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Mycoses ; 67(5): e13745, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767273


BACKGROUND: Data on mixed mould infection with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the prevalence of co-existent CAPA in CAPM (mixed mould infection) and whether mixed mould infection is associated with early mortality (≤7 days of diagnosis). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data collected from 25 centres across India on COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. We included only CAPM and excluded subjects with disseminated or rhino-orbital mucormycosis. We defined co-existent CAPA if a respiratory specimen showed septate hyphae on smear, histopathology or culture grew Aspergillus spp. We also compare the demography, predisposing factors, severity of COVID-19, and management of CAPM patients with and without CAPA. Using a case-control design, we assess whether mixed mould infection (primary exposure) were associated with early mortality in CAPM. RESULTS: We included 105 patients with CAPM. The prevalence of mixed mould infection was 20% (21/105). Patients with mixed mould infection experienced early mortality (9/21 [42.9%] vs. 15/84 [17.9%]; p = 0.02) and poorer survival at 6 weeks (7/21 [33.3] vs. 46/77 [59.7%]; p = 0.03) than CAPM alone. On imaging, consolidation was more commonly encountered with mixed mould infections than CAPM. Co-existent CAPA (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 19.1 [2.62-139.1]) was independently associated with early mortality in CAPM after adjusting for hypoxemia during COVID-19 and other factors. CONCLUSION: Coinfection of CAPA and CAPM was not uncommon in our CAPM patients and portends a worse prognosis. Prospective studies from different countries are required to know the impact of mixed mould infection.

COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/mortalidad , Mucormicosis/mortalidad , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Coinfección/mortalidad , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/microbiología , India/epidemiología , Adulto , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/mortalidad , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/mortalidad , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/epidemiología
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413


OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.

Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(3): 729-735, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36872667


The extended use of ethambutol beyond 2 months for treating tuberculosis has increased risk of optic neuropathy. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating optic neuropathy in extended ethambutol use since 2010 and compared the outcome with a similar systematic review (1965-2010) by Ezer et al. Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Main outcome measures were visual acuity, color vision, visual field defects, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and visual evoked potential (VEP). The JBI Critical Appraisal Checklists were used for quality assessment. Twelve studies were selected (out of 639 studies) for analysis of ethambutol optic neuropathy. Visual acuity improvement after stopping ethambutol was statistically significant. Similar improvement was not noted for other outcome measures. On comparing the results of this review with those by Ezer et al., significant improvement was noted in visual acuity, color vision, and visual field defects. Moreover, more patients reported increased optic nerve toxicity, color vision defects, and visual field defects in the present review. Hence, we conclude that the extended use of ethambutol beyond 2 months results in significant optic nerve toxicity. Further randomized controlled trials with different populations are needed to understand the magnitude of this issue.

Etambutol , Enfermedades del Nervio Óptico , Humanos , Potenciales Evocados Visuales , Nervio Óptico , Lista de Verificación , Enfermedades Raras
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2023: 4174241, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36761157


Background: Though vaccines have been reported as highly efficacious in preventing severe COVID-19 disease, there is emerging data of severe infections, albeit a small number, in vaccinated individuals. We have conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the clinical characteristics, immunological response, and disease outcomes among the vaccinated and unvaccinated patients admitted to the ICU with severe COVID-19 disease. Methods: Study Design and Participants. We conducted a retrospective observational study in COVID ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Data were collected from the month of 1 April 2021 to 31 November 2021. All adult patients admitted to the ICU having severe COVID-19 disease were included in the study. Data were collected from the medical records database which included demographics, a clinical course in the ICU, laboratory and radiological parameters, and disease outcomes. In a subset of patients, cell-mediated immunity and S1S2-neutralising antibody assessment was done. Results: A total of 419 patients with severe COVID-19 were included in the study. Of the 419 patients, 90 (21.5%) were vaccinated, and 329 (78.5%) were unvaccinated. There was a significantly higher mortality in unvaccinated severe COVID 19 patients as compared to vaccinated severe COVID patients (46.2% vs 34.4%; P < 0.0455). The neutralizing antibody titre was significantly higher in survivors as compared to nonsurvivors (2139.8, SE ± 713.3 vs 471, SE ± 154.4); P < 0.026. Conclusion: Our study suggests the association of lower neutralizing antibody levels with mortality in ICU patients admitted with COVID-19 breakthrough infections.

J Public Health (Oxf) ; 38(2): 223-8, 2016 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25755247


BACKGROUND: The incidence of aplastic anemia (AA) is common in Asia than in western countries. METHODS: In a case-control study conducted at a tertiary care hematology center in northern India, 102 patients of AA and 201 controls of other blood disorders (OBD) were included. Sociodemographic data and exposure to drugs, toxins and radiation were collected from the study population using a standard questionnaire. Socioeconomic status (SES) was classified based on a calculated standard of living (SL) score. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to delineate the factors associated with incidence of AA. RESULTS: Patients with AA were significantly younger than those in control groups (mean age 27.5 ± 12.3 years, P < 0.01). The mean SL score was significantly lower in AA group (26.76 ± 12.88, P < 0.01) than in the controls. The mean monthly family income was significantly lower in AA group than in the controls (83.3% with monthly income <8000 INR, P < 0.01). On univariate analysis, AA group with lower SL score had >3 times higher odds of having the disease (odds ratio 3.41, 95% confidence interval 1.72-6.79, P < 0.0001) compared with the controls. On multivariate analysis, young age and low SES were found to be significantly associated with AA. CONCLUSIONS: Lower SES is associated with higher incidence of AA in Indian population.

Anemia Aplásica/epidemiología , Anemia Aplásica/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven