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1.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 2021 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932644

RESUMEN

Even though jazz is a musical style that excels in improvisation and virtuosity, it is not without its share of anecdotes, drama, and downright tragedy, and the biographies of jazz musicians and their demise are fraught with ominous and dire straits. Unsurprisingly, some would develop chronic and fatal diseases. The neurological diseases that afflicted the following six composers and musicians, all of whom are considered jazz legends, are briefly discussed: Charles Mingus, diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Lester Young and Charlie Parker, both diagnosed with neurosyphilis; Thelonius Monk, who had possible frontotemporal dementia; George Gershwin, who died as a result of brain glioma; and Cole Porter, who developed phantom limb pain following an amputation. The association of lifestyles, with drug abuse, particularly alcohol and heroin, in addition to great sexual promiscuity factors contributed to the development of a series of diseases such as syphilis. In addition, we also described some fatalities such as neurodegenerative diseases and cerebral glioma.

2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1145-1148, Dec. 2021. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355694

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT André Brouillet's (1857-1914) famous group tableau 'A Clinical Lesson at La Salpêtrière' (French: Une leçon clinique à la Salpêtrière) is possibly the most celebrated painting in the history of neurology. His depiction of one of Jean-Martin Charcot's legendary "Tuesday Lessons" includes portraits of not only one of the master's most famous patients, but also of his pupils, the heirs to the founder of modern neurology. However, the painter himself has long been neglected, and even his other paintings on medical subjects are little acknowledged. The authors aim to bring attention to Brouillet's life and times, as well as the remainder of his notable works; and in giving a proper context to the famous painting, neurologists today may be able to appreciate better the early history of our field and its cultural impact.


RESUMO A famosa pintura 'Une leçon clinique à la Salpêtrière', de André Brouillet's (1857-1914), é possivelmente a representação mais célebre da história da Neurologia. Seu retrato de uma das lendárias "lições de terça-feira" dirigidas por Jean-Martin Charcot inclui ainda não apenas uma das pacientes mais famosas do mestre como também seus pupilos, os fundadores da Neurologia moderna. Entretanto, o pintor propriamente dito é ainda negligenciado, e mesmo outras pinturas suas sobre temas médicos são pouco reconhecidas. Os autores trazem à atenção a vida e época de Brouillet, bem como o restante de seus outros trabalhos notáveis; dando contexto apropriado à pintura, neurologistas atuais podem compreender melhor a própria história de nossa especialidade e seu impacto cultural.

3.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1145-1148, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614066

RESUMEN

André Brouillet's (1857-1914) famous group tableau 'A Clinical Lesson at La Salpêtrière' (French: Une leçon clinique à la Salpêtrière) is possibly the most celebrated painting in the history of neurology. His depiction of one of Jean-Martin Charcot's legendary "Tuesday Lessons" includes portraits of not only one of the master's most famous patients, but also of his pupils, the heirs to the founder of modern neurology. However, the painter himself has long been neglected, and even his other paintings on medical subjects are little acknowledged. The authors aim to bring attention to Brouillet's life and times, as well as the remainder of his notable works; and in giving a proper context to the famous painting, neurologists today may be able to appreciate better the early history of our field and its cultural impact.


Asunto(s)
Neurología , Pinturas , Francia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos
6.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(9): 593-595, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965307

RESUMEN

Aloysio de Castro (1881-1959) is now remembered as one of Brazil's greatest physicians and is considered the father of Brazilian neurological semiology. However, his interests went far beyond the realm of Medicine, and he became one of the most illustrious intellectuals of his time. In 1927, he gave a speech at the São Paulo Society of Artistic Culture on Frédéric Chopin and embarked on a journey across the composer's life and times, discussing the medical issues involving his death, as well as his lovers, his compositions, and the spiritual aspects of musical interpretation. Thus, Castro reinforced the bonds of music and Medicine and provided lessons on Musicology that may very well be as suited to a hospital as they are to a concert hall.


Asunto(s)
Drama , Personajes , Música , Belleza , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(9): 593-595, Sept. 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131757

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Aloysio de Castro (1881-1959) is now remembered as one of Brazil's greatest physicians and is considered the father of Brazilian neurological semiology. However, his interests went far beyond the realm of Medicine, and he became one of the most illustrious intellectuals of his time. In 1927, he gave a speech at the São Paulo Society of Artistic Culture on Frédéric Chopin and embarked on a journey across the composer's life and times, discussing the medical issues involving his death, as well as his lovers, his compositions, and the spiritual aspects of musical interpretation. Thus, Castro reinforced the bonds of music and Medicine and provided lessons on Musicology that may very well be as suited to a hospital as they are to a concert hall.


RESUMO Aloysio de Castro (1881-1959) é hoje lembrado como um dos maiores médicos do Brasil, bem como o pai da semiologia neurológica brasileira. Entretanto, seus interesses iam muito além dos domínios da Medicina, e ele se tornou um dos mais ilustres intelectuais de sua era. Em 1927, Castro deu uma palestra na Sociedade de Cultura Artística de São Paulo sobre Frédéric Chopin, e embarcou em uma jornada pela vida e época do compositor, discutindo o aspecto médico de sua morte, bem como suas amantes, composições e aspectos espirituais da interpretação musical. Assim, Castro reforçou os laços entre música e Medicina e ensinou lições de Musicologia que podem muito bem ser tão aplicadas à Medicina quanto a uma sala de concertos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Drama , Personajes , Música , Belleza , Brasil
8.
Eur Neurol ; 83(2): 228-231, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434181

RESUMEN

Few authors in the Western literature have acquired such a monumental reputation as Thomas Mann and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; although with different backgrounds and aesthetic peculiarities, their writings converge thematically in their frequent relationship with disease. From Dostoyevsky's struggle with epilepsy to Mann's descriptions of tuberculosis and cholera, many are the examples found in their body of work describing medical afflictions. One noteworthy similarity in their works is the presence of hallucinations with Mephistopheles-like devilish entities, possibly caused by neurological diseases: in Mann's case, concerning the main character of Doctor Faustus, caused by neurosyphilis, while for Dostoyevsky, concerning one of the titular Brothers Karamazov, by delirium tremens. In both cases, the authors leave room for ambiguity, with the characters themselves casting doubts on whether their experiences were indeed caused by their disease or by an actual supernatural being. In this, we may find an interesting intersection between neurology and the literature.


Asunto(s)
Alucinaciones , Medicina en la Literatura , Delirio por Abstinencia Alcohólica/complicaciones , Alucinaciones/etiología , Humanos , Neurosífilis/complicaciones
9.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 169-175, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348415

RESUMEN

The chess game comprises different domains of cognitive function, demands great concentration and attention and is present in many cultures as an instrument of literacy, learning and entertainment. Over the years, many effects of the game on the brain have been studied. Seen that, we reviewed the current literature to analyze the influence of chess on cognitive performance, decision-making process, linking to historical neurological and psychiatric disorders as we describe different diseases related to renowned chess players throughout history, discussing the influences of chess on the brain and behavior.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Neurología , Psiquiatría , Encéfalo , Humanos , Recreación
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 169-175, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098070

RESUMEN

Abstract The chess game comprises different domains of cognitive function, demands great concentration and attention and is present in many cultures as an instrument of literacy, learning and entertainment. Over the years, many effects of the game on the brain have been studied. Seen that, we reviewed the current literature to analyze the influence of chess on cognitive performance, decision-making process, linking to historical neurological and psychiatric disorders as we describe different diseases related to renowned chess players throughout history, discussing the influences of chess on the brain and behavior.


Resumo O jogo de xadrez compreende diferentes domínios da função cognitiva, exige grande concentração e atenção e está presente em muitas culturas como instrumento de alfabetização, aprendizado e entretenimento. Ao longo dos anos, muitos efeitos do jogo no cérebro foram estudados. Dessa forma, revisamos a literatura atual para analisar a influência do xadrez no desempenho cognitivo, no processo de tomada de decisão, vinculando-a a distúrbios neurológicos e psiquiátricos históricos ao descrevermos diferentes doenças relacionadas a renomados jogadores de xadrez ao longo da história, discutindo as influências do xadrez no cérebro e no comportamento.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Psiquiatría , Cognición/fisiología , Neurología , Recreación , Encéfalo
11.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 746-748, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664351

RESUMEN

The illustrious Colombian Professor Salomón Hakim provided the annals of neurology with one of the most brilliant and original bodies of research on record, developing the concept of normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as proving that ventricular shunting is an effective treatment. Thus, Professor Hakim proved that some of the dementias, at that time considered senile, could be successfully treated. Here the authors present an historical review of his main contributions, which continue to influence the study of dementia to this day.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocéfalo Normotenso/historia , Neurología/historia , Colombia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Derivación Ventriculoperitoneal/historia
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 746-748, Oct. 2019. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038727

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT The illustrious Colombian Professor Salomón Hakim provided the annals of neurology with one of the most brilliant and original bodies of research on record, developing the concept of normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as proving that ventricular shunting is an effective treatment. Thus, Professor Hakim proved that some of the dementias, at that time considered senile, could be successfully treated. Here the authors present an historical review of his main contributions, which continue to influence the study of dementia to this day.


RESUMO O ilustre professor colombiano Salomón Hakim deixou como legado nos anais da neurologia uma das mais brilhantes e originais séries de pesquisa da história, desenvolvendo o conceito de hidrocefalia de pressão normal, bem como introduzindo a derivação ventricular como tratamento efetivo. Assim, Hakim provou que algumas das demências até então consideradas senis tinham possibilidade de tratamento bem-sucedido. Aqui os autores apresentarão uma revisão histórica de suas maiores contribuições, que continuam a influenciar o estudo de demências até os nossos dias.


Asunto(s)
Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Hidrocéfalo Normotenso/historia , Neurología/historia , Derivación Ventriculoperitoneal/historia , Colombia
13.
Eur Neurol ; 81(5-6): 319-322, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536978

RESUMEN

David Marsden was one of the most renowned neuroscientists of the twentieth century. His scientific contributions in the specialty of movement disorders are recognized worldwide, particularly in the area of Parkinson's disease and also in hyperkinesias, such as dystonia and myoclonus.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Movimiento/historia , Neurología/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
14.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(2): 84-90, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810591

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Burnout syndrome is a work-related psychological response, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome in neurologists in the State of Paraná, Brazil, dividing them into stroke neurologists and non-stroke neurologists. METHODS: We performed a crosssectional observational study, with a quantitative approach, based on the online Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 74 neurologists were evaluated, 44.6% of whom had burnout syndrome, predominantly among females and stroke neurologists. Both the stroke neurologist and non-stroke neurologist groups had medium degrees of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; however, while stroke neurologists had high professional accomplishment, non-stroke neurologists had mean-to-low scores of professional accomplishment. There was a proportional relationship between age and emotional exhaustion. Female neurologists also reported lower professional accomplishment levels. CONCLUSION: Burnout is prevalent among the neurologists of Paraná, corroborating the results previously reported in other studies. There seems to be no significant difference between those neurologists who work in the emergency stroke care setting compared with those who don't.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Neurólogos/psicología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Despersonalización/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción Personal , Prevalencia , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(2): 84-90, Feb. 2019. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-983881

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Background: Burnout syndrome is a work-related psychological response, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome in neurologists in the State of Paraná, Brazil, dividing them into stroke neurologists and non-stroke neurologists. Methods: We performed a crosssectional observational study, with a quantitative approach, based on the online Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 74 neurologists were evaluated, 44.6% of whom had burnout syndrome, predominantly among females and stroke neurologists. Both the stroke neurologist and non-stroke neurologist groups had medium degrees of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; however, while stroke neurologists had high professional accomplishment, non-stroke neurologists had mean-to-low scores of professional accomplishment. There was a proportional relationship between age and emotional exhaustion. Female neurologists also reported lower professional accomplishment levels. Conclusion: Burnout is prevalent among the neurologists of Paraná, corroborating the results previously reported in other studies. There seems to be no significant difference between those neurologists who work in the emergency stroke care setting compared with those who don't.


RESUMO Introdução: A síndrome de burnout é uma resposta psicológica relacionada à profissão, caracterizada por exaustão emocional, despersonalização e redução da realização pessoal. Objetivos: Objetivamos avaliar a prevalência da síndrome de burnout em neurologistas do Paraná, distribuindo a atuação entre neurologistas vasculares e não-vasculares. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado a partir do questionário online autoaplicável Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey. Resultados: 74 neurologistas foram avaliados, desses 44.6% apresentaram critérios para síndrome de burnout, predominando entre mulheres e stroke neurologists. Ambos os grupos apresentaram médios graus de exaustão emocional e despersonalização. Enquanto os neurologistas vasculares apresentaram alto grau de realização pessoal, os não-vasculares apresentaram médio grau. Houve relação proporcional entre idade e exaustão emocional. Neurologistas do gênero feminino mostraram menores níveis de realização pessoal. Conclusão: A síndrome de burnout é frequente nos neurologistas do Paraná, compatível com a literatura que sugere a especialidade como uma das mais susceptíveis. Não obtivemos contudo, diferenças entre os neurologistas que lidam ou não com a emergência vascular.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Neurólogos/psicología , Satisfacción Personal , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Brasil/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Distribución por Edad , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Medición de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Despersonalización/epidemiología , Satisfacción en el Trabajo
16.
Cerebellum ; 18(2): 196-202, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264264

RESUMEN

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is characterized by a progressive cerebellar syndrome, and additionally saccadic slowing, cognitive dysfunction, and sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of abnormal findings in sleep recordings of patients with SCA2. Seventeen patients with genetically confirmed SCA2 from the Movement Disorders Outpatient group of the Hospital de Clínicas da UFPR were evaluated with a structured medical interview and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Polysomnographic recordings were performed and sleep stages were scored according to standard criteria. There were 10 male subjects and 7 females, aged 24-66 years (mean 47.44). A sex- and age-matched control group of healthy subjects was used for comparison. There was a reduction of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in 12 (70.58%), increased REM latency in 9 (52.94%), increased obstructive sleep apnea-index in 14 (82.35%), absent REM density (REM density was calculated as the total number of 3-s miniepochs of REM sleep with at least 1 REM per minute) in 13 (76.47%), and markedly reduced REM density in 4 (23.52%). There was an indirect correlation according to the SARA scale and the REM density decrease (r = - 0.6; P = < 0.001); and with a disease progression correlating with a reduction in the REM density (r = - 0.52, P = 0.03). In SCA2, changes occur mainly REM sleep. The absence/decrease of REM sleep density, even in oligosymptomatic patients, and the correlation of this finding with disease time and with the SARA scale were the main findings of the study.


Asunto(s)
Polisomnografía , Sueño/fisiología , Ataxias Espinocerebelosas/diagnóstico , Ataxias Espinocerebelosas/fisiopatología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ataxias Espinocerebelosas/genética , Expansión de Repetición de Trinucleótido , Adulto Joven
17.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 76(11): 791-794, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570024

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Throughout history, neurosyphilis has victimized many people, including classical composers, with a wide range of clinical presentations. Six articles with descriptions of composers with possible neurosyphilis were reviewed. METHODS: Neurosyphilis is a possible diagnosis for composers like Beethoven, whose progressive hearing loss influenced his career, culminating in complete deafness. In his autopsy, cochlear nerve atrophy and cochlear inflammation were described. Donizetti developed behavioral changes, as well as headaches, general paresis and seizures. RESULTS: Both Schumann and Wolf suffered from personality changes, persecutory delusions and general paresis. Joplin and Delius also had symptoms attributed to syphilis. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of Smetana, who developed dementia, deafness and auditory hallucinations with rapid progression. His tinnitus was musically represented in his first String Quartet. CONCLUSION: Neurosyphilis victimized several notorious composers. It can be argued that neurosyphilis was a major source of inspiration as well, being responsible for the genesis of musical masterpieces.


Asunto(s)
Música/historia , Neurosífilis/historia , Europa (Continente) , Personajes , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(11): 791-794, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-973935

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Throughout history, neurosyphilis has victimized many people, including classical composers, with a wide range of clinical presentations. Methods: Six articles with descriptions of composers with possible neurosyphilis were reviewed. Results: Neurosyphilis is a possible diagnosis for composers like Beethoven, whose progressive hearing loss influenced his career, culminating in complete deafness. In his autopsy, cochlear nerve atrophy and cochlear inflammation were described. Donizetti developed behavioral changes, as well as headaches, general paresis and seizures. Both Schumann and Wolf suffered from personality changes, persecutory delusions and general paresis. Joplin and Delius also had symptoms attributed to syphilis. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of Smetana, who developed dementia, deafness and auditory hallucinations with rapid progression. His tinnitus was musically represented in his first String Quartet. Conclusion: Neurosyphilis victimized several notorious composers. It can be argued that neurosyphilis was a major source of inspiration as well, being responsible for the genesis of musical masterpieces.


RESUMO Através da história, a neurossífilis vitimou milhares de pessoas, incluindo compositores clássicos, com uma grande gama de manifestações. Métodos: Seis artigos com descrições de compositores com possível neurossífilis foram revisados. Resultados: Neurossífilis é um diagnóstico possível para compositores como Beethoven, cuja perda auditiva progressiva influenciou sua carreira, culminando com surdez completa. Em sua autópsia foram descritas inflamação e atrofia dos nervos cocleares. Donizetti desenvolveu alterações comportamentais, bem como cefaleias, paresia e convulsões. Tanto Schumann quanto Wolf sofreram com alterações comportamentais, delírios persecutórios e paresia. Joplin e Delius também tiveram sintomas relacionados a sífilis. Achados de autópsia confirmaram o diagnóstico de Smetana, que desenvolveu demência, surdez e alucinações auditivas rapidamente progressivas. Seu tinito foi musicalmente representados em seu Quarteto de Cordas No. 1. Conclusão: Neurossífilis vitimou diversos compositores de destaque. Pode-se argumentar que a doença chegou a ser grande fonte de inspiração e mesmo responsável pela gênese de diversas obras-primas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Música/historia , Neurosífilis/historia , Estados Unidos , Europa (Continente) , Personajes
19.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 76(7): 490-493, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066801

RESUMEN

Professor Charcot had several pupils in his famous neurological service at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, France. Among them, Édouard Brissaud was one of Charcot's favorite pupils, temporarily becoming his successor after Charcot's death. Brissaud's neurological contributions were significant, including the description of hemifacial spasm, "geste antagoniste" in dystonia, pseudobulbar affect, post-traumatic stress disorder, the Brissaud-Sicard syndrome, and Brissaud's sign. Additionally, Brissaud was the first to suggest that Parkinson's disease pathology could be related to the substantia nigra.


Asunto(s)
Neurología/historia , Francia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(7): 490-493, July 2018. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-950569

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Professor Charcot had several pupils in his famous neurological service at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, France. Among them, Édouard Brissaud was one of Charcot's favorite pupils, temporarily becoming his successor after Charcot's death. Brissaud's neurological contributions were significant, including the description of hemifacial spasm, "geste antagoniste" in dystonia, pseudobulbar affect, post-traumatic stress disorder, the Brissaud-Sicard syndrome, and Brissaud's sign. Additionally, Brissaud was the first to suggest that Parkinson's disease pathology could be related to the substantia nigra.


RESUMO Professor Charcot teve vários discípulos em seu famoso serviço de neurologia no hospital Salpêtrière, em Paris, França. Dentre eles, Édouard Brissaud foi um dos pupilos favoritos de Charcot. Após a morte de Charcot, em 1893, Brissaud foi o seu sucessor temporário. Suas contribuições neurológicas foram muito expressivas, incluindo a descrição do espasmo hemifacial, do "geste antagoniste", da paralisia pseudobulbar, do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático, a síndrome de Brissaud-Sicard, e também do sinal de Brissaud. Além disso, Brissaud, sugeriu pela primeira vez no mundo, que a patologia da doença de Parkinson poderia estar relacionada à substância negra.


Asunto(s)
Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Neurología/historia , Francia
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