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Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551750


Optogenetics is widely used in neuroscience to control neural circuits. However, non-invasive methods for light delivery in brain are needed to avoid physical damage caused by current methods. One potential strategy could employ x-ray activation of radioluminescent particles (RPLs), enabling localized light generation within the brain. RPLs composed of inorganic scintillators can emit light at various wavelengths depending upon composition. Cerium doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO:Ce), an inorganic scintillator that emits blue light in response to x-ray or ultraviolet (UV) stimulation, could potentially be used to control neural circuits through activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), a light-gated cation channel. Whether inorganic scintillators themselves negatively impact neuronal processes and synaptic function is unknown, and was investigated here using cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological approaches. As proof of principle, we applied UV stimulation to 4 µm LSO:Ce particles during whole-cell recording of CA1 pyramidal cells in acute hippocampal slices from mice that expressed ChR2 in glutamatergic neurons. We observed an increase in frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), indicating activation of ChR2 and excitation of neurons. Importantly, LSO:Ce particles did not affect survival of primary mouse cortical neurons, even after 24 h of exposure. In extracellular dendritic field potential recordings, no change in the strength of basal glutamatergic transmission was observed during exposure to LSO:Ce microparticles. However, the amplitude of the fiber volley was slightly reduced with high stimulation. Additionally, there was a slight decrease in the frequency of sEPSCs in whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells, with no change in current amplitudes. The amplitude and frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents were unchanged. Finally, long term potentiation (LTP), a synaptic modification believed to underlie learning and memory and a robust measure of synaptic integrity, was successfully induced, although the magnitude was slightly reduced. Together, these results show LSO:Ce particles are biocompatible even though there are modest effects on baseline synaptic function and long-term synaptic plasticity. Importantly, we show that light emitted from LSO:Ce particles is able to activate ChR2 and modify synaptic function. Therefore, LSO:Ce inorganic scintillators are potentially viable for use as a new light delivery system for optogenetics.

J Genet ; 97(5): 1315-1325, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555080


Nodal-related protein (ndr2) is amember of the transforming growth factor type ß superfamily of factors and is required for ventral midline patterning of the embryonic central nervous system in zebrafish. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding nodal cause holoprosencephaly and heterotaxy. Mutations in the ndr2 gene in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lead to similar phenotypes, including loss of the medial floor plate, severe deficits in ventral forebrain development and cyclopia. Alleles of the ndr2 gene have been useful in studying patterning of ventral structures of the central nervous system. Fifteen different ndr2 alleles have been reported in zebrafish, of which eight were generated using chemical mutagenesis, four were radiation-induced and the remaining alleles were obtained via random insertion, gene targeting (TALEN) or unknown methods. Therefore, most mutation sites were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes, we targeted distinct regions in all three exons of zebrafish ndr2 and observed cyclopia in the injected (G0) embryos.We show that the use of sgRNA-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes can cause penetrant cyclopic phenotypes in injected (G0) embryos. Targeted polymerase chain reaction amplicon analysis using Sanger sequencing showed that most of the alleles had small indels resulting in frameshifts. The sequence information correlates with the loss of ndr2 activity. In this study, we validate multiple CRISPR targets using an in vitro nuclease assay and in vivo analysis using embryos. We describe one specific mutant allele resulting in the loss of conserved terminal cysteine-coding sequences. This study is another demonstration of the utility of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific mutations and provides further insights into the structure-function of the ndr2 gene.

Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intracelular/genética , Mutación , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Proteínas de Pez Cebra/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Sitios de Unión/genética , Embrión no Mamífero/embriología , Embrión no Mamífero/metabolismo , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intracelular/química , Modelos Moleculares , Fenotipo , Dominios Proteicos , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Pez Cebra/embriología , Pez Cebra/genética , Pez Cebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Pez Cebra/química