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1.
J Reprod Immunol ; 163: 104243, 2024 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522364

RESUMEN

Associations between antenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection and pregnancy outcomes have been conflicting and the role of the immune system is currently unclear. This prospective cohort study investigated the interaction of antenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, changes in cytokine and HS-CRP levels, birthweight and gestational age at birth. 2352 pregnant participants from New York City (2020-2022) were included. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-17A and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP) were quantified in blood specimens obtained across pregnancy. Quantile and linear regression models were conducted to 1) assess the impact of antenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, overall and by timing of detection of SARS-CoV-2 positivity (< 20 weeks versus ≥ 20 weeks), on birthweight and gestational age at delivery; 2) examine the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and maternal immune changes during pregnancy. All models were adjusted for maternal demographic and obstetric factors and pandemic timing. Birthweight models were additionally adjusted for gestational age at delivery and fetal sex. Immune marker models were also adjusted for gestational age at specimen collection and multiplex assay batch. 371 (15.8%) participants were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy, of which 98 (26.4%) were infected at < 20 weeks gestation. Neither SARS-CoV-2 infection in general nor in early or late pregnancy was associated with lower birthweight nor earlier gestational age at delivery. Further, we did not observe cytokine or HS-CRP changes in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and thus found no evidence to support a potential association between immune dysregulation and the diversity in pregnancy outcomes following infection.

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 149, 2024 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383397

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery rates have increased globally resulting in a public health concern. We estimate rates of cesarean deliveries among Thai women using the World Health Organization (WHO) Robson Classification system and compare rates by Robson group to the Robson guideline for acceptable rates to identify groups that might benefit most from interventions for rate reduction. METHODS: In 2017 and 2018, we established cohorts of pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years seeking prenatal care at two tertiary Thai hospitals and followed them until 6-8 weeks postpartum. Three in-person interviews (enrollment, end of pregnancy, and postpartum) were conducted using structured questionnaires to obtain demographic characteristics, health history, and delivery information. Cesarean delivery indication was classified based on core obstetric variables (parity, previous cesarean delivery, number of fetuses, fetal presentation, gestational week, and onset of labor) assigned to 10 groups according to the Robson Classification. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with cesarean delivery among nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, term pregnancies. RESULTS: Of 2,137 participants, 970 (45%) had cesarean deliveries. The median maternal age at delivery was 29 years (interquartile range, 25-35); 271 (13%) participants had existing medical conditions; and 446 (21%) had pregnancy complications. The cesarean delivery rate varied by Robson group. Multiparous women with > 1 previous uterine scar, with a single cephalic pregnancy, ≥ 37 weeks gestation (group 5) contributed the most (14%) to the overall cesarean rate, whereas those with a single pregnancy with a transverse or oblique lie, including women with previous uterine scars (group 9) contributed the least (< 1%). Factors independently associated with cesarean delivery included age ≥ 25 years, pre-pregnancy obesity, new/worsen medical condition during pregnancy, fetal distress, abnormal labor, infant size for gestational age ≥ 50th percentiles, and self-pay for delivery fees. Women with existing blood conditions were less likely to have cesarean delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Almost one in two pregnancies among women in our cohorts resulted in cesarean deliveries. Compared to WHO guidelines, cesarean delivery rates were elevated in selected Robson groups indicating that tailored interventions to minimize non-clinically indicated cesarean delivery for specific groups of pregnancies may be warranted.


Asunto(s)
Presentación en Trabajo de Parto , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Tailandia/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Paridad
3.
Vaccine ; 2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423818

RESUMEN

As the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic unfolded, the clinical and public health community raced to understand SARS-CoV-2 infection and develop life-saving vaccines. Pregnant persons were disproportionately impacted, experiencing more severe illness and adverse pregnancy outcomes. And yet, when COVID-19 vaccines became available in late 2020, safety and efficacy data were not available to inform their use during pregnancy because pregnant persons were excluded from pre-authorization clinical trials. Concerns about vaccine safety during pregnancy and misinformation linking vaccination and infertility circulated widely, creating a lack of vaccine confidence. Many pregnant people initially chose not to get vaccinated, and while vaccination rates rose after safety and effectiveness data became available, COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was suboptimal and varied across racial and ethnic distribution of the pregnant population. The COVID-19 pandemic experience provided valuable insights that can inform current and future approaches to maternal vaccination against.

5.
Public Health Rep ; 139(2): 218-229, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37386826

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Estimates of vaccination coverage during pregnancy and identification of disparities in vaccination coverage can inform vaccination campaigns and programs. We reported the prevalence of being offered or told to get the influenza vaccine by a health care provider (hereinafter, provider); influenza vaccination coverage during the 12 months before delivery; and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage during pregnancy among women with a recent live birth in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed 2020 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 42 US jurisdictions (n = 41 673). We estimated the overall prevalence of being offered or told to get the influenza vaccine by a provider and influenza vaccination coverage during the 12 months before delivery. We estimated Tdap vaccination coverage during pregnancy from 21 jurisdictions with available data (n = 22 020) by jurisdiction and select characteristics. RESULTS: In 2020, 84.9% of women reported being offered or told to get the influenza vaccine, and 60.9% received it, ranging from 35.0% in Puerto Rico to 79.7% in Massachusetts. Influenza vaccination coverage was lower among women who were not offered or told to get the influenza vaccine (21.4%) than among women who were offered or told to get the vaccine (68.1%). Overall, 72.7% of women received the Tdap vaccine, ranging from 52.8% in Mississippi to 86.7% in New Hampshire. Influenza and Tdap vaccination coverage varied by all characteristics examined. CONCLUSIONS: These results can inform vaccination programs and strategies to address disparities in vaccination coverage during pregnancy and may inform vaccination efforts for other infectious diseases among pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra Difteria, Tétanos y Tos Ferina Acelular , Difteria , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Tétanos , Tos Ferina , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Cobertura de Vacunación , Tétanos/prevención & control , Tos Ferina/prevención & control , Difteria/prevención & control , Vacunación , Medición de Riesgo
6.
J Perinatol ; 44(1): 20-27, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37660214

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We investigated maternal COVID-19 related experiences during delivery hospitalizations, and whether experiences differed by maternal race and ethnicity. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System among women with live births between April-December 2020 were used. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated associations between maternal race and ethnicity and COVID-19 related delivery experiences. RESULTS: Among 12,879 women, 3.6% reported infant separation and 1.8% reported not being allowed support persons. Compared with non-Hispanic White women, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) (aPR = 2.7; CI: 1.2-6.2), Hispanic (aPR = 2.2; CI: 1.5-3.1), non-Hispanic Black (aPR = 2.4; CI: 1.7-3.6), and non-Hispanic Asian (aPR = 2.8; CI: 1.6-4.9) women reported more infant separation due to COVID-19. Not being allowed support persons was more common among AI/AN (aPR = 5.2; CI: 1.8-14.8) and non-Hispanic Black (aPR = 2.3; CI: 1.3-4.1) women. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 related delivery hospitalization experiences were unequally distributed among racial and ethnic minorities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Etnicidad , Embarazo , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Pandemias , Hospitalización , Arritmias Cardíacas , Medición de Riesgo , Blanco
7.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(5): 690-698, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38132561

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marijuana is the most commonly used federally illicit substance among reproductive-age women in the United States. Updated information on marijuana use in this population can inform clinical and public health interventions. METHODS: Data from the 2013-2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was used to report weighted prevalence estimates of marijuana use in the past month, past 2-12 months, and past year among women aged 18-44 years with self-reported pregnancy status. Bivariate analyses and general linear regression models with Poisson distribution using appropriate survey procedures identified factors associated with past-year marijuana use by pregnancy status. RESULTS: Among pregnant women, 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1-5.6) reported marijuana use in the past month, 10.4% (95% CI: 9.3-11.5) in the past 2-12 months, and 15.2% (95% CI: 13.9-16.6) in the past year. Among nonpregnant women, 11.8% (95% CI: 11.5-12.0) reported marijuana use in the past month, 7.8% (95% CI: 7.6-8.0) in the past 2-12 months, and 19.5% (95% CI: 19.2-19.9) in the past year. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, past-year marijuana use was 2.3-5.1 times more likely among pregnant, and 2.1 to 4.6 times more likely among nonpregnant women who reported past-year tobacco smoking, alcohol use, or other illicit drug use compared to those reporting no substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant and nonpregnant women reporting marijuana use, alone or with other substances, can benefit from substance use screening and treatment facilitation.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Mujeres Embarazadas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología
8.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 32(12): 1271-1280, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051520

RESUMEN

Pregnant, postpartum, and lactating people, and infants have unique needs during public health emergencies, including nuclear and radiological incidents. This report provides information on the CDC Division of Reproductive Health's emergency preparedness and response activities to address the needs of women of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years), people who are pregnant, postpartum, or lactating, and infants during a radiation emergency. Highlighted preparedness activities include: (1) development of a quick reference guide to inform key questions about pregnant, postpartum, and lactating people, and infants during radiation emergencies; and (2) exercising the role of reproductive health experts during nuclear and radiological incident preparedness activities.


Asunto(s)
Defensa Civil , Planificación en Desastres , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Salud Pública , Urgencias Médicas , Salud Reproductiva , Lactancia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
9.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0294140, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943788

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is broadly defined as an unexpected and potentially life-threatening event associated with labor and delivery. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) produced 21 different indicators based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) hospital diagnostic and procedure codes to identify cases of SMM. OBJECTIVES: To examine existing SMM indicators and determine which indicators identified the most in-hospital mortality at delivery hospitalization. METHODS: Data from the 1993-2015 and 2017-2019 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample were used to report SMM indicator-specific prevalences, in-hospital mortality rates, and population attributable fractions (PAF) of mortality. We hierarchically ranked indicators by their overall PAF of in-hospital mortality. Predictive modeling determined if SMM prevalence remained comparable after transition to ICD-10-CM coding. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 18,198,934 hospitalizations representing 87,864,173 US delivery hospitalizations. The 15 top ranked indicators identified 80% of in-hospital mortality; the proportion identified by the remaining indicators was negligible (2%). The top 15 indicators were: restoration of cardiac rhythm; cardiac arrest; mechanical ventilation; tracheostomy; amniotic fluid embolism; aneurysm; acute respiratory distress syndrome; acute myocardial infarction; shock; thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism; cerebrovascular disorders; sepsis; both DIC and blood transfusion; acute renal failure; and hysterectomy. The overall prevalence of the top 15 ranked SMM indicators (~22,000 SMM cases per year) was comparable after transition to ICD-10-CM coding. CONCLUSIONS: We determined the 15 indicators that identified the most in-hospital mortality at delivery hospitalization in the US. Continued testing of SMM indicators can improve measurement and surveillance of the most severe maternal complications at the population level.


Asunto(s)
Alta del Paciente , Choque , Femenino , Humanos , Hospitalización , Prevalencia , Hospitales , Morbilidad , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(39): 1045-1051, 2023 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768870

RESUMEN

Pregnant and postpartum women are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19 compared with nonpregnant women of reproductive age. COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for all persons ≥6 months of age. Health care providers (HCPs) have a unique opportunity to counsel women of reproductive age, including pregnant and postpartum patients, about the importance of receiving COVID-19, influenza, and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines. Data from the Fall 2022 DocStyles survey were analyzed to examine the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination attitudes and practices among HCPs caring for women of reproductive age, and to determine whether providers recommended and offered or administered COVID-19 vaccines to women of reproductive age, including their pregnant patients. Overall, 82.9% of providers reported recommending COVID-19 vaccination to women of reproductive age, and 54.7% offered or administered the vaccine in their practice. Among HCPs who cared for pregnant patients, obstetrician-gynecologists were more likely to recommend COVID-19 vaccination to pregnant patients (94.2%) than were family practitioners or internists (82.1%) (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.1). HCPs were more likely to offer or administer COVID-19 vaccination on-site to pregnant patients if they also offered or administered influenza (aPR = 5.5) and Tdap vaccines (aPR = 2.3). Encouraging HCPs to recommend, offer, and administer the COVID-19 vaccines along with influenza or Tdap vaccines might help reinforce vaccine confidence and increase coverage among women of reproductive age, including pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra Difteria, Tétanos y Tos Ferina Acelular , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Tos Ferina , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Tos Ferina/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Personal de Salud
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(35): 961-967, 2023 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37651304

RESUMEN

Introduction: Maternal deaths increased in the United States during 2018-2021, with documented racial disparities. Respectful maternity care is a component of quality care that includes preventing harm and mistreatment, engaging in effective communication, and providing care equitably. Improving respectful maternity care can be part of multilevel strategies to reduce pregnancy-related deaths. Methods: CDC analyzed data from the PN View Moms survey administered during April 24-30, 2023, to examine the following components of respectful care: 1) experiences of mistreatment (e.g., violations of physical privacy, ignoring requests for help, or verbal abuse), 2) discrimination (e.g., because of race, ethnicity or skin color; age; or weight), and 3) reasons for holding back from communicating questions or concerns during maternity (pregnancy or delivery) care. Results: Among U.S. mothers with children aged <18 years, 20% reported mistreatment while receiving maternity care for their youngest child. Approximately 30% of Black, Hispanic, and multiracial respondents and approximately 30% of respondents with public insurance or no insurance reported mistreatment. Discrimination during the delivery of maternity care was reported by 29% of respondents. Approximately 40% of Black, Hispanic, and multiracial respondents reported discrimination, and approximately 45% percent of all respondents reported holding back from asking questions or discussing concerns with their provider. Conclusions and implications for public health practice: Approximately one in five women reported mistreatment during maternity care. Implementing quality improvement initiatives and provider training to encourage a culture of respectful maternity care, encouraging patients to ask questions and share concerns, and working with communities are strategies to improve respectful maternity care.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Etnicidad , Hispánicos o Latinos , Signos Vitales , Negro o Afroamericano , Estados Unidos
12.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 19: 17455057231190955, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37615311

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antenatal care provides unique opportunities to assess severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seroprevalence and antibody response duration after natural infection detected during pregnancy; transplacental antibody transfer may inform peripartum and neonatal protection. We estimated seroprevalence and durability of antibodies from natural infection (anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G) among pregnant people, and evaluated transplacental transfer efficiency. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seroprevalence, and a prospective cohort study to longitudinally measure anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G responses and transplacental transfer of maternally derived anti-nucleocapsid antibodies. METHODS: We screened pregnant people for the seroprevalence study between 9 December 2020 and 19 June 2021 for anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G in Seattle, Washington. We enrolled anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G positive people from the seroprevalence study or identified through medical records with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or antigen positive results in a prospective cohort between 9 December 2020 and 9 August 2022. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study (N = 1284), 5% (N = 65) tested severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G positive, including 39 (60%) without prior positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results and 42 (65%) without symptoms. In the prospective cohort study (N = 107 total; N = 65 from the seroprevalence study), 86 (N = 80%) had anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G positive results during pregnancy. Among 63 participants with delivery samples and prior anti-nucleocapsid positive results, 29 (46%) were anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G negative by delivery. Of 34 remaining anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G positive at delivery with paired cord blood, 19 (56%) had efficient transplacental anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G antibody transfer. Median time from first anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulin G positive to below positive antibody threshold was 19 weeks and did not differ by prior positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction status. CONCLUSIONS: Maternally derived severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies to natural infection may wane before delivery. Vaccines are recommended for pregnant persons to reduce severe illness and confer protection to infants.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Formación de Anticuerpos , Estudios Transversales , Inmunoglobulina G
13.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 26(6): 767-776, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37608095

RESUMEN

The objective of this analysis was to assess the associations between pandemic-related stressors and feeling more anxious/depressed, among women with a live birth. We analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) COVID-19 maternal experiences supplement, implemented in 29 U.S. jurisdictions from October 2020-June 2021, among women with a live birth during April-December 2020. We examined stressors by type (economic, housing, childcare, food insecurity, partner, COVID-19 illness) and score (number of stressor types experienced [none, 1-2, 3-4, or 5-6]). Outcomes were feeling 1) more anxious and 2) more depressed than usual due to the pandemic. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios estimating associations between stressors and outcomes. Among 12,525 respondents, half reported feeling more anxious and 28% more depressed than usual. The prevalence of stressor types was 50% economic, 41% childcare, 18% partner, 17% food insecurity, 12% housing, and 10% COVID-19 illness. Respondents who experienced partner stressors (anxious aPR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.73-1.90; depressed aPR: 3.01, 95% CI: 2.78-3.25) and food insecurity (anxious aPR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.71-1.88; depressed aPR: 2.32, 95% CI: 2.13-2.53) had the largest associations with feeling more anxious and depressed than usual. As stressor scores increased, so did the aPRs for feeling more anxious and more depressed due to the pandemic. COVID-19 stressors, not COVID-19 illness, were found to be significantly associated with feeling more anxious and depressed. Pregnant and postpartum women might benefit from access to supports and services to address pandemic-related stressors/social-determinants and feelings of anxiety and depression.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Nacimiento Vivo , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Periodo Posparto , COVID-19/epidemiología
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(5): ofad204, 2023 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37187508

RESUMEN

Background: Early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trials excluded pregnant women, resulting in limited data about immunogenicity and maternal-fetal antibody transfer, particularly by gestational timing of vaccination. Methods: In this multicenter observational immunogenicity study, pregnant and nonpregnant women receiving COVID-19 vaccines were prospectively enrolled. Participants had sera collected before vaccination, at 14-28 days after each vaccine dose, at delivery (umbilical cord and peripheral), and from their infants at 3 and 6 months. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ID50 neutralizing antibody (nAb) against D614G-like viruses were compared by participant characteristics. Results: Overall, 23 nonpregnant and 85 pregnant participants (trimester of first vaccine dose: 10 first, 47 second, 28 third) were enrolled. Ninety-three percent (76/82 with blood samples) of pregnant participants had detectable SARS-CoV-2 nAb after 2 vaccine doses, but GMTs (95% confidence intervals) were lower in pregnant participants than nonpregnant participants (1722 [1136-2612] vs 4419 [2012-9703]; P = .04). By 3 and 6 months, 28% and 74% of infants, respectively, of vaccinated participants had no detectable nAb to D614G-like viruses. Among the 71 pregnant participants without detectable nAb before vaccination, cord blood GMTs at delivery were 5-fold higher among participants vaccinated during the third versus first trimester, and cord blood nAb titers appeared inversely correlated with weeks since first vaccine dose (R2 = 0.06, P = .06). Conclusions: Though most pregnant women develop nAb after 2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, this analysis suggests that infant protection from maternal vaccination varies by gestational timing of vaccination and wanes. Additional prevention strategies such as caregiver vaccination may warrant consideration to optimize infant protection.

16.
Ann Intern Med ; 176(4): 472-479, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36913690

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Estimates of cardiac arrest occurring during delivery guide evidence-based strategies to reduce pregnancy-related death. OBJECTIVE: To investigate rate of, maternal characteristics associated with, and survival after cardiac arrest during delivery hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: U.S. acute care hospitals, 2017 to 2019. PARTICIPANTS: Delivery hospitalizations among women aged 12 to 55 years included in the National Inpatient Sample database. MEASUREMENTS: Delivery hospitalizations, cardiac arrest, underlying medical conditions, obstetric outcomes, and severe maternal complications were identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification. Survival to hospital discharge was based on discharge disposition. RESULTS: Among 10 921 784 U.S. delivery hospitalizations, the cardiac arrest rate was 13.4 per 100 000. Of the 1465 patients who had cardiac arrest, 68.6% (95% CI, 63.2% to 74.0%) survived to hospital discharge. Cardiac arrest was more common among patients who were older, were non-Hispanic Black, had Medicare or Medicaid, or had underlying medical conditions. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common co-occurring diagnosis (56.0% [CI, 50.2% to 61.7%]). Among co-occurring procedures or interventions examined, mechanical ventilation was the most common (53.2% [CI, 47.5% to 59.0%]). The rate of survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest was lower with co-occurring disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) without or with transfusion (50.0% [CI, 35.8% to 64.2%] or 54.3% [CI, 39.2% to 69.5%], respectively). LIMITATIONS: Cardiac arrests occurring outside delivery hospitalizations were not included. The temporality of arrest relative to the delivery or other maternal complications is unknown. Data do not distinguish cause of cardiac arrest, such as pregnancy-related complications or other underlying causes among pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Cardiac arrest was observed in approximately 1 in 9000 delivery hospitalizations, among which nearly 7 in 10 women survived to hospital discharge. Survival was lowest during hospitalizations with co-occurring DIC. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Asunto(s)
Paro Cardíaco , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Anciano , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medicare , Hospitalización , Complicaciones del Embarazo/terapia , Paro Cardíaco/terapia
17.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995183

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics National Registry for the Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (NPC-19) was developed to provide information on the effects of perinatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: National Registry for the Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal COVID-19 participating centers entered maternal and newborn data for pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection between 14 days before and 10 days after delivery. Incidence of and morbidities associated with maternal and newborn SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed. RESULTS: From April 6, 2020 to March 19, 2021, 242 centers in the United States centers reported data for 7524 pregnant persons; at the time of delivery, 78.1% of these persons were asymptomatic, 18.2% were symptomatic but not hospitalized specifically for COVID-19, 3.4% were hospitalized for COVID-19 treatment, and 18 (0.2%) died in the hospital of COVID-related complications. Among 7648 newborns, 6486 (84.8%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 144 (2.2%) were positive; the highest rate of newborn infection was observed when mothers first tested positive in the immediate postpartum period (17 of 125, 13.6%). No newborn deaths were attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, 15.6% of newborns were preterm: among tested newborns, 30.1% of polymerase chain reaction-positive and 16.2% of polymerase chain reaction-negative were born preterm (P < .001). Need for mechanical ventilation did not differ by newborn SARS-CoV-2 test result, but those with positive tests were more likely to be admitted to a NICU. CONCLUSIONS: Early in the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection was acquired by newborns at variable rates and without apparent short-term effects. During a period that preceded widespread availability of vaccines, we observed higher than expected numbers of preterm births and maternal in-hospital deaths.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Niño , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control
18.
Matern Child Health J ; 27(8): 1335-1342, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995650

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess emergency preparedness (EP) actions in women with a recent live birth. METHODS: Weighted survey procedures were used to evaluate EP actions taken by women with a recent live birth responding to an EP question assessing eight preparedness actions as part of the 2016 Tennessee Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey. Factor analysis was used to group preparedness actions. RESULTS: Overall, 82.7% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 79.3%, 86.1%] of respondents reported any preparedness actions, with 51.8% (95% CI 47.2%, 56.4%) completing 1-4 actions. The most common actions were having supplies at home (63.0%; 95% CI 58.5%, 67.4%), an evacuation plan for children (48.5%; 95% CI 43.9%, 53.2%), supplies in another location (40.2%; 95% CI 35.6%, 44.7%), and a communication plan (39.7%; 95% CI 35.1%, 44.2%). Having personal evacuation plans (31.6%; 95% CI 27.3%, 36.0%) and copies of documents in alternate locations (29.3%; 95% CI 25.0%, 33.5%) were least common. Factor analysis yielded three factors: having plans, having copies of documents, and having supplies. Specific preparedness actions varied by education and income level. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Most Tennessee women (about 8 in 10 women) with a recent live birth reported at least one EP action. A three-part EP question may be sufficient for assessing preparedness in this population. These findings highlight opportunities to improve public health education efforts around EP.


Asunto(s)
Defensa Civil , Embarazo , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Tennessee , Nacimiento Vivo , Medición de Riesgo , Escolaridad
19.
Prev Med ; 170: 107473, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36870573

RESUMEN

We report healthcare provider attitudes and practices on emergency preparedness counseling for women of reproductive age (WRA), including pregnant, postpartum, and lactating women (PPLW), for disasters and weather emergencies. DocStyles is a web-based panel survey of primary healthcare providers in the United States. During March 17-May 17, 2021, obstetricians-gynecologists, family practitioners, internists, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants were asked about the importance of emergency preparedness counseling, level of confidence, frequency, barriers to providing counseling, and preferred resources to support counseling among WRA and PPLW. We calculated frequencies of provider attitudes and practices, and prevalence ratios with 95% CIs for questions with binary responses. Among 1503 respondents (family practitioners (33%), internists (34%), obstetrician-gynecologists (17%), nurse practitioners (8%), and physician assistants (8%)), 77% thought emergency preparedness was important, and 88% thought counseling was necessary for patient health and safety. However, 45% of respondents did not feel confident providing emergency preparedness counseling, and most (70%) had never talked to PPLW about this topic. Respondents cited not having time during clinical visits (48%) and lack of knowledge (34%) as barriers to providing counseling. Most respondents (79%) stated they would use emergency preparedness educational materials for WRA, and 60% said they were willing to take an emergency preparedness training. Healthcare providers have opportunities to provide emergency preparedness counseling; however, many have not, noting lack of time and knowledge as barriers. Emergency preparedness resources combined with training may improve healthcare provider confidence and increase delivery of emergency preparedness counseling.


Asunto(s)
Defensa Civil , Médicos , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Lactancia , Personal de Salud , Consejo , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
20.
Prev Med Rep ; 32: 102141, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36816768

RESUMEN

Pregnant people with COVID-19 are at increased risk for severe illness and adverse pregnancy outcomes. COVID-19 vaccinations are safe and effective, including for pregnant and recently pregnant people. The objective of this analysis was to describe the extent to which primary care physicians across the United States report confidence in talking with female patients of reproductive age about COVID-19 vaccination, recommending COVID-19 vaccinations to pregnant patients, and offering COVID-19 vaccinations at their practices in fall 2021. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Fall 2021 DocStyles survey, a web-based panel survey of U.S. primary healthcare providers (64% response rate). Family practitioners/internists, obstetrician-gynecologists, and pediatricians were asked about confidence in talking with female patients of reproductive age about COVID-19 vaccination, vaccination practices regarding pregnant patients, and offering COVID-19 vaccinations. We describe results overall and by select physician characteristics. Among 1501 respondents, most were family practitioners/internists (67%), 17% were obstetrician-gynecologists, and 17% were pediatricians. Overall, 63% were very confident talking with female patients of reproductive age about COVID-19 vaccination, 80% recommended pregnant patients get vaccinated as soon as possible, and 50% offered COVID-19 vaccinations at their current practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists were most confident in talking with female patients, but only one-third offered the vaccine at their practices. This analysis found that most physicians felt confident talking about COVID-19 vaccinations and recommended pregnant patients get vaccinated as soon as possible. Provider recommendation for vaccination remains a key strategy for achieving high vaccination coverage, and consistent recommendations may improve vaccine acceptance among pregnant and postpartum people.

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