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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e044437, 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820786

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Determine the effectiveness of digital mental health interventions for individuals with a concomitant chronic disease. DESIGN: We conducted a rapid review of systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently conducted study selection and risk of bias evaluation. A standardised extraction form was used. Data are reported narratively. INTERVENTIONS: We included systematic reviews of digital health interventions aiming to prevent, detect or manage mental health problems in individuals with a pre-existing chronic disease, including chronic mental health illnesses, published in 2010 or after. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Reports on mental health outcomes (eg, anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms). RESULTS: We included 35 reviews, totalling 702 primary studies with a total sample of 50 692 participants. We structured the results in four population clusters: (1) chronic diseases, (2) cancer, (3) mental health and (4) children and youth. For populations presenting a chronic disease or cancer, health provider directed digital interventions (eg, web-based consultation, internet cognitive-behavioural therapy) are effective and safe. Further analyses are required in order to provide stronger recommendations regarding relevance for specific population (such as children and youth). Web-based interventions and email were the modes of administration that had the most reports of improvement. Virtual reality, smartphone applications and patient portal had limited reports of improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Digital technologies could be used to prevent and manage mental health problems in people living with chronic conditions, with consideration for the age group and type of technology used.

2.
JBI Evid Implement ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843768

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Prioritization tools aim to manage access to care by ranking patients equitably in waiting lists based on determined criteria. Patient prioritization has been studied in a wide variety of clinical health services, including rehabilitation contexts. We created a web-based patient prioritization tool (PPT) with the participation of stakeholders in two rehabilitation programs, which we aim to implement into clinical practice. Successful implementation of such innovation can be influenced by a variety of determinants. The goal of this study was to explore facilitators and barriers to the implementation of a PPT in rehabilitation programs. METHODS: We used two questionnaires and conducted two focus groups among service providers from two rehabilitation programs. We used descriptive statistics to report results of the questionnaires and qualitative content analysis based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. RESULTS: Key facilitators are the flexibility and relative advantage of the tool to improve clinical practices and produce beneficial outcomes for patients. Main barriers are the lack of training, financial support and human resources to sustain the implementation process. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that highlights organizational, individual and innovation levels facilitators and barriers for the implementation of a prioritization tool from service providers' perspective.

3.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 37: e36, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541449

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To summarize current evidence on patient and public involvement (PPI) in health technology assessment (HTA) in order to synthesize the barriers and facilitators, and to propose a framework to assess its impact. METHODS: We conducted an update of a systematic review published in 2011 considering the recent scientific literature (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies). We searched papers published between March 2009 (end of the initial search) and December 2019 in five databases using specific search strategies. We identified other publications through citation tracking and contacting authors of previous related studies. Reviewers independently selected relevant studies based on prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. We extracted information using a pre-established grid. RESULTS: We identified a total of 7872 publications from the main search strategy. Ultimately, thirty-one distinct new studies met the inclusion criteria, whereas seventeen studies were included in the previous systematic review. PPI is realized through two main strategies: (i) patients and public members participate directly in decision-making processes (participation) and (ii) patients or public perspectives are solicited to inform decisions (consultation or indirect participation). This review synthesizes the barriers and facilitators to PPI in HTA, and a framework to assess its impact is proposed. CONCLUSION: The number of studies on patients or public involvement in HTA has dramatically increased in recent years. Findings from this updated systematic review show that PPI is done mostly through consultation and that direct involvement is less frequent. Several barriers to PPI in HTA exist, notably the lack of information to patients and public about HTA and the lack of guidance and policies to support PPI in HTA.

4.
Glob Health Promot ; : 1757975920980720, 2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601966

RESUMEN

La télésanté connait un essor fulgurant en ce contexte de pandémie. Or, en cette période d'insécurité mondiale, la santé préventive reprend ses droits. En période de déconfinement, la discipline et la cohésion sociale peuvent se relâcher. Cette enquête sociale vise à décrire un programme d'intervention à distance, réalisé en partenariat avec des locataires de logement communautaire, des infirmières et des étudiantes pour soutenir la littératie en santé au temps de la COVID-19. Le Programme de déconfinement en toute sécurité vise à renforcer les mesures préventives et de soutien avec des groupes en contexte de vulnérabilités économiques et sociales à l'aide de la télésanté. Les infirmières ont développé des pratiques cliniques et psychosociales et renforcé la littératie en santé, soutenant les mesures de santé publique post-COVID-19, surveillant l'éclosion de nouveaux foyers et apaisant les souffrances issues du confinement. À l'aide de cibles de performance des systèmes de santé et d'une perspective de justice sociale, nous avons documenté les défis, les leviers et les menaces à l'usage des pratiques à distance en prévention. Vecteur d'une approche intégrée, la télésanté préventive peut cibler simultanément, la lutte contre les maladies non transmissibles et transmissibles et les inégalités. La pandémie de COVID-19 renvoie à un nouvel équilibre des enjeux qui exige un accompagnement et des pratiques de santé communautaire engagées et critiques.

5.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448731

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) efficacy is closely linked to adherence and factors associated with PrEP adherence are not well understood and may differ across populations. As PrEP demonstration projects and implementation are ongoing, it is essential to understand factors associated with adherence to oral PrEP in order to design effective adherence interventions and maximize the public health impact of PrEP. We thus aimed to assess demographic and behavioral factors associated with optimal PrEP adherence (100%) among female sex workers (FSWs) participating in a demonstration project in Cotonou, Benin. METHODS: FSWs were provided with daily Truvada® and followed quarterly for 1 to 2 years. Socio-demographics, partners and behaviors were collected through face-to-face questionnaires. Another questionnaire based on sexual the theory of planned behavior and the theory of interpersonal behavior was also administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with optimal daily adherence. RESULTS: At baseline, 255 FSWs were followed. One-year increase in age of FSWs was associated with a 3% increase in optimal adherence [Prevalence Ratio (PR) =1.03, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.05; p for trend= 0.0003], and optimal adherence decreased by 31% for every 6 months of follow-up [PR=0.69, 95 % CI: 0.59-0.79; p for trend <0.0001]. For the participants who have completed the behavioral questionnaires, high intention to adhere to the treatment was also a predictor of optimal adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be geared toward FSWs intending to use PrEP to help them reach adequate adherence levels for effective HIV protection.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267914

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to describe the development of a flowchart to guide the decisions of researchers in the Spanish Network for Health Technology Assessment of the National Health System (RedETS) regarding patient involvement (PI) in Health Technology Assessment (HTA). By doing so, it reflects on current methodological challenges in PI in the HTA field: how best to combine PI methods and what is the role of patient-based evidence. METHODS: A decisional flowchart for PI in HTA was developed between March and April 2019 following an iterative process, reviewed by the members of the PI Interest Group and other RedETS members and validated during an online deliberative meeting. The development of the flowchart was based on a previous methodological framework assessed in a pilot study. RESULTS: The guidelines on how to involve patients in HTA in the RedETS were graphically represented in a flowchart. PI must be included in all HTA reports, except those that assess technologies with no relevant impact on patients' experiences, values, and preferences. Patient organizations or expert patients related to the topic of the HTA report must be identified and invited. These patients can participate in protocol development, outcomes' identification, assessment process, and report review. When the technology assessed affects in a relevant way patient experiences, values, and preferences, patient-based evidence should be included through a systematic literature review or a primary study. CONCLUSIONS: The decisional flowchart for PI in HTA contributes to the current methodological challenges by proposing a combination of direct involvement and patient-based evidence.

7.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258359

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Artificial intelligence (AI) raises many expectations regarding its ability to profoundly transform health care delivery. There is an abundant literature on the technical performance of AI applications in many clinical fields (e.g. radiology, ophthalmology). This article aims to bring forward the importance of studying organizational readiness to integrate AI into health care delivery. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The reflection is based on our experience in digital health technologies, diffusion of innovations and healthcare organizations and systems. It provides insights into why and how organizational readiness should be carefully considered. FINDINGS: As an important step to ensure successful integration of AI and avoid unnecessary investments and costly failures, better consideration should be given to: (1) Needs and added-value assessment; (2) Workplace readiness: stakeholder acceptance and engagement; (3) Technology-organization alignment assessment and (4) Business plan: financing and investments. In summary, decision-makers and technology promoters should better address the complexity of AI and understand the systemic challenges raised by its implementation in healthcare organizations and systems. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Few studies have focused on the organizational issues raised by the integration of AI into clinical routine. The current context is marked by a perplexing gap between the willingness of decision-makers and technology promoters to capitalize on AI applications to improve health care delivery and the reality on the ground, where it is difficult to initiate the changes needed to realize their full benefits while avoiding their negative impacts.

8.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107607, 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248943

RESUMEN

AIMS: Seizure detectors could have many positive effects on the quality of life of people with epilepsy (PWE) such as alarms to reduce seizure-related injuries or reliable seizure counts leading to improved epilepsy management. As seizure detection gains increasing interest within the epilepsy research community, guidelines for patient-centered designs are needed. This study aims to detail the preferences, needs and concerns regarding potential seizure detectors, of PWE and their caregivers across Canada. METHODS: Two questionnaires were designed to survey PWE and their caregivers on seizure detection acceptability and to collect general clinical characteristics. The surveys were available online for nine weeks and were promoted by Canadian organizations of PWE. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. RESULTS: Responses from 221 PWE and 171 caregivers were collected. Ninety-seven percent of PWE and 99% of caregivers expressed interest in seizure detection. Most would use seizure detectors continuously, in conjunction with a seizure diary, and wanted automated alarms. Smartwatches and bracelets/rings were considered most acceptable and would be worn continuously by 58% and 61% of PWE, respectively. Additional value was attributed to multimodal seizure detection. Responders were most concerned about false negatives, comfort and cost. They expected seizure detection to improve their quality of life and quality of care, and felt confident in their ability to use a seizure detector. CONCLUSIONS: While PWE and caregivers in Canada show great enthusiasm for seizure detection, their opinions are shaped by their perception of the effectiveness and reliability of this technology and its cost. A preliminary technology acceptance model and recommendations promoting the development of seizure detectors demonstrating an understanding of their future users are presented. Future investigations should focus on a larger population of patients who have previously used seizure detection devices to assess user-feedback.

9.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 248, 2020 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167931

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Behavioural and structural factors related to sex work, place female sex workers (FSWs) at high risk of maternal mortality and morbidity (MMM), with a large portion due to unintended pregnancies and abortions. In the African context where MMM is the highest in the world, understanding the frequency and determinants of pregnancy and abortion among FSWs is important in order to meet their sexual and reproductive health needs. METHODS: Data from two Beninese cross-sectional surveys among FSWs aged 18+ (2013, N = 450; 2016, N = 504) were merged. We first performed exploratory univariate analyses to identify factors associated with pregnancy and abortion (p < 0.20) using Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson regression and robust variance. Multivariate analyses first included all variables identified in the univariate models and backward selection (p ≤ 0.05) was used to generate the final models. RESULTS: Median age was 39 years (N = 866). The proportion of FSWs reporting at least one pregnancy during sex work practice was 16.4%, of whom 42.3% had more than one. Most pregnancies ended with an abortion (67.6%). In multivariate analyses, younger age, longer duration in sex work, previous HIV testing, having a boyfriend and not using condoms with him were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with more pregnancies. CONCLUSION: One FSW out of five had at least one pregnancy during her sex work practice. Most of those pregnancies, regardless of their origin, ended with an abortion. Improving access to various forms of contraception and safe abortion is the key to reducing unintended pregnancies and consequently, MMM among FSWs in Benin.

11.
J Particip Med ; 12(1): e14874, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: After having sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), individuals are at risk of functional impairments in information processing, abstract reasoning, executive functioning, attention, and memory. This affects different aspects of communicative functioning. Specific strategies can be adopted to improve the provision of health information to individuals with TBI, including the development of written materials and nonwritten media. OBJECTIVE: A user-centered design was adopted to codevelop four audiovisual presentations, a double-sided information sheet, and a checklist aimed at informing individuals about post-TBI sexuality. The last phase of the project was the assessment of the user experience of the information toolkit, based on the User Experience Honeycomb model. METHODS: Overall, two small group discussions and one individual semistructured interview were conducted with individuals with moderate to severe TBI. RESULTS: The participants mentioned that the toolkit was easily usable and would have fulfilled a need for information on post-TBI sexuality during or after rehabilitation. They mostly agreed that the minimalist visual content was well-organized, attractive, and relevant. The information was easily located, the tools were accessible in terms of reading and visibility, and the content was also considered credible. CONCLUSIONS: Aspects such as usability, usefulness, desirability, accessibility, credibility, and findability of information were viewed positively by the participants. Further piloting of the toolkit is recommended to explore its effects on the awareness of the potential sexual repercussions of TBI in individuals and partners.

12.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 227, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023666

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient prioritization is a strategy used to manage access to healthcare services. Patient prioritization tools (PPT) contribute to supporting the prioritization decision process, and to its transparency and fairness. Patient prioritization tools can take various forms and are highly dependent on the particular context of application. Consequently, the sets of criteria change from one context to another, especially when used in non-emergency settings. This paper systematically synthesizes and analyzes the published evidence concerning the development and challenges related to the validation and implementation of PPTs in non-emergency settings. METHODS: We conducted a systematic mixed studies review. We searched evidence in five databases to select articles based on eligibility criteria, and information of included articles was extracted using an extraction grid. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed by using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The article selection process, data extraction, and quality appraisal were performed by at least two reviewers independently. RESULTS: We included 48 studies listing 34 different patient prioritization tools. Most of them are designed for managing access to elective surgeries in hospital settings. Two-thirds of the tools were investigated based on reliability or validity. Inconclusive results were found regarding the impact of PPTs on patient waiting times. Advantages associated with PPT use were found mostly in relationship to acceptability of the tools by clinicians and increased transparency and equity for patients. CONCLUSIONS: This review describes the development and validation processes of PPTs used in non-urgent healthcare settings. Despite the large number of PPTs studied, implementation into clinical practice seems to be an open challenge. Based on the findings of this review, recommendations are proposed to develop, validate, and implement such tools in clinical settings. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018107205.

13.
Patient ; 13(6): 729-743, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078377

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Decision aids are patient-focused tools that have the potential to reduce the overuse of head computed tomography (CT) scans. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to create a consensus among Canadian mild traumatic brain injury and emergency medicine experts on modifications required to adapt two American decision aids about head CT use for adult and paediatric mild traumatic brain injury to the Canadian context. METHODS: We invited 21 Canadian stakeholders and the two authors of the American decision aids to a Nominal Group Technique consensus meeting to generate suggestions for adapting the decision aids. This method encourages idea generation and sharing between team members. Each idea was discussed and then prioritised using a voting system. We collected data using videotaping, writing material and online collaborative writing tools. The modifications proposed were analysed using a qualitative thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-one participants took part in the meeting, including researchers and clinician researchers (n = 9; 43%), patient partners (n = 3; 14%) and decision makers (n = 2; 10%). A total of 84 ideas were generated. Participants highlighted the need to clarify the purpose of the decision aids, the nature of the problem being addressed and the target population. The tools require sociocultural adaptations, better identification of their target population, better description of head CT utility, advantages and related risks, modification of the visual and written representation of the risk of brain injury and head CT use, and locally adapted, patient follow-up plans. CONCLUSIONS: This study based on a Nominal Group Technique identified several adaptations for two American decision aids about head CT use for mild traumatic brain injury to support their use in Canada's different healthcare, social, cultural and legal context. These adaptations concerned the target users of the decision aids, the information presented, and how the benefits and risks were communicated in the decision aids. Future steps include prototyping the two adapted decision aids, conducting formative evaluations with actual emergency department patients and clinicians, and measuring the impact of the adapted tools on CT scan use.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105397

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment-as-prevention (TasP) reduce HIV acquisition and transmission risk, respectively. A demonstration study (2015-2017) assessed TasP and PrEP feasibility among female sex workers (FSW) in Cotonou, Benin. SETTING: Cotonou, Benin METHODS:: We developed a compartmental HIV transmission model, featuring PrEP, and ART among the high-risk (FSW, clients) and low-risk populations, calibrated to historical epidemiological and demonstration study data, reflecting observed lower PrEP uptake, adherence and retention compared to TasP. We estimated the population-level impact of the two-year study and several twenty-year intervention scenarios, varying coverage and adherence independently and together. We report the percentage (median, 2.5th-97.5th percentile uncertainty interval (95%UI)) of HIV infections prevented comparing the intervention and counterfactual (2017 coverages: 0% PrEP, 49% ART) scenarios. RESULTS: The two-year study (2017 coverages: 9% PrEP, 83% ART) prevented an estimated 8% (95%UI 6-12) and 6% (3-10) infections among FSW over two and twenty years, respectively, compared to 7% (3-11) and 5% (2-9) overall. The PrEP and TasP arms prevented 0.4% (0.2-0.8) and 4.6% (2.2-8.7) infections overall over 20 years, respectively. Twenty-year PrEP and TasP scale-ups (2035 coverages: 47% PrEP, 88% ART) prevented 21% (17-26) and 17% (10-27) infections among FSW respectively, and 5% (3-10) and 17% (10-27) overall. Compared to TasP scale-up alone, PrEP and TasP combined scale-up prevented 1.9x and 1.2x more infections among FSW and overall, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The modest demonstration study impact was modest, and mostly from TasP. Increasing PrEP adherence and coverage improves impact substantially among FSW, but little overall. We recommend TasP in prevention packages.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988424

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Increasing emphasis is given on involving patients in health technology assessment (HTA). While this is mainly done at the level of regional and national HTA agencies, this tendency is also emerging in local HTA units. In this study, we provide the results of a survey conducted in local HTA units in the province of Quebec, Canada. The aim of the survey was to provide an overview of local HTA unit practices to involve patients, users, caregivers, and citizens in their process, their interest in doing so, and their information needs for this. METHODS: The survey was conducted in 2017 with a response rate of eleven units over a possibility of twelve. RESULTS: Three units out of eleven (27.3 percent) never involved patients or members of the public in their processes and all indicated that they will involve them in the next few years. The three most important needs for support identified in the HTA units were in: recruiting and selecting patients; integrating experiential knowledge; and knowing and implementing the best methods and practices for partnership. CONCLUSION: Patient involvement in local HTA units is quickly evolving and that is why they urgently need tools to involve more effectively patients and members of the public in their process.

16.
Sante Publique ; 32(2): 221-228, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985838

RESUMEN

Digital technologies play a central role in strategies to improve access, quality and efficiency of health care and services. However, many digital health projects have failed to become sustainable and spread across health organizations and systems. This situation is partly due to the fact that these projects are often developed and evaluated by reducing the issues linked mainly to the technological dimension. Such tradition has paid little attention to the fact that technology is introduced into pluralistic and complex sociotechnical systems such as health organizations and systems. The aim of this article is to propose practical and theorical, non-prescriptive, elements of reflection that can serve as a basis for evaluating complex and innovative digital health projects. This reflection builds on the lessons learned from the application of a strategic framework for evaluating three major complex and innovative digital health projects in Quebec over the last 15 years.


Asunto(s)
Tecnología Biomédica , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Difusión de Innovaciones , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Quebec
17.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 172, 2020 08 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771062

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Home-based hospitalization (HBH) offers an alternative delivery model to hospital care. There has been a remarkable increase in pilot initiatives and deployment of this model to optimize services offered to a population with a variety of progressive and chronic diseases. Our objectives were to systematically summarize the indicators of HBH as well as the factors associated with the successful implementation and use of this model. METHODS: We used a two-stage process. First, five databases were consulted, with no date delimitation. We included systematic reviews of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed studies published in English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese. We followed guidance from PRISMA and the Cochrane Collaboration. Second, we used the Nursing Care Performance Framework to categorize the indicators, a comprehensive grid of barriers and facilitators to map the factors affecting HBH implementation, and a thematic synthesis of the qualitative and quantitative findings. RESULTS: Fifteen reviews were selected. We identified 26 indicators related to nursing care that are impacted by the use of HBH models and 13 factors related to their implementation. The most frequently documented indicators of HBH were cost of resources, problem and symptom management, comfort and quality of life, cognitive and psychosocial functional capacity, patient and caregiver satisfaction, hospital mortality, readmissions, and length of stay. Our review also highlighted new indicators, namely use of hospital beds, new emergency consultations, and use of healthcare services as indicators of resources of cost, and bowel complications, caregiver satisfaction, and survival time as indicators of change in the patient's condition. The main facilitators for HBH implementation were related to internal organizational factors (multidisciplinary collaboration and skill mix of professionals) whereas barriers were linked to the characteristics of the HBH, specifically eligibility criteria (complexity and social situation of the patient). CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that synthesizes both the types of indicators associated with HBH and the factors that influence its implementation. Considering both the processes and outcomes of HBH will help to identify strategies that could facilitate the implementation and evaluation of this innovative model of care delivery. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018103380.

18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD004398, 2020 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Printed educational materials are widely used dissemination strategies to improve the quality of healthcare professionals' practice and patient health outcomes. Traditionally they are presented in paper formats such as monographs, publication in peer-reviewed journals and clinical guidelines. This is the fourth update of the review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of printed educational materials (PEMs) on the practice of healthcare professionals and patient health outcomes. To explore the influence of some of the characteristics of the printed educational materials (e.g. source, content, format) on their effect on healthcare professionals' practice and patient health outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), HealthStar, CINAHL, ERIC, CAB Abstracts, Global Health, and EPOC Register from their inception to 6 February 2019. We checked the reference lists of all included studies and relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials (RTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series studies (ITSs) that evaluated the impact of PEMs on healthcare professionals' practice or patient health outcomes. We included three types of comparisons: (1) PEM versus no intervention, (2) PEM versus single intervention, (3) multifaceted intervention where PEM is included versus multifaceted intervention without PEM. Any objective measure of professional practice (e.g. prescriptions for a particular drug), or patient health outcomes (e.g. blood pressure) were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers undertook data extraction independently. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. For analyses, we grouped the included studies according to study design, type of outcome and type of comparison. For controlled trials, we reported the median effect size for each outcome within each study, the median effect size across outcomes for each study and the median of these effect sizes across studies. Where data were available, we re-analysed the ITS studies by converting all data to a monthly basis and estimating the effect size from the change in the slope of the regression line between before and after implementation of the PEM. We reported median changes in slope for each outcome, for each study, and then across studies. We standardised all changes in slopes by their standard error, allowing comparisons and combination of different outcomes. We categorised each PEM according to potential effects modifiers related to the source of the PEMs, the channel used for their delivery, their content, and their format. We assessed the risks of bias of all the included studies. MAIN RESULTS: We included 84 studies: 32 RTs, two CBAs and 50 ITS studies. Of the 32 RTs, 19 were cluster RTs that used various units of randomisation, such as practices, health centres, towns, or areas. The majority of the included studies (82/84) compared the effectiveness of PEMs to no intervention. Based on the RTs that provided moderate-certainty evidence, we found that PEMs distributed to healthcare professionals probably improve their practice, as measured with dichotomous variables, compared to no intervention (median absolute risk difference (ARD): 0.04; interquartile range (IQR): 0.01 to 0.09; 3,963 healthcare professionals randomised within 3073 units). We could not confirm this finding using the evidence gathered from continuous variables (standardised mean difference (SMD): 0.11; IQR: -0.16 to 0.52; 1631 healthcare professionals randomised within 1373 units ), from the ITS studies (standardised median change in slope = 0.69; 35 studies), or from the CBA study because the certainty of this evidence was very low. We also found, based on RTs that provided moderate-certainty evidence, that PEMs distributed to healthcare professionals probably make little or no difference to patient health as measured using dichotomous variables, compared to no intervention (ARD: 0.02; IQR: -0.005 to 0.09; 935,015 patients randomised within 959 units). The evidence gathered from continuous variables (SMD: 0.05; IQR: -0.12 to 0.09; 6,737 patients randomised within 594 units) or from ITS study results (standardised median change in slope = 1.12; 8 studies) do not strengthen these findings because the certainty of this evidence was very low. Two studies (a randomised trial and a CBA) compared a paper-based version to a computerised version of the same PEM. From the RT that provided evidence of low certainty, we found that PEM in computerised versions may make little or no difference to professionals' practice compared to PEM in printed versions (ARD: -0.02; IQR: -0.03 to 0.00; 139 healthcare professionals randomised individually). This finding was not strengthened by the CBA study that provided very low certainty evidence (SMD: 0.44; 32 healthcare professionals). The data gathered did not allow us to conclude which PEM characteristics influenced their effectiveness. The methodological quality of the included studies was variable. Half of the included RTs were at risk of selection bias. Most of the ITS studies were conducted retrospectively, without prespecifying the expected effect of the intervention, or acknowledging the presence of a secular trend. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review suggest that, when used alone and compared to no intervention, PEMs may slightly improve healthcare professionals' practice outcomes and patient health outcomes. The effectiveness of PEMs compared to other interventions, or of PEMs as part of a multifaceted intervention, is uncertain.


Asunto(s)
Difusión de la Información/métodos , Manuales como Asunto , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Práctica Profesional , Análisis de Varianza , Estudios Controlados Antes y Después , Difusión de Innovaciones , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Rural Remote Health ; 20(3): 5772, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731738

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Shortage of health workers is a worldwide problem but is particularly critical in sub-Saharan Africa. In Mali, the number of health workers is insufficient and their retention is low, particularly in rural and remote areas. Rural postings are unattractive to health workers. Very few studies have examined the factors contributing to the shortage and poor retention of health workers in Mali. The objective of this study is to identify and understand these factors with regards to skilled health workers in two rural health districts (Yélimané and Bafoulabé) in the region of Kayes, Mali. METHODS: This qualitative study is based on the conceptual framework of Lehman, Dieleman and Martineau. Data were collected through 46 in-depth interviews with health workers and decision-makers. A thematic content analysis was conducted with the support of QDA Miner software. RESULTS: The study identified factors contributing to the insufficient allocation and poor retention of rural health workers in these districts. They are individual-level factors (gender, family situation, age), unattractive living and working conditions, community recognition and participation, quality of leadership, an unfavourable recruitment/assignment process and insufficient financial incentives. It shows that female staff have specific constraints that prevent them from deploying to or staying in rural areas for long periods. In addition, the number of staff recruited at the national level is unpredictable and insufficient, while their recruitment and assignment process is perceived to be inequitable and not very transparent, disadvantaging rural health structures. Some strategies were identified to improve the availability and retention of health workers in these areas. They take into account certain social norms, notably gender roles, and include the improvement of living and working conditions, as well as the strengthening of health workforce management. CONCLUSION: This study's findings highlight the multifaceted nature of factors contributing to the availability and retention of health workers in rural and remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the challenges associated with them. This study identifies some strategies that can be combined to facilitate the retention and availability of health workers in these areas. Some strategies involve actors outside the health sector, requiring joint efforts for their implementation. This research provides decision-makers with evidence to support informed decision making with regards to the retention of health workers in rural areas.

20.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(7): e18894, 2020 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734932

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brief counseling can motivate patients to initiate health behavior change. However, increasing the provision of brief counseling by nurses is difficult due to contextual and practitioner-level factors impeding nurses' motivation and intentions to provide brief counseling (eg, unfavorable attitude toward brief counseling, lack of perceived control linked to barriers). Theory-based implementation interventions could address these practitioner-level factors and support evidence-based practice in the context of brief counseling. Web-based, adaptive e-learning (electronic learning) programs are a novel type of implementation intervention that could address the limitations of current brief counseling training programs, such as accessibility and personalization. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a study protocol for evaluating the effectiveness of the E_MOTIVA implementation intervention-a theory- and web-based adaptive e-learning program-to increase nurses' and nursing students' intentions to provide brief counseling for smoking, an unbalanced diet, and medication nonadherence. METHODS: A two-group, single-blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted with nurses and nursing students enrolled in a Bachelor of Science in Nursing program in Quebec, Canada. Participants in the experimental group will be allocated to the E_MOTIVA intervention-a theory- and web-based adaptive e-learning program-while participants in the active control group will be allocated to the E_MOTIVB intervention, a knowledge- and web-based standardized e-learning program. The E_MOTIVA intervention was designed to influence the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (eg, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) in the context of brief counseling. The Cognitive Load Index and User Engagement Scale will be used to assess participants' cognitive load and engagement related to e-learning. Participants will complete the Brief Counseling Nursing Practices Questionnaire-Abridged Version at baseline and follow-up. All study measures will be completed online. RESULTS: The study is ongoing. The results of the study will provide answers to the primary hypothesis (H1) that experimental group participants will demonstrate a greater change in the score of intentions to provide brief counseling between baseline (-T1) and follow-up (T4). Secondary hypotheses include greater improvements in scores of attitude (H2), subjective norms (H3), perceived control (H4), behavioral beliefs (H5), normative beliefs (H6), and control beliefs (H7) regarding brief counseling in the experimental group between baseline and follow-up. We also anticipate lower intrinsic and extrinsic cognitive loads (H8, H9), higher germane cognitive load (H10), and higher engagement (H11, H12) in the experimental group. CONCLUSIONS: This study will be among the first in evaluating a novel type of implementation intervention, a theory- and web-based adaptive e-learning program, in nurses and nursing students. This type of intervention has the potential to support evidence-based practice through accessible, personalized training in wide-ranging domains in nursing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN32603572; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN32603572. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/18894.

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