Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 14 de 14
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 22(1): 248-261, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37822043

RESUMEN

Vascular wilt diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum are a major threat to many agriculturally important crops. Genetic resistance is rare and inevitably overcome by the emergence of new races. To identify potentially durable and non-race-specific genetic resistance against Fusarium wilt diseases, we set out to identify effector targets in tomato that mediate susceptibility to the fungus. For this purpose, we used the SIX8 effector protein, an important and conserved virulence factor present in many pathogenic F. oxysporum isolates. Using protein pull-downs and yeast two-hybrid assays, SIX8 was found to interact specifically with two members of the tomato TOPLESS family: TPL1 and TPL2. Loss-of-function mutations in TPL1 strongly reduced disease susceptibility to Fusarium wilt and a tpl1;tpl2 double mutant exerted an even higher level of resistance. Similarly, Arabidopsis tpl;tpr1 mutants became significantly less diseased upon F. oxysporum inoculation as compared to wildtype plants. We conclude that TPLs encode susceptibility genes whose mutation can confer resistance to F. oxysporum.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , Fusarium , Solanum lycopersicum , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiología , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Mutación/genética , Enfermedades de las Plantas/genética , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología
2.
Mol Ecol ; 32(14): 3960-3974, 2023 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37154074

RESUMEN

The environment experienced during early life is a crucial factor in the life of many organisms. This early life environment has been shown to have profound effects on morphology, physiology and fitness. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects are largely unknown, even though they are essential for our understanding of the processes that induce phenotypic variation in natural populations. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has been suggested to explain such environmentally induced phenotypic changes early in life. To investigate whether DNA methylation changes are associated with experimentally induced early developmental effects, we cross-fostered great tit (Parus major) nestlings and manipulated their brood sizes in a natural study population. We assessed experimental brood size effects on pre-fledging biometry and behaviour. We linked this to genome-wide DNA methylation levels of CpG sites in erythrocyte DNA, using 122 individuals and an improved epiGBS2 laboratory protocol. Brood enlargement caused developmental stress and negatively affected nestling condition, predominantly during the second half of the breeding season, when conditions are harsher. Brood enlargement, however, affected nestling DNA methylation in only one CpG site and only if the hatch date was taken into account. In conclusion, this study shows that nutritional stress in enlarged broods does not associate with direct effects on genome-wide DNA methylation. Future studies should assess whether genome-wide DNA methylation variation may arise later in life as a consequence of phenotypic changes during early development.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Passeriformes , Humanos , Animales , Metilación de ADN/genética , Passeriformes/genética , Passeriformes/anatomía & histología , Cruzamiento , ADN
3.
J Evol Biol ; 36(4): 663-674, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36810811

RESUMEN

DNA methylation in plant genomes occurs in different sequences and genomic contexts that have very different properties. DNA methylation that occurs in CG (mCG) sequence context shows transgenerational stability and high epimutation rate, and can thus provide genealogical information at short time scales. However, due to meta-stability and because mCG variants may arise due to other factors than epimutation, such as environmental stress exposure, it is not clear how well mCG captures genealogical information at micro-evolutionary time scales. Here, we analysed DNA methylation variation between accessions from a geographically widespread, apomictic common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) lineage when grown experimentally under different light conditions. Using a reduced-representation bisulphite sequencing approach, we show that the light treatment induced differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) in all sequence contexts, with a bias towards transposable elements. Accession differences were associated mainly with DMCs in CG context. Hierarchical clustering of samples based on total mCG profiles revealed a perfect clustering of samples by accession identity, irrespective of light conditions. Using microsatellite information as a benchmark of genetic divergence within the clonal lineage, we show that genetic divergence between accessions correlates strongly with overall mCG profiles. However, our results suggest that environmental effects that do occur in CG context may produce a heritable signal that partly dilutes the genealogical signal. Our study shows that methylation information in plants can be used to reconstruct micro-evolutionary genealogy, providing a useful tool in systems that lack genetic variation such as clonal and vegetatively propagated plants.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Taraxacum , Taraxacum/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Genómica , Evolución Biológica
4.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 23(7): 1488-1508, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466564

RESUMEN

The field of molecular biology is advancing fast with new powerful technologies, sequencing methods and analysis software being developed constantly. Commonly used tools originally developed for research on humans and model species are now regularly used in ecological and evolutionary research. There is also a growing interest in the causes and consequences of epigenetic variation in natural populations. Studying ecological epigenetics is currently challenging, especially for vertebrate systems, because of the required technical expertise, complications with analyses and interpretation, and limitations in acquiring sufficiently high sample sizes. Importantly, neglecting the limitations of the experimental setup, technology and analyses may affect the reliability and reproducibility, and the extent to which unbiased conclusions can be drawn from these studies. Here, we provide a practical guide for researchers aiming to study DNA methylation variation in wild vertebrates. We review the technical aspects of epigenetic research, concentrating on DNA methylation using bisulfite sequencing, discuss the limitations and possible pitfalls, and how to overcome them through rigid and reproducible data analysis. This review provides a solid foundation for the proper design of epigenetic studies, a clear roadmap on the best practices for correct data analysis and a realistic view on the limitations for studying ecological epigenetics in vertebrates. This review will help researchers studying the ecological and evolutionary implications of epigenetic variation in wild populations.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Epigénesis Genética , Animales , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Vertebrados/genética , Ecología
5.
Mol Ecol ; 32(2): 428-443, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324253

RESUMEN

Environmentally induced DNA methylation variants may mediate gene expression responses to environmental changes. If such induced variants are transgenerationally stable, there is potential for expression responses to persist over multiple generations. Our current knowledge in plants, however, is almost exclusively based on studies conducted in sexually reproducing species where the majority of DNA methylation changes are subject to resetting in germlines, limiting the potential for transgenerational epigenetics stress memory. Asexual reproduction circumvents germlines, and may therefore be more conducive to long-term inheritance of epigenetic marks. Taking advantage of the rapid clonal reproduction of the common duckweed Lemna minor, we hypothesize that long-term, transgenerational stress memory from exposure to high temperature can be detected in DNA methylation profiles. Using a reduced representation bisulphite sequencing approach (epiGBS), we show that temperature stress induces DNA hypermethylation at many CG and CHG cytosine contexts but not CHH. Additionally, differential methylation in CHG context that was observed was still detected in a subset of cytosines, even after 3-12 generations of culturing in a common environment. This demonstrates a memory effect of stress reflected in the methylome and that persists over multiple clonal generations. Structural annotation revealed that this memory effect in CHG methylation was enriched in transposable elements. The observed epigenetic stress memory is probably caused by stable transgenerational persistence of temperature-induced DNA methylation variants across clonal generations. To the extent that such epigenetic memory has functional consequences for gene expression and phenotypes, this result suggests potential for long-term modulation of stress responses in asexual plants.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Plantas , Metilación de ADN/genética , Plantas/genética , Elementos Transponibles de ADN , Reproducción , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Epigénesis Genética
6.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 22(5): 2087-2104, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178872

RESUMEN

Several reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing methods have been developed in recent years to determine cytosine methylation de novo in nonmodel species. Here, we present epiGBS2, a laboratory protocol based on epiGBS with a revised and user-friendly bioinformatics pipeline for a wide range of species with or without a reference genome. epiGBS2 is cost- and time-efficient and the computational workflow is designed in a user-friendly and reproducible manner. The library protocol allows a flexible choice of restriction enzymes and a double digest. The bioinformatics pipeline was integrated in the Snakemake workflow management system, which makes the pipeline easy to execute and modular, and parameter settings for important computational steps flexible. We implemented bismark for alignment and methylation analysis and we preprocessed alignment files by double masking to enable single nucleotide polymorphism calling with Freebayes (epiFreebayes). The performance of several critical steps in epiGBS2 was evaluated against baseline data sets from Arabidopsis thaliana and great tit (Parus major), which confirmed its overall good performance. We provide a detailed description of the laboratory protocol and an extensive manual of the bioinformatics pipeline, which is publicly accessible on github (https://github.com/nioo-knaw/epiGBS2) and zenodo (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4764652).


Asunto(s)
Programas Informáticos , Sulfitos , Metilación de ADN , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos
7.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 22(2): 834-846, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435438

RESUMEN

The profiling of epigenetic marks like DNA methylation has become a central aspect of studies in evolution and ecology. Bisulphite sequencing is commonly used for assessing genome-wide DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution but these data can also provide information on genetic variants like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, bisulphite conversion causes unmethylated cytosines to appear as thymines, complicating the alignment and subsequent SNP calling. Several tools have been developed to overcome this challenge, but there is no independent evaluation of such tools for non-model species, which often lack genomic references. Here, we used whole-genome bisulphite sequencing (WGBS) data from four female great tits (Parus major) to evaluate the performance of seven tools for SNP calling from bisulphite sequencing data. We used SNPs from whole-genome resequencing data of the same samples as baseline SNPs to assess common performance metrics like sensitivity, precision, and the number of true positive, false positive, and false negative SNPs for the full range of variant and genotype quality values. We found clear differences between the tools in either optimizing precision (Bis-SNP), sensitivity (biscuit), or a compromise between both (all other tools). Overall, the choice of SNP caller strongly depends on which performance parameter should be maximized and whether ascertainment bias should be minimized to optimize downstream analysis, highlighting the need for studies that assess such differences.


Asunto(s)
Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Pájaros Cantores/genética , Sulfitos , Animales , Femenino , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
8.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 14(1): 48, 2021 10 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702322

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: 5-Methylcytosine (5mC) is an important epigenetic mark in eukaryotes. Little information about its role exists for invertebrates. To investigate the contribution of 5mC to phenotypic variation in invertebrates, alteration of methylation patterns needs to be produced. Here, we apply new non-nucleoside DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) to introduce aleatory changes into the methylome of mollusk species. RESULTS: Flavanone inhibitor Flv1 was efficient in reducing 5mC in the freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata and Physa acuta, and to a lesser degree, probably due to lower stability in sea water, in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Flv1 has no toxic effects and significantly decreased the 5mC level in the treated B. glabrata and in its offspring. Drug treatment triggers significant variation in the shell height in both generations. A reduced representation bisulfite-sequencing method called epiGBS corroborates hypomethylation effect of Flv1 in both B. glabrata generations and identifies seven Differential Methylated Regions (DMR) out of 32 found both in Flv1-exposed snails and its progeny, from which 5 were hypomethylated, demonstrating a multigenerational effect. By targeted bisulfite sequencing, we confirmed hypomethylation in a locus and show that it is associated with reduced gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Flv1 is a new and efficient DNMTi that can be used to induce transient and heritable modifications of the epigenetic landscape and phenotypic traits in mollusks, a phylum of the invertebrates in which epigenetics is understudied.


Asunto(s)
Biomphalaria , Animales , Biomphalaria/genética , Metilación de ADN , Epigénesis Genética , Epigenoma , Moluscos
9.
Integr Comp Biol ; 60(6): 1517-1530, 2020 12 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031487

RESUMEN

The search for the hereditary mechanisms underlying quantitative traits traditionally focused on the identification of underlying genomic polymorphisms such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms. It has now become clear that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, can consistently alter gene expression over multiple generations. It is unclear, however, if and how DNA methylation can stably be transferred from one generation to the next and can thereby be a component of the heritable variation of a trait. In this study, we explore whether DNA methylation responds to phenotypic selection using whole-genome and genome-wide bisulfite approaches. We assessed differential erythrocyte DNA methylation patterns between extreme personality types in the Great Tit (Parus major). For this, we used individuals from a four-generation artificial bi-directional selection experiment and siblings from eight F2 inter-cross families. We find no differentially methylated sites when comparing the selected personality lines, providing no evidence for the so-called epialleles associated with exploratory behavior. Using a pair-wise sibling design in the F2 intercrosses, we show that the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of individuals are mainly explained by family structure, indicating that the majority of variation in DNA methylation in CpG sites between individuals can be explained by genetic differences. Although we found some candidates explaining behavioral differences between F2 siblings, we could not confirm this with a whole-genome approach, thereby confirming the absence of epialleles in these F2 intercrosses. We conclude that while epigenetic variation may underlie phenotypic variation in behavioral traits, we were not able to find evidence that DNA methylation can explain heritable variation in personality traits in Great Tits.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Pájaros Cantores , Animales , Islas de CpG , Epigénesis Genética , Conducta Exploratoria , Personalidad/genética , Pájaros Cantores/genética
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 6: 967, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26583031

RESUMEN

Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem) proteins. Of these, Six1 (Avr3), Six3 (Avr2), Six5, and Six6 are required for full virulence, denoting them as effectors. To investigate their activities in the plant, the xylem sap proteome of plants inoculated with Fol wild-type or either AVR2, AVR3, SIX2, SIX5, or SIX6 knockout strains was analyzed with nano-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (nLC-MSMS). Compared to mock-inoculated sap 12 additional plant proteins appeared while 45 proteins were no longer detectable in the xylem sap of Fol-infected plants. Of the 285 proteins found in both uninfected and infected plants the abundance of 258 proteins changed significantly following infection. The xylem sap proteome of plants infected with four Fol effector knockout strains differed significantly from plants infected with wild-type Fol, while that of the SIX2-knockout inoculated plants remained unchanged. Besides an altered abundance of a core set of 24 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs), each of the four effector knockout strains affected specifically the abundance of a subset of DAPs. Hence, Fol effectors have both unique and shared effects on the composition of the tomato xylem sap proteome.

11.
J Biol Chem ; 290(41): 24945-60, 2015 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306038

RESUMEN

Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable cells to respond to pathogen attack. Several NLRs act in the nucleus; however, conserved nuclear targets that support their role in immunity are unknown. Previously, we noted a structural homology between the nucleotide-binding domain of NLRs and DNA replication origin-binding Cdc6/Orc1 proteins. Here we show that the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding, Apaf-1, R-proteins, and CED-4) domain of the Rx1 NLR of potato binds nucleic acids. Rx1 induces ATP-dependent bending and melting of DNA in vitro, dependent upon a functional P-loop. In situ full-length Rx1 binds nuclear DNA following activation by its cognate pathogen-derived effector protein, the coat protein of potato virus X. In line with its obligatory nucleocytoplasmic distribution, DNA binding was only observed when Rx1 was allowed to freely translocate between both compartments and was activated in the cytoplasm. Immune activation induced by an unrelated NLR-effector pair did not trigger an Rx1-DNA interaction. DNA binding is therefore not merely a consequence of immune activation. These data establish a role for DNA distortion in Rx1 immune signaling and define DNA as a molecular target of an activated NLR.


Asunto(s)
ADN/química , ADN/metabolismo , Leucina , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Virus de Plantas/fisiología , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/virología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Modelos Moleculares , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Enfermedades de las Plantas/virología , Estructura Terciaria de Proteína , Solanum tuberosum/inmunología , Especificidad por Sustrato
12.
New Phytol ; 208(2): 507-18, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967461

RESUMEN

Plant-invading microbes betray their presence to a plant by exposure of antigenic molecules such as small, secreted proteins called 'effectors'. In Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) we identified a pair of effector gene candidates, AVR2-SIX5, whose expression is controlled by a shared promoter. The pathogenicity of AVR2 and SIX5 Fol knockouts was assessed on susceptible and resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants carrying I-2. The I-2 NB-LRR protein confers resistance to Fol races carrying AVR2. Like Avr2, Six5 was found to be required for full virulence on susceptible plants. Unexpectedly, each knockout could breach I-2-mediated disease resistance. So whereas Avr2 is sufficient to induce I-2-mediated cell death, Avr2 and Six5 are both required for resistance. Avr2 and Six5 interact in yeast two-hybrid assays as well as in planta. Six5 and Avr2 accumulate in xylem sap of plants infected with the reciprocal knockouts, showing that lack of I-2 activation is not due to a lack of Avr2 accumulation in the SIX5 mutant. The effector repertoire of a pathogen determines its host specificity and its ability to manipulate plant immunity. Our findings challenge an oversimplified interpretation of the gene-for-gene model by showing requirement of two fungal genes for immunity conferred by one resistance gene.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Inmunidad de la Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/inmunología , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiología , Muerte Celular , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/inmunología , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidad , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Solanum lycopersicum/citología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Unión Proteica , Técnicas del Sistema de Dos Híbridos , Xilema/metabolismo
13.
Microb Biotechnol ; 6(3): 223-9, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23279965

RESUMEN

Increasing numbers of infectious crop diseases that are caused by fungi and oomycetes urge the need to develop alternative strategies for resistance breeding. As an alternative for the use of resistance (R) genes, the application of mutant susceptibility (S) genes has been proposed as a potentially more durable type of resistance. Identification of S genes is hampered by their recessive nature. Here we explore the use of pathogen-derived effectors as molecular probes to identify S genes. Effectors manipulate specific host processes thereby contributing to disease. Effector targets might therefore represent S genes. Indeed, the Pseudomonas syringae effector HopZ2 was found to target MLO2, an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of the barley S gene Mlo. Unfortunately, most effector targets identified so far are not applicable as S genes due to detrimental effects they have on other traits. However, some effector targets such as Mlo are successfully used, and with the increase in numbers of effector targets being identified, the numbers of S genes that can be used in resistance breeding will rise as well.


Asunto(s)
Cruzamiento , Hongos/patogenicidad , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Inmunidad de la Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Hongos/genética , Enfermedades de las Plantas/inmunología , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 835: 61-74, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22183647

RESUMEN

Agroinfiltration is a versatile, rapid and simple technique that is widely used for transient gene expression in plants. In this chapter we focus on its use in molecular plant pathology, and especially for the expression of plant resistance (R) and fungal avirulence (Avr) (effector) genes in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Co-expression of an R gene with the corresponding Avr gene triggers host-defence responses that often culminate in a hypersensitive response (HR). This HR is visible as a necrotic sector in the infiltrated leaf area. Staining of the infiltrated leaves with trypan blue allows visual scoring of the HR. Furthermore, fusion of a fluorescent tag to the recombinant protein facilitates determination of its sub-cellular localization by confocal microscopy. The matching gene pair I-2 and Avr2, respectively from tomato and the fungal root-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is presented as a typical example.


Asunto(s)
Agrobacterium/fisiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , /microbiología , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Western Blotting/métodos , Muerte Celular , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Proteínas de Plantas/análisis , Proteínas Recombinantes/análisis , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Azul de Tripano/análisis
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...