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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009295, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905419

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The parasite Taenia solium causes neurocysticercosis (NCC) in humans and is a common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in the developing world. Hippocampal atrophy, which occurs far from the cyst, is an emerging new complication of NCC. Evaluation of molecular pathways in brain regions close to and distant from the cyst could offer insight into this pathology. METHODS: Rats were inoculated intracranially with T. solium oncospheres. After 4 months, RNA was extracted from brain tissue samples in rats with NCC and uninfected controls, and cDNA was generated. Expression of 38 genes related to different molecular pathways involved in the inflammatory response and healing was assessed by RT-PCR array. RESULTS: Inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1, together with TGF-ß and ARG-1, were overexpressed in tissue close to the parasite compared to non-infected tissue. Genes for IL-1A, CSF-1, FN-1, COL-3A1, and MMP-2 were overexpressed in contralateral tissue compared to non-infected tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The viable cysticerci in the rat model for NCC is characterized by increased expression of genes associated with a proinflammatory response and fibrosis-related proteins, which may mediate the chronic state of infection. These pathways appear to influence regions far from the cyst, which may explain the emerging association between NCC and hippocampal atrophy.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009193, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788843

RESUMEN

Single brain enhancing lesions (SEL) are the most common presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC) observed on neuroimaging in people presenting with epileptic seizures not only on the Indian sub-continent and in travelers returning from cysticercosis-endemic regions, but are also present in other parts of the world. The aim of this study, which consisted of a systematic review (CRD42019087665), a meta-analysis and an expert group consultation, was to reach consensus on the best anti-seizure medication and anti-inflammatory treatment for individuals with SEL NCC. Standard literature review methods were used. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used and random effects model meta-analyses were performed. The quality of the body of evidence was rated using GRADE tables. The expert committee included 12 gender and geographically balanced members and recommendations were reached by applying the GRADE framework for guideline development. The 1-1.5-year cumulative incidence of seizure recurrence, cyst resolution or calcification following anti-seizure medication (ASM) withdrawal was not statistically different between ASM of 6, 12 or 24 months. In contrast, in persons whose cyst calcified post treatment, longer ASM decreased seizure recurrence. The cumulative incidence ratio (CIR) 1-1.5 years after stopping ASM was 1.79 95% CI: (1.00, 3.20) for patients given 6 versus 24 months treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids in patients treated with ASM compared to patients treated with ASM only showed a statistically significant beneficial effect on seizure reduction (CIR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23, 0.85) and cyst resolution (CIR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.75). Our results indicate that ASM in patients with SEL NCC whose cysts resolved can be withdrawn, while patients whose cysts calcified seem to benefit from prolonged anti-seizure medication. Additional corticosteroid treatment was found to have a beneficial effect both on seizure reduction and cyst resolution.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009303, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750965

RESUMEN

Racemose neurocysticercosis is an aggressive disease caused by the aberrant expansion of the cyst form of Taenia solium within the subarachnoid spaces of the human brain and spinal cord resulting in a mass effect and chronic inflammation. Although expansion is likely caused by the proliferation and growth of the parasite bladder wall, there is little direct evidence of the mechanisms that underlie these processes. Since the development and growth of cysts in related cestodes involves totipotential germinative cells, we hypothesized that the expansive growth of the racemose larvae is organized and maintained by germinative cells. Here, we identified proliferative cells expressing the serine/threonine-protein kinase plk1 by in situ hybridization. Proliferative cells were present within the bladder wall of racemose form and absent from the homologous tissue surrounding the vesicular form. Cyst proliferation in the related model species Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain) occurs normally by budding from the cyst bladder wall and proliferative cells were concentrated within the growth buds. Cells isolated from bladder wall of racemose larvae were established in primary cell culture and insulin stimulated their proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate that the growth of racemose larvae is likely due to abnormal cell proliferation. The different distribution of proliferative cells in the racemose larvae and their sensitivity to insulin may reflect significant changes at the cellular and molecular levels involved in their tumor-like growth. Parasite cell cultures offer a powerful tool to characterize the nature and formation of the racemose form, understand the developmental biology of T. solium, and to identify new effective drugs for treatment.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534773

RESUMEN

Information about factors potentially favoring the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in rural settings is limited. Following a case-control study design in a rural Ecuadorian village that was severely struck by the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 RNA were detected by real-time PCR in swabs obtained from inner and upper walls in 24/48 randomly selected latrines from case-houses and in 12/48 flushing toilets from paired control-houses (P = 0.014; McNemar's test). This association persisted in a conditional logistic regression model adjusted for relevant covariates (OR: 4.82; 95% CI: 1.38-16.8; P = 0.014). In addition, SARS-CoV-2-seropositive subjects were more often identified among those living in houses with a latrine (P = 0.002). Latrines have almost five times the odds of containing SARS-CoV-2 RNA than their paired flushing toilets. Latrines are reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and it cannot be ruled out that latrines could contribute to viral transmission in rural settings. Frequent disinfection of latrines should be recommended to reduce the likelihood of fecal contamination.

5.
Pathog Glob Health ; : 1-6, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988333

RESUMEN

Data on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in rural communities is scarce or non-existent. A previous cross-sectional study in middle-aged and older adults enrolled in the Atahualpa Project Cohort demonstrated that 45% of participants had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 77% of whom were symptomatic. Here, we assessed the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the above-mentioned rural population. One month after baseline testing, 362 of 370 initially seronegative individuals were re-tested to assess incidence of seroconversion and associated risk factors. Twenty-eight of them (7.7%) became seropositive. The overall incidence rate ratio was 7.4 per 100 person months of potential virus exposure (95% C.I.: 4.7-10.2). Six seroconverted individuals (21.4%) developed SARS-CoV-2-related symptomatology. The only covariate significantly associated with seroconversion was the use of an open latrine. Predictive margins showed that these individuals were 2.5 times more likely to be infected (95% C.I.: 1.03-6.1) than those using a flushing toilet. Therefore, along one month, approximately 8% of seronegative individuals became infected, even after almost half of the population was already seropositive. Nevertheless, a smaller proportion of incident cases were symptomatic (21% versus 77% of the earlier cases), and no deaths were recorded. Whether this decreased clinical expression resulted from a lower viral load in new infections cannot be determined. Increased seroconversion in individuals using latrines is consistent with a contributory role of fecal-oral transmission, although we cannot rule out the possibility that latrines are acting as a proxy for poverty or other unknown interacting variables.

6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1955-1957, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901607

RESUMEN

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection prevalent in developing countries; however, it is neglected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we present three different cases seen in a consulting room in Lubumbashi. These cases are evidence that NCC is more common than it was previously thought in sub-Saharan Africa. Neurocysticercosis is a pathology-neglected and ignored infection, not only by the population but also by health professionals and health authorities in the DRC, and because of that, it is important to increase the research about NCC in the DRC to assess the prevalence and risk factors for NCC to assess the severity of the phenomenon and to help designing appropriate prevention and control measures.


Asunto(s)
Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , África Central , República Democrática del Congo , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Neurocisticercosis/transmisión , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
7.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 239: 111314, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866606

RESUMEN

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a major neglected tropical zoonotic disease caused by the tissue-dwelling larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. For individuals suspected of CE, the diagnostic standard is imaging using ultrasonography, X rays, or computed tomography. These resource-demanding and expensive procedures are rarely available in endemic rural areas where CE is most prevalent. There is a critical need for a new approach to identify CE patients so that they can be managed early in the course of their infection. This study reports on the results of a diagnostic approach that identifies E. granulosus-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the urine of CE patients. Utilizing PCR to amplify a fragment of a major tandem repeat element found in E. granulosus nuclear DNA, urine samples from all seven imaging-confirmed CE patients who harbored active liver cysts were positive. In addition, the urine samples from 2/4 patients who presented with non-viable/calcified liver cysts were also PCR positive for the repeat fragment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using parasite cfDNA from urine to diagnose CE. This approach provides an easy to implement and cost-effective method to survey for the prevalence of E. granulosus in humans populations.

8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(11)2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816721

RESUMEN

Neurocysticercosis and trichuriasis are difficult-to-treat parasitic infections that affect more than 1.5 billion people worldwide. Oxfendazole, a potent broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic approved for use in veterinary medicine, has shown substantial antiparasitic activity against neurocysticercosis and intestinal helminths in preclinical studies. As part of a program to transition oxfendazole from veterinary medicine to human use, phase I multiple ascending dose and food effect studies were conducted. Thirty-six healthy adults were enrolled in an open-label study which evaluated (i) the pharmacokinetics and safety of oxfendazole following multiple ascending doses of oxfendazole oral suspension at 3, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg once daily for 5 days and (ii) the effect of food on oxfendazole pharmacokinetics and safety after a single 3-mg/kg dose administered following an overnight fast or the consumption of a fatty breakfast. Following multiple oral dose administration, the intestinal absorption of oxfendazole was rapid, with the time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (T max) ranging from 1.92 to 2.56 h. A similar half-life of oxfendazole (9.21 to 11.8 h) was observed across all dose groups evaluated, and oxfendazole exhibited significantly less than a dose-proportional increase in exposure. Oxfendazole plasma exposures were higher in female subjects than in male subjects. Following daily administration, oxfendazole reached a steady state in plasma on study day 3, with minimal accumulation. Food delayed the oxfendazole T max by a median of 6.88 h and resulted in a 49.2% increase in the maximum observed drug concentration in plasma (C max) and an 86.4% increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). Oxfendazole was well tolerated in all study groups, and there were no major safety signals identified in this study. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT03035760.).

9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 226-228, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781165

RESUMEN

A sudden increase in adult mortality associated with respiratory diseases was noticed in Atahualpa (a rural Ecuadorian village), coinciding with the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 in the region. From a total of 1,852 individuals aged ≥18 years, 40 deaths occurred between January and June, 2020. In addition, a seroprevalence survey showed that 45% of the adult population have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Verbal autopsies revealed SARS-CoV-2 as the most likely cause of death in 29 cases. The mean age of suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases was 76.9±12.1 years, while that of those dying from unrelated causes was 60.3±20.4 years (p=0.003). The overall mortality rate was 21.6 per 1,000 population (95% C.I.: 15.9 - 29.2), almost three-quarters of it due to SARS-CoV-2 (15.7 per 1,000; 95% C.I.: 11 - 22.4). This configures a 266% of excess mortality when compared to 5.9 per 1,000 (95% C.I.: 3.3 - 10.6) deaths from other causes. When SARS-CoV-2 mortality rate was calculated in individuals aged ≥60 years, it raised up to 68.9 per 1,000 (95% C.I.: 47.8 - 98.4). After peaking in April and May, mortality significantly decreased. It is possible that the high proportion of infected individuals and the resulting herd immunity contributed to the observed reduction in mortality.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Población Rural , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1207-1210, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755528

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is now expanding into the developing world with devastating consequences. Departing from a population-based study in rural Ecuador where all adult individuals (aged 40 years or older) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies, we expanded it to include a house-based case-control component assessing in-house clustering and other variables potentially associated with infection. We selected houses where exactly two study participants lived and were both seropositive (case-houses), and matched 1:1 to control-houses where both were seronegative. Younger household members had an antibody test performed. Infected household members were found in 33 (92%) case-houses and in only six (17%) control-houses. In 28/29 discordant house pairs, the case-house had seropositive household members and the control-house did not (odds ratio: 28; 95% CI: 4.6-1,144). Our data demonstrate strong in-house clustering of infection in community settings, stressing the importance of early case ascertainment and isolation for SARS-CoV-2 control.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Análisis por Conglomerados , Ecuador/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717052

RESUMEN

Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 303/673 rural Ecuadorian adults (45%), 77% of whom had compatible clinical manifestations. Seropositivity was associated with the use of open latrines. Our findings support the fears of mass spread of SARS-CoV-2 in rural Latin America and cannot exclude a contributing role for fecal-oral transmission.

12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1125-1128, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602434

RESUMEN

Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis (SANCC) is a severe and progressive brain infection with Taenia solium. We performed a pilot study of noninvasive screening for SANCC in two endemic villages in northern Peru using a urine antigen screen followed by brain magnetic resonance imaging for participants with elevated levels of antigen. Among the 978 participants screened, we identified eight individuals with SANCC, many of whom were asymptomatic. This represents a minimum prevalence of 0.8% of SANCC, a level higher than expected based on prior studies, and a positive predictive value of 62% for our novel urine screening test. Future studies should confirm whether early detection and management improve clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Helmínticos/orina , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Espacio Subaracnoideo/inmunología , Taenia solium/inmunología , Teniasis/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/parasitología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neurocisticercosis/epidemiología , Neurocisticercosis/parasitología , Perú/epidemiología , Proyectos Piloto , Teniasis/epidemiología , Teniasis/parasitología , Adulto Joven
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 372, 2020 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709250

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem in rural low-resource areas of Latin America, Africa and Asia, where the associated conditions of nuerocysticercosis (NCC) and porcine cysticercosis cause substantial health and economic harms. An accurate and validated transmission model for T. solium would serve as an important new tool for control and elimination, as it would allow for comparison of available intervention strategies, and prioritization of the most effective strategies for control and elimination efforts. METHODS: We developed a spatially-explicit agent-based model (ABM) for T. solium ("CystiAgent") that differs from prior T. solium models by including a spatial framework and behavioral parameters such as pig roaming, open human defecation, and human travel. In this article, we introduce the structure and function of the model, describe the data sources used to parameterize the model, and apply sensitivity analyses (Latin hypercube sampling-partial rank correlation coefficient (LHS-PRCC)) to evaluate model parameters. RESULTS: LHS-PRCC analysis of CystiAgent found that the parameters with the greatest impact on model uncertainty were the roaming range of pigs, the infectious duration of human taeniasis, use of latrines, and the set of "tuning" parameters defining the probabilities of infection in humans and pigs given exposure to T. solium. CONCLUSIONS: CystiAgent is a novel ABM that has the ability to model spatial and behavioral features of T. solium transmission not available in other models. There is a small set of impactful model parameters that contribute uncertainty to the model and may impact the accuracy of model projections. Field and laboratory studies to better understand these key components of transmission may help reduce uncertainty, while current applications of CystiAgent may consider calibration of these parameters to improve model performance. These results will ultimately allow for improved interpretation of model validation results, and usage of the model to compare available control and elimination strategies for T. solium.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in most of the world. Larval cysts in the human brain eventually resolve and either disappear or leave a calcified scar that is associated with seizures. This study assessed the proportion of residual calcification in parenchymal NCC, and defined risk factors associated with calcification. METHODS: Data from 220 patients with parenchymal NCC from three randomized trials of antiparasitic treatment was assessed to determine what proportion of the cysts that resolved six months after antiparasitic treatment ended up in a residual calcification at one year. Also, we evaluated the risk factors associated with residual calcification. A multilevel Poisson regression model was used to estimate the risks of calcification. RESULTS: The overall proportion of calcification was 38% (188/497 cysts, from 147 patients). Predictors for calcification at the cyst level were cysts larger than 14 mm (RR 1.34; 95% C.I. 1.02-1.75), and cysts with edema at baseline (RR 1.39; 95% C.I. 1.05-1.85). At the patient level, having had more than 24 months with seizures (RR: 1.25, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.46), mild antibody response (RR: 1.14; 95% C.I. 1.002-1.27), increased dose albendazole regime (RR: 1.26; 95% C.I. 1.14-1.39), lower doses of concomitant dexamethasone (RR: 1.36; 95% C.I. 1.02-1.81), not receiving early antiparasitic re-treatment (RR: 1.45; 1.08-1.93), or complete cure (RR: 1.48; 1.29-1.71). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Approximately 38% of parenchymal cysts calcify after antiparasitic treatment. Some factors associated to calcification are modifiable and may be approached to decrease or avoid calcification, potentially decreasing the risk for seizure relapses.

17.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(1): 104-109, 2020.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520171

RESUMEN

The use of L protein coupled magnetic particles for the concentration and purification of immunoglobulin M (mIgM) monoclonal antibodies against Taenia solium was evaluated. Three concentration methods and different elution times were evaluated and the ratio of particles to the ratio of mIgM was optimized. It is demonstrated that: 1) with the use of magnetic particles, a previous concentration of mIgM is not required, which reduces the manipulation of the antibodies and improves the recovery, 2) the use of a binding buffer can be omitted, since the pH of most cell culture supernatants are neutral, and 3) longer elution times (~ 45 minutes) are needed to increase recovery to a level greater than 80%. The study demonstrates that the use of L protein-coupled magnetic particles is a simple and efficient tool for mIgM concentration and purification.

18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 639-645, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431269

RESUMEN

The parasitic helminth infection neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of adult-acquired epilepsy in the world. Despite the serious consequences of epilepsy due to this infection, an in-depth review of the distinct characteristics of epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis has never been conducted. In this review, we evaluate the relationship between NCC and epilepsy and the unique characteristics of epilepsy caused by NCC. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of NCC-related epilepsy, including the importance of anti-inflammatory therapies, the association between NCC and temporal lobe epilepsy, and the recent discovery of biomarkers of severe epilepsy development in individuals with NCC and seizures.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Epilepsia/fisiopatología , Neurocisticercosis/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/inmunología , Calcinosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Calcinosis/inmunología , Calcinosis/fisiopatología , Citocinas/inmunología , Epilepsia/etiología , Epilepsia/inmunología , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipocampo/inmunología , Hipocampo/patología , Hipocampo/fisiopatología , Humanos , Inflamación/inmunología , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Neurocisticercosis/complicaciones , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Neurocisticercosis/inmunología , Factores de Riesgo , Esclerosis
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 273-275, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431279

RESUMEN

Human exposure to Toxocara spp. is very frequent, and its larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier and invade the central nervous system (CNS), causing neurotoxocariasis. We aimed to establish a neurotoxocariasis animal model in pigs confirmed by necropsy. Also, the presence of larvae in the CNS was assessed using magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs), to establish brain lesions caused by the larvae migration. Ten pigs were infected intraperitoneally with 3,000 Toxocara larvae. Cerebral toxocariasis was evaluated using MRIs at days 7, 14, 21, and 49, and pigs were euthanized after the examination. Brain tissues were examined by microscopy, and five pigs presented Toxocara, most frequently at day 21 after infection. None of the 10 pigs showed alterations on MRIs. Our study confirms that intraperitoneal Toxocara infection produces neurotoxocariasis in pigs. Toxocara larvae passage through the brain does not seem to produce lesions detectable at MRIs.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/parasitología , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Toxocara , Toxocariasis/diagnóstico por imagen , Animales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/patología , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones Parasitarias del Sistema Nervioso Central/parasitología , Femenino , Larva , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagen , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico por imagen , Toxocariasis/diagnóstico
20.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 33(3)2020 06 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461308

RESUMEN

Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is endemic in most of the world and contributes significantly to the burden of epilepsy and other neurological morbidity. Also present in developed countries because of immigration and travel, NCC is one of few diseases targeted for eradication. This paper reviews all aspects of its life cycle (taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis), with a focus on recent advances in its diagnosis, management, and control. Diagnosis of taeniasis is limited by poor availability of immunological or molecular assays. Diagnosis of NCC rests on neuroimaging findings, supported by serological assays. The treatment of NCC should be approached in the context of the particular type of infection (intra- or extraparenchymal; number, location, and stage of lesions) and has evolved toward combined symptomatic and antiparasitic management, with particular attention to modulating inflammation. Research on NCC and particularly the use of recently available genome data and animal models of infection should help to elucidate mechanisms of brain inflammation, damage, and epileptogenesis.

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