(1): 149, 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284394

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Radiohybrid (rh) ligands, a novel class of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radiopharmaceuticals, can be labeled either with [18F]fluorine via isotopic exchange or with radiometals (such as [68Ga]Gallium, [177Lu]Lutetium, [225Ac]Actinium). Among these, [18F, natGa]rhPSMA-7 has recently entered clinical assessment. AIM: Since [18F, natGa]rhPSMA-7 is composed of four stereoisomers ([18F, natGa]rhPSMA-7.1, -7.2, -7.3 and -7.4), we initiated a preclinical selection process to identify the isomer with the most favorable pharmacokinetics for further clinical investigation. METHODS: A synthetic protocol for enantiopure [19F, natGa]rhPSMA-7 isomers has been developed. The comparative evaluation of the four isomers comprised human serum albumin binding, lipophilicity, IC50, internalization and classical biodistribution studies and competition experiments in LNCaP tumor-bearing CB-17 SCID mice. In addition, a radio high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was developed allowing quantitative, intraindividual comparison of [18F, natGa]rhPSMA-7.1 to -7.4 in LNCaP tumor-bearing mice. RESULTS: Cell studies revealed high PSMA affinity and internalization for [18/19F, natGa]rhPSMA-7.2, -7.3 and -7.4, whereas [18/19F, natGa]rhPSMA-7.1 showed approximately twofold lower values. Although the biodistribution profile obtained was typical of PSMA inhibitors, it did not allow for selection of a lead candidate for clinical studies. Thus, an intraindividual comparison of all four isomers in LNCaP tumor-bearing mice was carried out by injection of a diastereomeric mixture, followed by analysis of the differential uptake and excretion pattern of each isomer. Based on its high tumor accumulation and low uptake in blood, liver and kidneys, [18F, natGa]rhPSMA-7.3 was identified as the preferred isomer and transferred into clinical studies. CONCLUSION: [18F, natGa]rhPSMA-7.3 has been selected as a lead compound for clinical development of a [18F]rhPSMA-based candidate. The intraindividual differential uptake and excretion analysis in vivo allowed for an accurate comparison and assessment of radiopharmaceuticals.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 591778, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193257

RESUMEN

The rhadinoviruses Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV-68) persist in infected hosts in a latent state that is characterized by the absence of virus production and by restricted viral gene expression. Their major latency protein, the latency-associated nuclear antigen (kLANA for KSHV and mLANA for MHV-68), is essential for viral genome maintenance and replication and involved in transcriptional regulation. Both kLANA and mLANA interact with cellular chromatin-associated proteins, among them the Bromodomain and Extra Terminal domain (Brd/BET) proteins, which recruit cellular and viral proteins to acetylated histones through their bromodomains and modulate cellular gene expression. Brd/BET proteins also play a role in the tethering, replication, segregation or integration of a diverse group of viral DNA genomes. In this study we explored if Brd/BET proteins influence the localization of the LANAs to preferential regions in the host chromatin and thereby contribute to kLANA- or mLANA-mediated transcriptional regulation. Using ChIP-Seq, we revealed a genome-wide co-enrichment of kLANA with Brd2/4 near cellular and viral transcriptional start sites (TSS). Treatment with I-BET151, an inhibitor of Brd/BET, displaced kLANA and Brd2/4 from TSS in the viral and host chromatin, but did not affect the direct binding of kLANA to kLANA-binding sites (LBS) in the KSHV latent origin of replication. Similarly, mLANA, but not a mLANA mutant deficient for binding to Brd2/4, also associated with cellular TSS. We compared the transcriptome of KSHV-infected with uninfected and kLANA-expressing human B cell lines, as well as a murine B cell line expressing mLANA or a Brd2/4-binding deficient mLANA mutant. We found that only a minority of cellular genes, whose TSS are occupied by kLANA or mLANA, is transcriptionally regulated by these latency proteins. Our findings extend previous reports on a preferential deposition of kLANA on cellular TSS and show that this characteristic chromatin association pattern is at least partially determined by the interaction of these viral latency proteins with members of the Brd/BET family of chromatin modulators.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007476

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Investigation whether in depth characterization of virus variant patterns can be used for epidemiological analysis of the first SARS-CoV-2 infection clusters in Hamburg, Germany. METHODS: Metagenomic RNA- and amplicon-sequencing and subsequent variant calling in 25 respiratory samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients involved in the earliest infection clusters in Hamburg. RESULTS: Amplikon sequencing and cluster analyses of these SARS-CoV-2 sequences allowed the identification of the first infection cluster and five non-related infection clusters occurring at the beginning of the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 in the Hamburg metropolitan region. Viral genomics together with epidemiological analyses revealed that the index patient acquired the infection in Northern Italy and transmitted it to two out of 134 contacts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms clearly distinguished the virus variants of the index and other clusters and allowed to track in which sequences worldwide these mutations were first described. Minor variant analyses identified the transmission of intra-host variants in the index cluster and household clusters. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 variant tracing allows the identification of infection clusters and the follow up of infection chains occurring in the population. Furthermore, the follow up of minor viral variants in infection cluster can provide further resolution on transmission events indistinguishable on consensus sequence level.

5.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 173640, 2020 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045198

RESUMEN

Opioids are the most powerful analgesics used clinically; however, severe side effects limit their long-term use. Various concepts involving biased intracellular signaling, partial agonism or multi-receptor targeting have been proposed to identify novel opioids with increased analgesic efficacy but reduced side effects. The search for such 'better opioids' implies screening of huge compound libraries and requires highly reliable, easy to perform and high throughput screening (HTS) assays. Here, we utilize an established membrane potential assay to monitor activation of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, one of the main effectors of opioid receptor signaling, as readout to determine pharmacological profiles of opioids in a non-invasive manner. Specifically, in this study, we optimize assay conditions and extend the application of this assay to screen all four members of the opioid receptor family, stably expressed in AtT-20 and HEK293 cells. This ultra-sensitive system yielded EC50 values in the nano-molar range. We further validate this system for screening cells stably co-expressing two opioid receptors, which could be a valuable tool for investigating bi-functional ligands and studying interactions between receptors. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of this assay to study antagonists as well as ligands with varying efficacies. Our results suggest that this assay could easily be up-scaled to HTS assay in order to efficiently study receptor activation and screen for novel opioids.

6.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(12): e13296, 2020 12 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012091

RESUMEN

We describe a multifactorial investigation of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a large meat processing complex in Germany. Infection event timing, spatial, climate and ventilation conditions in the processing plant, sharing of living quarters and transport, and viral genome sequences were analyzed. Our results suggest that a single index case transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to co-workers over distances of more than 8 m, within a confined work area in which air is constantly recirculated and cooled. Viral genome sequencing shows that all cases share a set of mutations representing a novel sub-branch in the SARS-CoV-2 C20 clade. We identified the same set of mutations in samples collected in the time period between this initial infection cluster and a subsequent outbreak within the same factory, with the largest number of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases in a German meat processing facility reported so far. Our results indicate climate conditions, fresh air exchange rates, and airflow as factors that can promote efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 via long distances and provide insights into possible requirements for pandemic mitigation strategies in industrial workplace settings.

7.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867368

RESUMEN

CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) has revealed great potential as a tool to modulate the expression of targeted cellular genes. Here, we successfully applied the CRISPRa system to trigger the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) reactivation in latently infected cells by selectively activating ORF50 gene directly from the virus genome. We found that a nuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) fused to a destabilization domain (DD) and 12 copies of the VP16 activation domain (VP192) triggered a more efficient KSHV lytic cycle and virus production when guided to two different sites on the ORF50 promoter, instead of only a single site. To our surprise, the virus reactivation induced by binding of the stable DD-dCas9-VP192 on the ORF50 promoter was even more efficient than reactivation induced by ectopic expression of ORF50. This suggests that recruitment of additional transcriptional activators to the ORF50 promoter, in addition to ORF50 itself, are needed for the efficient virus production. Further, we show that CRISPRa can be applied to selectively express the early lytic gene, ORF57, without disturbing the viral latency. Therefore, CRISPRa-based systems can be utilized to facilitate virus-host interaction studies by controlling the expression of not only cellular but also of specific KSHV genes.

8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008562, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833988

RESUMEN

Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the etiological agent of the majority of Merkel Cell Carcinomas (MCC). MCPyV positive MCCs harbor integrated, defective viral genomes that constitutively express viral oncogenes. Which molecular mechanisms promote viral integration, if distinct integration patterns exist, and if integration occurs preferentially at loci with specific chromatin states is unknown. We here combined short and long-read (nanopore) next-generation sequencing and present the first high-resolution analysis of integration site structure in MCC cell lines as well as primary tumor material. We find two main types of integration site structure: Linear patterns with chromosomal breakpoints that map closely together, and complex integration loci that exhibit local amplification of genomic sequences flanking the viral DNA. Sequence analysis suggests that linear patterns are produced during viral replication by integration of defective/linear genomes into host DNA double strand breaks via non-homologous end joining, NHEJ. In contrast, our data strongly suggest that complex integration patterns are mediated by microhomology-mediated break-induced replication, MMBIR. Furthermore, we show by ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analysis that MCPyV preferably integrates in open chromatin and provide evidence that viral oncogene expression is driven by the viral promoter region, rather than transcription from juxtaposed host promoters. Taken together, our data explain the characteristics of MCPyV integration and may also provide a model for integration of other oncogenic DNA viruses such as papillomaviruses.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células de Merkel/patología , Reparación del ADN por Unión de Extremidades , Poliomavirus de Células de Merkel/genética , Infecciones por Polyomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones Tumorales por Virus/complicaciones , Integración Viral , Replicación Viral , Antígenos Virales de Tumores , Neoplasias Óseas/genética , Neoplasias Óseas/secundario , Neoplasias Óseas/virología , Carcinoma de Células de Merkel/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Merkel/virología , Humanos , Infecciones por Polyomavirus/genética , Infecciones por Polyomavirus/virología , Recombinación Genética , Neoplasias Cutáneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/virología , Infecciones Tumorales por Virus/genética , Infecciones Tumorales por Virus/virología , Proteínas Virales/genética
9.
mBio ; 11(4)2020 08 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843547

RESUMEN

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The cellular transcription factor (TF) interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is an essential oncogene in PEL, but its specific role in PEL and how KSHV deregulates IRF4 remain unknown. Here, we report that the KSHV latency protein viral interferon regulatory factor 3 (vIRF3) cooperates with IRF4 and cellular BATF (basic leucine zipper ATF-like TF) to drive a super-enhancer (SE)-mediated oncogenic transcriptional program in PEL. Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) experiments demonstrated that IRF4, vIRF3, and BATF cooccupy the SEs of key survival genes, in a pattern that is distinct from those seen with other IRF4-driven malignancies. All three proteins cooperatively drive SE-mediated IRF4 overexpression. Inactivation of vIRF3 and, to a lesser extent, BATF phenocopies the gene expression changes and loss of cellular viability observed upon inactivation of IRF4. In sum, this work suggests that KSHV vIRF3 and cellular IRF4 and BATF cooperate as oncogenic transcription factors on SEs to promote cellular survival and proliferation in KSHV-associated lymphomas.IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes the aggressive disease primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). Here, we show that a viral transcription factor (vIRF3) cooperates with the cellular transcription factor IRF4 to control an oncogenic gene expression program in PEL cells. These proteins promote KSHV-mediated B cell transformation by activating the expression of prosurvival genes through super-enhancers. Our report thus demonstrates that this DNA tumor virus encodes a transcription factor that functions with cellular IRF4 to drive oncogenic transcriptional reprogramming.

10.
Cancer Res ; 80(15): 3116-3129, 2020 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518203

RESUMEN

Kaposi sarcoma is a tumor caused by Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and is thought to originate from lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). While KSHV establishes latency in virtually all susceptible cell types, LECs support spontaneous expression of oncogenic lytic genes, high viral genome copies, and release of infectious virus. It remains unknown the contribution of spontaneous virus production to the expansion of KSHV-infected tumor cells and the cellular factors that render the lymphatic environment unique to KSHV life cycle. We show here that expansion of the infected cell population, observed in LECs, but not in blood endothelial cells, is dependent on the spontaneous virus production from infected LECs. The drivers of lymphatic endothelium development, SOX18 and PROX1, regulated different steps of the KSHV life cycle. SOX18 enhanced the number of intracellular viral genome copies and bound to the viral origins of replication. Genetic depletion or chemical inhibition of SOX18 caused a decrease of KSHV genome copy numbers. PROX1 interacted with ORF50, the viral initiator of lytic replication, and bound to the KSHV genome in the promoter region of ORF50, increasing its transactivation activity and KSHV spontaneous lytic gene expression and infectious virus release. In Kaposi sarcoma tumors, SOX18 and PROX1 expression correlated with latent and lytic KSHV protein expression. These results demonstrate the importance of two key transcriptional drivers of LEC fate in the regulation of the tumorigenic KSHV life cycle. Moreover, they introduce molecular targeting of SOX18 as a potential novel therapeutic avenue in Kaposi sarcoma. SIGNIFICANCE: SOX18 and PROX1, central regulators of lymphatic development, are key factors for KSHV genome maintenance and lytic cycle in lymphatic endothelial cells, supporting Kaposi sarcoma tumorigenesis and representing attractive therapeutic targets.

11.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(23)2020 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499358

RESUMEN

Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated from an oropharyngeal swab sample from a female patient with COVID-19 who was infected in Hamburg, northern Germany.

12.
Cell Rep ; 31(3): 107549, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320654

RESUMEN

Importin-α adaptor proteins orchestrate dynamic nuclear transport processes involved in cellular homeostasis. Here, we show that importin-α3, one of the main NF-κB transporters, is the most abundantly expressed classical nuclear transport factor in the mammalian respiratory tract. Importin-α3 promoter activity is regulated by TNF-α-induced NF-κB in a concentration-dependent manner. High-level TNF-α-inducing highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) isolated from fatal human cases harboring human-type polymerase signatures (PB2 627K, 701N) significantly downregulate importin-α3 mRNA expression in primary lung cells. Importin-α3 depletion is restored upon back-mutating the HPAIV polymerase into an avian-type signature (PB2 627E, 701D) that can no longer induce high TNF-α levels. Importin-α3-deficient mice show reduced NF-κB-activated antiviral gene expression and increased influenza lethality. Thus, importin-α3 plays a key role in antiviral immunity against influenza. Lifting the bottleneck in importin-α3 availability in the lung might provide a new strategy to combat respiratory virus infections.

13.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295923

RESUMEN

The anaphase-promoting complex, or cyclosome (APC/C), is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase composed of 14 subunits. The activity of APC/C oscillates during the cell cycle to ensure a timely transition through each phase by promoting the degradation of important cell cycle regulators. Of the human herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) both impair the activity of APC/C during their lytic replication cycle through virus-encoded protein kinases. Here, we addressed whether the oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) deregulates the activity of APC/C during the lytic replication cycle. To this end, we used the well-characterized iSLK.219 cell model of KSHV infection and established a new infection model of primary lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) infected with a lytically replicating KSHV BAC16 mutant. In contrast to those of EBV and HCMV, the KSHV lytic cycle occurs while the APC/C is active. Moreover, interfering with the activity of APC/C did not lead to major changes in the production of infectious virus. We further investigated whether rereplication stress induced by the unscheduled activation of the APC/C-CDH1 complex affects the number and integrity of KSHV viral episomes. Deep sequencing of the viral episomes and host chromosomes in iSLK.219 cells revealed that, while distinct regions in the cellular chromosomes were severely affected by rereplication stress, the integrity of the viral episomes remained unaltered.IMPORTANCE DNA viruses have evolved complex strategies to gain control over the cell cycle. Several of them target APC/C, a key cellular machinery that controls the timely progression of the cell cycle, by either blocking or enhancing its activity. Here, we investigated the activity of APC/C during the lytic replication cycle of KSHV and found that, in contrast to that of KSHV's close relatives EBV and HCMV, KSHV lytic replication occurs while the APC/C is active. Perturbing APC/C activity by depleting a core protein or the adaptor proteins of the catalytic domain, and hence interfering with normal cell-cycle progression, did not affect virus replication. This suggests that KSHV has evolved to replicate independently of the activity of APC/C and in various cell cycle conditions.

14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 450, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231671

RESUMEN

Deciphering complex virus-host interactions is crucial for pandemic preparedness. In this study, we assessed the impact of recently postulated cellular factors ANP32A and ANP32B of influenza A virus (IAV) species specificity on viral pathogenesis in a genetically modified mouse model. Infection of ANP32A-/- and ANP32A+/+ mice with a seasonal H3N2 IAV or a highly pathogenic H5N1 human isolate did not result in any significant differences in virus tropism, innate immune response or disease outcome. However, infection of ANP32B-/- mice with H3N2 or H5N1 IAV revealed significantly reduced virus loads, inflammatory cytokine response and reduced pathogenicity compared to ANP32B+/+ mice. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses in ANP32B+/+ and ANP32B-/- mice further uncovered novel immune-regulatory pathways that correlate with reduced pathogenicity in the absence of ANP32B. These data show that ANP32B but not ANP32A promotes IAV pathogenesis in mice. Moreover, ANP32B might possess a yet unknown immune-modulatory function during IAV infection. Targeting ANP32B or its regulated pathways might therefore pose a new strategy to combat severe influenza.

15.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156811

RESUMEN

Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the only polyomavirus known to be associated with tumorigenesis in humans. Similarly to other polyomaviruses, MCPyV expresses a large tumor antigen (LT-Ag) that, together with a small tumor antigen (sT-Ag), contributes to cellular transformation and that is of critical importance for the initiation of the viral DNA replication. Understanding the cellular protein network regulated by MCPyV early proteins will significantly contribute to our understanding of the natural MCPyV life cycle as well as of the mechanisms by which the virus contributes to cellular transformation. We here describe KRAB-associated protein 1 (Kap1), a chromatin remodeling factor involved in cotranscriptional regulation, as a novel protein interaction partner of MCPyV T antigens sT and LT. Kap1 knockout results in a significant increase in the level of viral DNA replication that is highly suggestive of Kap1 being an important host restriction factor during MCPyV infection. Differently from other DNA viruses, MCPyV gene expression is unaffected in the absence of Kap1 and Kap1 does not associate with the viral genome. Instead, we show that in primary normal human dermal fibroblast (nHDF) cells, MCPyV DNA replication, but not T antigen expression alone, induces ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase-dependent Kap1 S824 phosphorylation, a mechanism that typically facilitates repair of double-strand breaks in heterochromatin by arresting the cells in G2 We show that MCPyV-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is mainly conferred by residues within the origin binding domain and thereby by viral DNA replication. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Kap1 and subsequent Kap1-dependent G2 arrest/senescence represent host defense mechanisms against MCPyV replication in nHDF cells.IMPORTANCE We here describe Kap1 as a restriction factor in MCPyV infection. We report a novel, indirect mechanism by which Kap1 affects MCPyV replication. In contrast with from other DNA viruses, Kap1 does not associate with the viral genome in MCPyV infection and has no impact on viral gene expression. In MCPyV-infected nHDF cells, Kap1 phosphorylation (pKap1 S824) accumulates because of genomic stress mainly induced by viral DNA replication. In contrast, ectopic expression of LT or LT MCPyV mutants, previously shown to be important for induction of genotoxic stress, does not result in a similar extent of pKap1 accumulation. We show that cells actively replicating MCPyV accumulate pKap1 (in a manner dependent on the presence of ATM) and display a senescence phenotype reflected by G2 arrest. These results are supported by transcriptome analyses showing that LT antigen, in a manner dependent on the presence of Kap1, induces expression of secreted factors, which is known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP).

16.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054720903361, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075486

RESUMEN

Objective: Few neuropsychological measurement tools of attention can assess preschoolers despite adequate instruments' potential to facilitate early diagnostic processes, which are currently demanding. This study's objective was to evaluate the QbMini, an attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) measurement tool for preschoolers. Method: QbMini performances of 37 5-year-old ADHD patients, 55 healthy controls, and 26 children with specific language impairment (SLI) were compared using univariate analyses of variance. The test's predictive power was evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses and compared to a parental rating scale. Finally, the scales were compared by correlating their respective scores. Results: The QbMini measures ADHD symptoms and reliably differentiates between healthy children and patients, but not between children with ADHD and children with SLI. Conclusion: The QbMini can indicate presence and strength of ADHD symptoms, but fails to diagnose ADHD. It measures symptoms in a different way than parental ratings and might be stronger in distinguishing between hyperactivity and inattention.

17.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2586, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803119

RESUMEN

Like many other languages, German employs a linguistic category called "grammatical gender." In gender-marking languages each noun is assigned to a particular gender-class (in German: masculine, feminine or neuter) and other words in a sentence which are grammatically controlled by the noun are marked by particular morphemes according to the noun's gender feature - so called gender agreement. Within psycholinguistic theories of language comprehension, it is often assumed that gender agreement might help to predict the continuation of a sentence on grammatical grounds and to reduce the lexical search space for the next words emerging within the speech signal. Thus, gender agreement relations may provide a means to make the comprehension process more effective and targeted. The aim of the current study was to assess whether monolingual German 3rd and 4th grade primary school children make use of gender agreement in online auditory comprehension and whether different gender cues interact with each other and with semantic information. A language-picture matching task was conducted in which 32 children looked at two pictures while listening to a noun phrase. Due to features of the German gender system, the target picture corresponding with the noun phrase could be predicted shortly after stimulus onset on account of gender agreement relations. The predictive impact of grammatical gender agreement on noun-phrase decoding was investigated by measuring the time course of eye-movements onto the target and distractor pictures. The results confirm and extend previous findings that gender plays a role in predictive online comprehension of gender-marking languages like German, and that even primary school children are able to make use of this grammatical device.

18.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(10): e1007838, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671162

RESUMEN

Latent Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genomes rapidly acquire distinct patterns of the activating histone modification H3K4-me3 as well as repressive H3K27-me3 marks, a modification linked to transcriptional silencing by polycomb repressive complexes (PRC). Interestingly, PRCs have recently been reported to restrict viral gene expression in a number of other viral systems, suggesting they may play a broader role in controlling viral chromatin. If so, it is an intriguing possibility that latency establishment may result from viral subversion of polycomb-mediated host responses to exogenous DNA. To investigate such scenarios we sought to establish whether rapid repression by PRC constitutes a general hallmark of herpesvirus latency. For this purpose, we performed a comparative epigenome analysis of KSHV and the related murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68). We demonstrate that, while latently replicating MHV-68 genomes readily acquire distinct patterns of activation-associated histone modifications upon de novo infection, they fundamentally differ in their ability to efficiently attract H3K27-me3 marks. Statistical analyses of ChIP-seq data from in vitro infected cells as well as in vivo latency reservoirs furthermore suggest that, whereas KSHV rapidly attracts PRCs in a genome-wide manner, H3K27-me3 acquisition by MHV-68 genomes may require spreading from initial seed sites to which PRC are recruited as the result of an inefficient or stochastic recruitment, and that immune pressure may be needed to select for latency pools harboring PRC-silenced episomes in vivo. Using co-infection experiments and recombinant viruses, we also show that KSHV's ability to rapidly and efficiently acquire H3K27-me3 marks does not depend on the host cell environment or unique properties of the KSHV-encoded LANA protein, but rather requires specific cis-acting sequence features. We show that the non-canonical PRC1.1 component KDM2B, a factor which binds to unmethylated CpG motifs, is efficiently recruited to KSHV genomes, indicating that CpG island characteristics may constitute these features. In accord with the fact that, compared to MHV-68, KSHV genomes exhibit a fundamentally higher density of CpG motifs, we furthermore demonstrate efficient acquisition of H2AK119-ub by KSHV and H3K36-me2 by MHV-68 (but not vice versa), furthermore supporting the notion that KSHV genomes rapidly attract PRC1.1 complexes in a genome-wide fashion. Collectively, our results suggest that rapid PRC silencing is not a universal feature of viral latency, but that some viruses may rather have adopted distinct genomic features to specifically exploit default host pathways that repress epigenetically naive, CpG-rich DNA.


Asunto(s)
Herpesvirus Humano 8/genética , Proteínas del Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Rhadinovirus/genética , Latencia del Virus/genética , Animales , Línea Celular Transformada , Islas de CpG/genética , Epigenoma/genética , Femenino , Regulación Viral de la Expresión Génica/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Código de Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C
19.
Sci Signal ; 12(574)2019 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914485

RESUMEN

Agonists of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ opioid peptide (NOP) receptor, a member of the opioid receptor family, are under active investigation as novel analgesics, but their modes of signaling are less well characterized than those of other members of the opioid receptor family. Therefore, we investigated whether different NOP receptor ligands showed differential signaling or functional selectivity at the NOP receptor. Using newly developed phosphosite-specific antibodies to the NOP receptor, we found that agonist-induced NOP receptor phosphorylation occurred primarily at four carboxyl-terminal serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) residues, namely, Ser346, Ser351, Thr362, and Ser363, and proceeded with a temporal hierarchy, with Ser346 as the first site of phosphorylation. G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 (GRK2/3) cooperated during agonist-induced phosphorylation, which, in turn, facilitated NOP receptor desensitization and internalization. A comparison of structurally distinct NOP receptor agonists revealed dissociation in functional efficacies between G protein-dependent signaling and receptor phosphorylation. Furthermore, in NOP-eGFP and NOP-eYFP mice, NOP receptor agonists induced multisite phosphorylation and internalization in a dose-dependent and agonist-selective manner that could be blocked by specific antagonists. Our study provides new tools to study ligand-activated NOP receptor signaling in vitro and in vivo. Differential agonist-selective NOP receptor phosphorylation by chemically diverse NOP receptor agonists suggests that differential signaling by NOP receptor agonists may play a role in NOP receptor ligand pharmacology.


Asunto(s)
Receptores Opioides/agonistas , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Especificidad de Anticuerpos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Quinasa 2 del Receptor Acoplado a Proteína-G/metabolismo , Quinasa 3 del Receptor Acoplado a Proteína-G/metabolismo , Genes Reporteros , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligandos , Ratones , Modelos Moleculares , Fosforilación , Fosfoserina/análisis , Fosfotreonina/análisis , Procesamiento Proteico-Postraduccional , Receptores Opioides/inmunología , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Relación Estructura-Actividad
20.
mBio ; 10(1)2019 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755508

RESUMEN

Hypoxia is linked to therapeutic resistance and poor clinical prognosis for many tumor entities, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cancers. Notably, HPV-positive cancer cells can induce a dormant state under hypoxia, characterized by a reversible growth arrest and strong repression of viral E6/E7 oncogene expression, which could contribute to therapy resistance, immune evasion and tumor recurrence. The present work aimed to gain mechanistic insights into the pathway(s) underlying HPV oncogene repression under hypoxia. We show that E6/E7 downregulation is mediated by hypoxia-induced stimulation of AKT signaling. Ablating AKT function in hypoxic HPV-positive cancer cells by using chemical inhibitors efficiently counteracts E6/E7 repression. Isoform-specific activation or downregulation of AKT1 and AKT2 reveals that both AKT isoforms contribute to hypoxic E6/E7 repression and act in a functionally redundant manner. Hypoxic AKT activation and consecutive E6/E7 repression is dependent on the activities of the canonical upstream AKT regulators phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2). Hypoxic downregulation of E6/E7 occurs, at least in part, at the transcriptional level. Modulation of E6/E7 expression by the PI3K/mTORC2/AKT cascade is hypoxia specific and not observed in normoxic HPV-positive cancer cells. Quantitative proteome analyses identify additional factors as candidates to be involved in hypoxia-induced activation of the PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling cascade and in the AKT-dependent repression of the E6/E7 oncogenes under hypoxia. Collectively, these data uncover a functional key role of the PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling cascade for viral oncogene repression in hypoxic HPV-positive cancer cells and provide new insights into the poorly understood cross talk between oncogenic HPVs and their host cells under hypoxia.IMPORTANCE Oncogenic HPV types are major human carcinogens. Under hypoxia, HPV-positive cancer cells can repress the viral E6/E7 oncogenes and induce a reversible growth arrest. This response could contribute to therapy resistance, immune evasion, and tumor recurrence upon reoxygenation. Here, we uncover evidence that HPV oncogene repression is mediated by hypoxia-induced activation of canonical PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling. AKT-dependent downregulation of E6/E7 is only observed under hypoxia and occurs, at least in part, at the transcriptional level. Quantitative proteome analyses identify additional factors as candidates to be involved in AKT-dependent E6/E7 repression and/or hypoxic PI3K/mTORC2/AKT activation. These results connect PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling with HPV oncogene regulation, providing new mechanistic insights into the cross talk between oncogenic HPVs and their host cells.


Asunto(s)
Hipoxia , Diana Mecanicista del Complejo 2 de la Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogénicas Virales/biosíntesis , Papillomaviridae/fisiología , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasa/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Línea Celular Tumoral , Regulación hacia Abajo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos
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