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1.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 390-395, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210566

RESUMEN

Twisted heterostructures of two-dimensional crystals offer almost unlimited scope for the design of new metamaterials. Here we demonstrate a room temperature ferroelectric semiconductor that is assembled using mono- or few-layer MoS2. These van der Waals heterostructures feature broken inversion symmetry, which, together with the asymmetry of atomic arrangement at the interface of two 2D crystals, enables ferroelectric domains with alternating out-of-plane polarization arranged into a twist-controlled network. The last can be moved by applying out-of-plane electrical fields, as visualized in situ using channelling contrast electron microscopy. The observed interfacial charge transfer, movement of domain walls and their bending rigidity agree well with theoretical calculations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-principle field-effect transistors, where the channel resistance exhibits a pronounced hysteresis governed by pinning of ferroelectric domain walls. Our results show a potential avenue towards room temperature electronic and optoelectronic semiconductor devices with built-in ferroelectric memory functions.

2.
Science ; 375(6579): 430-433, 2022 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084955

RESUMEN

In thermodynamic equilibrium, current in metallic systems is carried by electronic states near the Fermi energy, whereas the filled bands underneath contribute little to conduction. Here, we describe a very different regime in which carrier distribution in graphene and its superlattices is shifted so far from equilibrium that the filled bands start playing an essential role, leading to a critical-current behavior. The criticalities develop upon the velocity of electron flow reaching the Fermi velocity. Key signatures of the out-of-equilibrium state are current-voltage characteristics that resemble those of superconductors, sharp peaks in differential resistance, sign reversal of the Hall effect, and a marked anomaly caused by the Schwinger-like production of hot electron-hole plasma. The observed behavior is expected to be common to all graphene-based superlattices.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7170, 2021 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887395

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional crystals with angstrom-scale pores are widely considered as candidates for a next generation of molecular separation technologies aiming to provide extreme, exponentially large selectivity combined with high flow rates. No such pores have been demonstrated experimentally. Here we study gas transport through individual graphene pores created by low intensity exposure to low kV electrons. Helium and hydrogen permeate easily through these pores whereas larger species such as xenon and methane are practically blocked. Permeating gases experience activation barriers that increase quadratically with molecules' kinetic diameter, and the effective diameter of the created pores is estimated as ∼2 angstroms, about one missing carbon ring. Our work reveals stringent conditions for achieving the long sought-after exponential selectivity using porous two-dimensional membranes and suggests limits on their possible performance.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6392, 2021 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737289

RESUMEN

Oscillatory magnetoresistance measurements on graphene have revealed a wealth of novel physics. These phenomena are typically studied at low currents. At high currents, electrons are driven far from equilibrium with the atomic lattice vibrations so that their kinetic energy can exceed the thermal energy of the phonons. Here, we report three non-equilibrium phenomena in monolayer graphene at high currents: (i) a "Doppler-like" shift and splitting of the frequencies of the transverse acoustic (TA) phonons emitted when the electrons undergo inter-Landau level (LL) transitions; (ii) an intra-LL Mach effect with the emission of TA phonons when the electrons approach supersonic speed, and (iii) the onset of elastic inter-LL transitions at a critical carrier drift velocity, analogous to the superfluid Landau velocity. All three quantum phenomena can be unified in a single resonance equation. They offer avenues for research on out-of-equilibrium phenomena in other two-dimensional fermion systems.

5.
Nature ; 593(7860): 528-534, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040212

RESUMEN

Van der Waals heterostructures display numerous unique electronic properties. Nonlocal measurements, wherein a voltage is measured at contacts placed far away from the expected classical flow of charge carriers, have been widely used in the search for novel transport mechanisms, including dissipationless spin and valley transport1-9, topological charge-neutral currents10-12, hydrodynamic flows13 and helical edge modes14-16. Monolayer1-5,10,15-19, bilayer9,11,14,20 and few-layer21 graphene, transition-metal dichalcogenides6,7 and moiré superlattices8,10,12 have been found to display pronounced nonlocal effects. However, the origin of these effects is hotly debated3,11,17,22-24. Graphene, in particular, exhibits giant nonlocality at charge neutrality1,15-19, a striking behaviour that has attracted competing explanations. Using a superconducting quantum interference device on a tip (SQUID-on-tip) for nanoscale thermal and scanning gate imaging25, here we demonstrate that the commonly occurring charge accumulation at graphene edges23,26-31 leads to giant nonlocality, producing narrow conductive channels that support long-range currents. Unexpectedly, although the edge conductance has little effect on the current flow in zero magnetic field, it leads to field-induced decoupling between edge and bulk transport at moderate fields. The resulting giant nonlocality at charge neutrality and away from it produces exotic flow patterns that are sensitive to edge disorder, in which charges can flow against the global electric field. The observed one-dimensional edge transport is generic and nontopological and is expected to support nonlocal transport in many electronic systems, offering insight into the numerous controversies and linking them to long-range guided electronic states at system edges.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 543, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483488

RESUMEN

The rectification of electromagnetic waves to direct currents is a crucial process for energy harvesting, beyond-5G wireless communications, ultra-fast science, and observational astronomy. As the radiation frequency is raised to the sub-terahertz (THz) domain, ac-to-dc conversion by conventional electronics becomes challenging and requires alternative rectification protocols. Here, we address this challenge by tunnel field-effect transistors made of bilayer graphene (BLG). Taking advantage of BLG's electrically tunable band structure, we create a lateral tunnel junction and couple it to an antenna exposed to THz radiation. The incoming radiation is then down-converted by the tunnel junction nonlinearity, resulting in high responsivity (>4 kV/W) and low-noise (0.2 pW/[Formula: see text]) detection. We demonstrate how switching from intraband Ohmic to interband tunneling regime can raise detectors' responsivity by few orders of magnitude, in agreement with the developed theory. Our work demonstrates a potential application of tunnel transistors for THz detection and reveals BLG as a promising platform therefor.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 347, 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436620

RESUMEN

When two-dimensional crystals are brought into close proximity, their interaction results in reconstruction of electronic spectrum and crystal structure. Such reconstruction strongly depends on the twist angle between the crystals, which has received growing attention due to interesting electronic and optical properties that arise in graphene and transitional metal dichalcogenides. Here we study two insulating crystals of hexagonal boron nitride stacked at small twist angle. Using electrostatic force microscopy, we observe ferroelectric-like domains arranged in triangular superlattices with a large surface potential. The observation is attributed to interfacial elastic deformations that result in out-of-plane dipoles formed by pairs of boron and nitrogen atoms belonging to opposite interfacial surfaces. This creates a bilayer-thick ferroelectric with oppositely polarized (BN and NB) dipoles in neighbouring domains, in agreement with our modeling. These findings open up possibilities for designing van der Waals heterostructures and offer an alternative probe to study moiré-superlattice electrostatic potentials.

8.
Nature ; 588(7837): 250-253, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299189

RESUMEN

Capillary condensation of water is ubiquitous in nature and technology. It routinely occurs in granular and porous media, can strongly alter such properties as adhesion, lubrication, friction and corrosion, and is important in many processes used by microelectronics, pharmaceutical, food and other industries1-4. The century-old Kelvin equation5 is frequently used to describe condensation phenomena and has been shown to hold well for liquid menisci with diameters as small as several nanometres1-4,6-14. For even smaller capillaries that are involved in condensation under ambient humidity and so of particular practical interest, the Kelvin equation is expected to break down because the required confinement becomes comparable to the size of water molecules1-22. Here we use van der Waals assembly of two-dimensional crystals to create atomic-scale capillaries and study condensation within them. Our smallest capillaries are less than four ångströms in height and can accommodate just a monolayer of water. Surprisingly, even at this scale, we find that the macroscopic Kelvin equation using the characteristics of bulk water describes the condensation transition accurately in strongly hydrophilic (mica) capillaries and remains qualitatively valid for weakly hydrophilic (graphite) ones. We show that this agreement is fortuitous and can be attributed to elastic deformation of capillary walls23-25, which suppresses the giant oscillatory behaviour expected from the commensurability between the atomic-scale capillaries and water molecules20,21. Our work provides a basis for an improved understanding of capillary effects at the smallest scale possible, which is important in many realistic situations.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5756, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188210

RESUMEN

In quantizing magnetic fields, graphene superlattices exhibit a complex fractal spectrum often referred to as the Hofstadter butterfly. It can be viewed as a collection of Landau levels that arise from quantization of Brown-Zak minibands recurring at rational (p/q) fractions of the magnetic flux quantum per superlattice unit cell. Here we show that, in graphene-on-boron-nitride superlattices, Brown-Zak fermions can exhibit mobilities above 106 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the mean free path exceeding several micrometers. The exceptional quality of our devices allows us to show that Brown-Zak minibands are 4q times degenerate and all the degeneracies (spin, valley and mini-valley) can be lifted by exchange interactions below 1 K. We also found negative bend resistance at 1/q fractions for electrical probes placed as far as several micrometers apart. The latter observation highlights the fact that Brown-Zak fermions are Bloch quasiparticles propagating in high fields along straight trajectories, just like electrons in zero field.

10.
Nature ; 584(7820): 210-214, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788736

RESUMEN

Of the two stable forms of graphite, hexagonal and rhombohedral, the former is more common and has been studied extensively. The latter is less stable, which has so far precluded its detailed investigation, despite many theoretical predictions about the abundance of exotic interaction-induced physics1-6. Advances in van der Waals heterostructure technology7 have now allowed us to make high-quality rhombohedral graphite films up to 50 graphene layers thick and study their transport properties. Here we show that the bulk electronic states in such rhombohedral graphite are gapped8 and, at low temperatures, electron transport is dominated by surface states. Because of their proposed topological nature, the surface states are of sufficiently high quality to observe the quantum Hall effect, whereby rhombohedral graphite exhibits phase transitions between a gapless semimetallic phase and a gapped quantum spin Hall phase with giant Berry curvature. We find that an energy gap can also be opened in the surface states by breaking their inversion symmetry by applying a perpendicular electric field. Moreover, in rhombohedral graphite thinner than four nanometres, a gap is present even without an external electric field. This spontaneous gap opening shows pronounced hysteresis and other signatures characteristic of electronic phase separation, which we attribute to emergence of strongly correlated electronic surface states.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3725, 2020 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709947

RESUMEN

One of the long-sought-after goals in light manipulation is tuning of transmitted interference colours. Previous approaches toward this goal include material chirality, strain and electric-field controls. Alternatively, colour control by magnetic field offers contactless, non-invasive and energy-free advantages but has remained elusive due to feeble magneto-birefringence in conventional transparent media. Here we demonstrate an anomalously large magneto-birefringence effect in transparent suspensions of magnetic two-dimensional crystals, which arises from a combination of a large Cotton-Mouton coefficient and relatively high magnetic saturation birefringence. The effect is orders of magnitude stronger than those previously demonstrated for transparent materials. The transmitted colours of the suspension can be continuously tuned over two-wavelength cycles by moderate magnetic fields below 0.8 T. The work opens a new avenue to tune transmitted colours, and can be further extended to other systems with artificially engineered magnetic birefringence.

12.
Sci Adv ; 6(16): eaay7838, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494602

RESUMEN

Magnetic fields force ballistic electrons injected from a narrow contact to move along skipping orbits and form caustics. This leads to pronounced resistance peaks at nearby voltage probes as electrons are effectively focused inside them, a phenomenon known as magnetic focusing. This can be used not only for the demonstration of ballistic transport but also to study the electronic structure of metals. Here, we use magnetic focusing to probe narrowbands in graphene bilayers twisted at ~2°. Their minibands are found to support long-range ballistic transport limited at low temperatures by intrinsic electron-electron scattering. A voltage bias between the layers causes strong minivalley splitting and allows selective focusing for different minivalleys, which is of interest for using this degree of freedom in frequently discussed valleytronics.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3054, 2020 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528007

RESUMEN

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2339, 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393747

RESUMEN

Electron-electron interactions play a critical role in many condensed matter phenomena, and it is tempting to find a way to control them by changing the interactions' strength. One possible approach is to place a studied system in proximity of a metal, which induces additional screening and hence suppresses electron interactions. Here, using devices with atomically-thin gate dielectrics and atomically-flat metallic gates, we measure the electron-electron scattering length in graphene and report qualitative deviations from the standard behavior. The changes induced by screening become important only at gate dielectric thicknesses of a few nm, much smaller than a typical separation between electrons. Our theoretical analysis agrees well with the scattering rates extracted from measurements of electron viscosity in monolayer graphene and of umklapp electron-electron scattering in graphene superlattices. The results provide a guidance for future attempts to achieve proximity screening of many-body phenomena in two-dimensional systems.

15.
Nature ; 579(7798): 229-232, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161387

RESUMEN

Despite being only one-atom thick, defect-free graphene is considered to be completely impermeable to all gases and liquids1-10. This conclusion is based on theory3-8 and supported by experiments1,9,10 that could not detect gas permeation through micrometre-size membranes within a detection limit of 105 to 106 atoms per second. Here, using small monocrystalline containers tightly sealed with graphene, we show that defect-free graphene is impermeable with an accuracy of eight to nine orders of magnitude higher than in the previous experiments. We are capable of discerning (but did not observe) permeation of just a few helium atoms per hour, and this detection limit is also valid for all other gases tested (neon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, krypton and xenon), except for hydrogen. Hydrogen shows noticeable permeation, even though its molecule is larger than helium and should experience a higher energy barrier. This puzzling observation is attributed to a two-stage process that involves dissociation of molecular hydrogen at catalytically active graphene ripples, followed by adsorbed atoms flipping to the other side of the graphene sheet with a relatively low activation energy of about 1.0 electronvolt, a value close to that previously reported for proton transport11,12. Our work provides a key reference for the impermeability of two-dimensional materials and is important from a fundamental perspective and for their potential applications.

16.
Nano Lett ; 20(3): 1869-1875, 2020 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069058

RESUMEN

Indirect excitons (IX) in semiconductor heterostructures are bosons, which can cool below the temperature of quantum degeneracy and can be effectively controlled by voltage and light. IX quantum Bose gases and IX devices were explored in GaAs heterostructures where an IX range of existence is limited to low temperatures due to low IX binding energies. IXs in van der Waals transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures are characterized by large binding energies giving the opportunity for exploring excitonic quantum gases and for creating excitonic devices at high temperatures. TMD heterostructures also offer a new platform for studying single-exciton phenomena and few-particle complexes. In this work, we present studies of IXs in MoSe2/WSe2 heterostructures and report on two IX luminescence lines whose energy splitting and temperature dependence identify them as neutral and charged IXs. The experimentally found binding energy of the indirect charged excitons, that is, indirect trions, is close to the calculated binding energy of 28 meV for negative indirect trions in TMD heterostructures [Deilmann, T.; Thygesen, K. S. Nano Lett. 2018, 18, 1460]. We also report on the realization of IXs with a luminescence line width reaching 4 meV at low temperatures. An enhancement of IX luminescence intensity and the narrow line width are observed in localized spots.

17.
Nature ; 576(7786): E6, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772389

RESUMEN

An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

18.
Nature ; 575(7784): 628-633, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634903

RESUMEN

Topology is a powerful recent concept asserting that quantum states could be globally protected against local perturbations1,2. Dissipationless topologically protected states are therefore of major fundamental interest as well as of practical importance in metrology and quantum information technology. Although topological protection can be robust theoretically, in realistic devices it is often susceptible to various dissipative mechanisms, which are difficult to study directly because of their microscopic origins. Here we use scanning nanothermometry3 to visualize and investigate the microscopic mechanisms that undermine dissipationless transport in the quantum Hall state in graphene. Simultaneous nanoscale thermal and scanning gate microscopy shows that the dissipation is governed by crosstalk between counterpropagating pairs of downstream and upstream channels that appear at graphene boundaries as a result of edge reconstruction. Instead of local Joule heating, however, the dissipation mechanism comprises two distinct and spatially separated processes. The work-generating process that we image directly, which involves elastic tunnelling of charge carriers between the quantum channels, determines the transport properties but does not generate local heat. By contrast, the heat and entropy generation process-which we visualize independently-occurs nonlocally upon resonant inelastic scattering from single atomic defects at graphene edges, and does not affect transport. Our findings provide an insight into the mechanisms that conceal the true topological protection, and suggest routes towards engineering more robust quantum states for device applications.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4243, 2019 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534140

RESUMEN

Defect-free monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride are surprisingly permeable to thermal protons, despite being completely impenetrable to all gases. It remains untested whether small ions can permeate through the two-dimensional crystals. Here we show that mechanically exfoliated graphene and hexagonal boron nitride exhibit perfect Nernst selectivity such that only protons can permeate through, with no detectable flow of counterions. In the experiments, we use suspended monolayers that have few, if any, atomic-scale defects, as shown by gas permeation tests, and place them to separate reservoirs filled with hydrochloric acid solutions. Protons account for all the electrical current and chloride ions are blocked. This result corroborates the previous conclusion that thermal protons can pierce defect-free two-dimensional crystals. Besides the importance for theoretical developments, our results are also of interest for research on various separation technologies based on two-dimensional materials.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4008, 2019 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488842

RESUMEN

At very small twist angles of ∼0.1°, bilayer graphene exhibits a strain-accompanied lattice reconstruction that results in submicron-size triangular domains with the standard, Bernal stacking. If the interlayer bias is applied to open an energy gap inside the domain regions making them insulating, such marginally twisted bilayer graphene is expected to remain conductive due to a triangular network of chiral one-dimensional states hosted by domain boundaries. Here we study electron transport through this helical network and report giant Aharonov-Bohm oscillations that reach in amplitude up to 50% of resistivity and persist to temperatures above 100 K. At liquid helium temperatures, the network exhibits another kind of oscillations that appear as a function of carrier density and are accompanied by a sign-changing Hall effect. The latter are attributed to consecutive population of the narrow minibands formed by the network of one-dimensional states inside the gap.

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