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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007400, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181059

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early detection of Mycobacterium leprae is a key strategy for disrupting the transmission chain of leprosy and preventing the potential onset of physical disabilities. Clinical diagnosis is essential, but some of the presented symptoms may go unnoticed, even by specialists. In areas of greater endemicity, serological and molecular tests have been performed and analyzed separately for the follow-up of household contacts, who are at high risk of developing the disease. The accuracy of these tests is still debated, and it is necessary to make them more reliable, especially for the identification of cases of leprosy between contacts. We proposed an integrated analysis of molecular and serological methods using artificial intelligence by the random forest (RF) algorithm to better diagnose and predict new cases of leprosy. METHODS: The study was developed in Governador Valadares, Brazil, a hyperendemic region for leprosy. A longitudinal study was performed, including new cases diagnosed in 2011 and their respective household contacts, who were followed in 2011, 2012, and 2016. All contacts were diligently evaluated by clinicians from Reference Center for Endemic Diseases (CREDEN-PES) before being classified as asymptomatic. Samples of slit skin smears (SSS) from the earlobe of the patients and household contacts were collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of 16S rRNA, and peripheral blood samples were collected for ELISA assays to detect LID-1 and ND-O-LID. RESULTS: The statistical analysis of the tests revealed sensitivity for anti-LID-1 (63.2%), anti-ND-O-LID (57.9%), qPCR SSS (36.8%), and smear microscopy (30.2%). However, the use of RF allowed for an expressive increase in sensitivity in the diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy (90.5%) and especially paucibacillary leprosy (70.6%). It is important to report that the specificity was 92.5%. CONCLUSION: The proposed model using RF allows for the diagnosis of leprosy with high sensitivity and specificity and the early identification of new cases among household contacts.


Asunto(s)
Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Composición Familiar , Salud de la Familia , Lepra/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Inteligencia Artificial , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , ADN Bacteriano/química , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Ribosómico/química , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Adulto Joven
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 153, 2018 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Characterization of the Mycobacterium leprae genome has made possible the development of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems that can amplify different genomic regions. Increased reliability and technical efficiency of quantitative PCR (qPCR) makes it a promising tool for early diagnosis of leprosy. Index cases that are multibacillary spread the bacillus silently, even before they are clinically diagnosed. Early detection and treatment could prevent transmission in endemic areas. METHODS: In this study, the qPCR technique is used to detect DNA of M. leprae in samples of slit skin smears (SSS) of the ear lobe and blood of leprosy patients and their asymptomatic household contacts residing in Governador Valadares, MG, Brazil, a hyperendemic area for leprosy. A total of 164 subjects participated in the study: 43 index cases, 113 household contacts, and, as negative controls, 8 individuals who reported no contact with patients nor history of leprosy in the family. The qPCR was performed to amplify 16S rRNA fragments and was specifically designed for M. leprae. RESULTS: Of asymptomatic household contacts, 23.89% showed bacillary DNA by qPCR in samples of SSS and blood. Also, 48.84% of patients diagnosed with leprosy were positive for qPCR while the bacillary load was positive in only 30.23% of patients. It is important to note that most patients were already receiving treatment when the collection of biological material for qPCR was performed. The level of bacillary DNA from household contacts was similar to the DNA levels detected in the group of paucibacillary patients. CONCLUSION: Considering that household contacts comprise a recognizable group of individuals with a high risk of disease, as they live in close proximity to a source of infection, qPCR can be used to estimate the risk of progress towards leprosy among household contacts and as a routine screening method for a chemoprophylactic protocol.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Composición Familiar , Lepra/epidemiología , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/diagnóstico , Lepra/transmisión , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/análisis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 177: 81-4, 2016 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626488

RESUMEN

ETHNAOPHARMACOLOGIAL RELEVANCE: In South America, the ß-ecdysone ecdysteroid has been found in species of the genus Pfaffia Mart. Due to the similar morphology of its roots to the Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean ginseng), some species of this genus has been known as Brazilian ginseng and have been used as tonic and aphrodisiac, as well as for the treatment of diabetes and rheumatism. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here we report a cytogenotoxic evaluation of ß-ecdysone (a natural ecdysteroid found in plants) in Rodent Bone Marrow Micronuclei and Allium cepa Assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three ß-ecdysone (pure) concentrations (based in human therapeutic dosage) were used in the Micronucleus Assay. The animals were treated during two consecutive days. Micronucleated cells were counted in 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes per animal. For A. cepa L. Assay, one ß-ecdysone concentration was analyzed. The onions bulbs were exposed for 24h. RESULTS: The Micronucleus Assay showed genotoxic effects for all treatments, expressed by an increase of micronucleated cells. In A. cepa L. Assay, cell abnormalities associated to the malfunction/non-formation of mitotic spindle (aneugenic effect) and chromosomal bridges (clastogenic effect) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a cytogenotoxic activity of ß-ecdysone. Therefore, the popular use of Pfaffia and others species containing ß-ecdysone should be considered with caution.


Asunto(s)
Ecdisterona/toxicidad , Cebollas/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Bioensayo , Aberraciones Cromosómicas/inducido químicamente , Cromosomas de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Daño del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Micronúcleos con Defecto Cromosómico/inducido químicamente , Pruebas de Micronúcleos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
4.
Lipids Health Dis ; 13: 200, 2014 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25534067

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence from in vitro and animal studies indicates that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) possesses anti-diabetic properties, which appear to be attributed to cis-9, trans-11 CLA, the major CLA isomer in ruminant fat. However, there is a shortage of studies addressing CLA from natural source. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA on parameters related to glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in rats. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: 1) Normal fat-Soybean oil (NF-So): diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); 2) High Fat-Control Butter (HF-Cb): diet containing 21.7% control butter and 2.3% SO; 3) High Fat-CLA enriched Butter (HF-CLAb): diet containing 21.7% cis-9, trans-11 CLA-enriched butter and 2.3% SO; and 4) High fat-Soybean oil (HF-So): diet containing 24.0% SO. HF-Cb and HF-CLAb diets contained 0.075% and 0.235% of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, respectively. RESULTS: HF-CLAb-fed rats had lower serum insulin levels at fasting than those fed with the HF-Cb diet, while the PPARγ protein levels in adipose tissue was increased in HF-CLAb-fed rats compared to HF-Cb-fed rats. Furthermore, R-QUICK was lower in HF-Cb than in NF-So group, while no differences in R-QUICK were observed among NF-So, HF-CLAb and HF-So groups. Serum HDL cholesterol levels were higher in HF-CLAb-fed rats than in those fed NF-So, HF-Cb and HF-So diets, as well as higher in NF-So-fed rats than in HF-Cb and HF-So-fed rats. HF-CLAb, HF-Cb and HF-So diets reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels when compared to NF-So, whereas serum triacylglycerol levels were increased in HF-CLAb. CONCLUSION: Feeding rats on a high-fat diet containing butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevented hyperinsulinemia and increased HDL cholesterol, which could be associated with higher levels of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and lower levels of short and medium-chain saturated fatty acids from butter naturally modified compared to control butter. On the other hand CLA-enriched butter also increased serum triacylglycerol levels, which could be associated with concomitant increases in the content of trans-9 and trans-10 C18:1 isomers in the CLA-enriched butter.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Hiperinsulinismo/prevención & control , Hipoglucemiantes/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administración & dosificación , Triglicéridos/sangre , Animales , Mantequilla , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Grasa Intraabdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar
5.
Neurol Res ; 36(9): 800-3, 2014 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24620965

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The development of communication systems has brought great social and economic benefits to society. As mobile phone use has become widespread, concerns have emerged regarding the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) used by these devices. OBJECTIVE: To verify potential effects of mobile phone radiation on the central nervous system (CNS) in an animal model. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were exposed to RF-EMR from a Global System for Mobile (GSM) cell phone (1·8 GHz) for 3 days. At the end of the exposure, the following behavioral tests were performed: open field and object recognition. RESULTS: Our results showed that exposed animals did not present anxiety patterns or working memory impairment, but stress behavior actions were observed. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR does not promote CNS impairment, but suggest that it may lead to stressful behavioral patterns.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Radiación Electromagnética , Memoria a Corto Plazo/efectos de la radiación , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Animales , Ansiedad , Conducta Exploratoria/efectos de la radiación , Masculino , Pruebas Psicológicas , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas Wistar , Reconocimiento en Psicología/efectos de la radiación
6.
Reprod Biol ; 12(1): 41-55, 2012 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22472939

RESUMEN

Follicular atresia is a key event in the selection of the ovulatory follicles and occurs during all developmental stages. The aims of the study were to evaluate the follicular population as well as the rates of follicular recruitment and atresia in different strains of mice. Ovaries were obtained from four strains of mice: G1/ Swiss, G2/ F1 Swiss×C57BL/6, G3/ inbred strain C57BL/6, and G4/ F1 C57BL/6×Swiss. All mice used in the study were 60 days old. Ovaries collected from the mice were fixed and processed for histological analysis. The G2 ovaries were also used to examine immunolocalization of active caspase-3. The pimordial follicle population was smaller in G3 mice than in G1, G2 and G4 groups (7 565±1 845 vs. 17 180±3 159, 14 785±3 319 and 13 325±2 685, respectively; p<0.05). The rate of follicular recruitment in G3, however, was higher than in the other groups (29.2% vs. 18.2%, 17.3% and 13.0% in G1, G2 and G4, respectively; p<0.05), resulting in a similar (p>0.05) number of antral follicles among groups. The small follicular pool in G3 mice was also associated with a lower rate of follicular atresia (11.4% vs. 17.2%, 16.7% and 13.6% for G3, G1, G2 and G4, respectively; p<0.05). The number of follicles stained with active caspase-3 was higher (p<0.05) during the final stage of preantral folliculogenesis than in other stages of follicular development suggesting that apoptosis in mice occurs earlier in comparison to large animals. Thus, it was concluded that differences in follicle reservoir among mice strains are compensated by an increased rate of follicular recruitment and a decreased rate of follicular atresia; and atresia occurs in mice mainly at the end of the preantral stage of folliculogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Folículo Ovárico/fisiología , Ovario/anatomía & histología , Animales , Apoptosis , Caspasa 3/análisis , Femenino , Atresia Folicular , Células de la Granulosa/fisiología , Inmunohistoquímica , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Oocitos/citología , Folículo Ovárico/anatomía & histología , Ovario/enzimología , Especificidad de la Especie
7.
Exp Diabetes Res ; 2011: 947917, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21860615

RESUMEN

The involvement of sympathoadrenal axis activity in obesity onset was investigated using the experimental model of treating neonatal rats with monosodium L-glutamate. To access general sympathetic nervous system activity, we recorded the firing rates of sympathetic superior cervical ganglion nerves in animals. Catecholamine content and secretion from isolated adrenal medulla were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed, and isolated pancreatic islets were stimulated with glucose and adrenergic agonists. The nerve firing rate of obese rats was decreased compared to the rate for lean rats. Basal catecholamine secretion decreased whereas catecholamine secretion induced by carbachol, elevated extracellular potassium, and caffeine in the isolated adrenal medulla were all increased in obese rats compared to control. Both glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia were observed in obese rats. Adrenaline strongly inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in obese animals. These findings suggest that low sympathoadrenal activity contributes to impaired glycaemic control in prediabetic obese rats.


Asunto(s)
Médula Suprarrenal/fisiopatología , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Estado Prediabético/fisiopatología , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/fisiopatología , Médula Suprarrenal/química , Médula Suprarrenal/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Glucemia/análisis , Cafeína/farmacología , Carbacol/farmacología , Catecolaminas/análisis , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Insulina/sangre , Secreción de Insulina , Masculino , Obesidad/inducido químicamente , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Glutamato de Sodio
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