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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 135: 105389, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812899

RESUMEN

Culpability analysis was conducted on 5000 drivers injured as a result of a vehicular collision and in whom comprehensive toxicology testing in blood was conducted. The sample included 1000 drivers for each of 5 years from approximately 5000-6000 drivers injured and taken to hospital in the State of Victoria. Logistic regression was used to investigate differences in the odds of culpability associated with alcohol and drug use and other selected crash attributes using the drug-free driver as the reference group. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained from multivariable logistic regression models in which other potentially explanatory driver and crash attributes were included. Drivers with alcohol present showed large increases in the odds of culpability similar to that seen in other studies investigating associations between blood alcohol concentration and crash risk. Methylamphetamine also showed a large increase in the odds of culpability (OR 19) compared to the reference group at both below and above 0.1 mg/L, whereas those drivers with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present showed only modest increase in odds when all concentrations were assessed (OR 1.9, 95 %CI 1.2-3.1). Benzodiazepines in drivers also gave an increase in odds (3.2, 95 %CI 1.6-6.1), but not other medicinal drugs such as antidepressants, antipsychotics and opioids. Drivers that had combinations of impairing drugs generally gave a large increase in odds, particularly combinations of alcohol with THC or benzodiazepines, and those drivers using both THC and methamphetamine.

2.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(10): 1480-1485, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479592

RESUMEN

The structural diversity of synthetic cannabinoids makes it a challenging task to have a comprehensive screening method for this class of drugs. The difficulty is increased by the fact that some synthetic cannabinoids undergo thermal decomposition during common routes of administration, such as smoking or vaping. CUMYL-PEGACLONE is a relatively new synthetic cannabinoid which has a structural variant from most other synthetic cannabinoids: a γ-carbolinone core. To investigate its thermal stability, CUMYL-PEGACLONE was heated in an oven at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350o C, and a major thermal degradation product, N-pentyl-γ-carbolinone, was subsequently identified. Unlike some other synthetic cannabinoids, the thermal degradation product of CUMYL-PEGACLONE is not one of its known metabolites, nor were any known metabolites detected during the thermal stability experiments. The degradation product was formed in significant amounts at temperatures above 250°C, and has been detected (along with CUMYL-PEGACLONE) in case samples, including post-mortem blood and urine, and residue found at a scene.

3.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(10): 1542-1555, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407511

RESUMEN

The effectiveness of decontamination procedures used for the removal of external drug contamination in forensic hair analysis is an ongoing debate. This investigation evaluated wash methods complying with Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) guidelines and their capacity to remove cocaine (COC) and methamphetamine (MA) from artificially contaminated hair. The most effective decontamination method was determined using a systematic approach, involving (1) an initial washing solvent screen, (2) optimization of wash duration, (3) comparison of sequential wash methods, and (4) reanalysis of clinical hair samples. For analysis, hair was subjected to micro-pulverized methanolic extraction prior to quantitation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Methanol (MeOH) and 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6) were the most effective organic and aqueous solvents, respectively, removing 28%-38% of COC and 16%-31% of MA. Wash durations longer than 30-60 minutes did not remove additional amounts, and a more efficient sequential wash method was subsequently developed. Despite this, the interpretation of reportable results relative to the SoHT cut-off levels was unchanged for most clinical hair samples reanalyzed after washing by agitation for 30 minutes with MeOH. These findings highlight the inability of decontamination solvents to completely remove external COC and MA contamination from hair, including wash methods adhering to SoHT guidelines.

4.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 15(3): 382-391, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359307

RESUMEN

In order to better understand risk factors associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), this study examined complainant-specific and contextual factors, as well as the toxicological profile of DFSA in Victoria, Australia. Clinical files and toxicological analysis results collected by the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) for all cases of alleged DFSA in Victoria that occurred between 1st January 2011 - 31st December 2013 were reviewed. Two hundred and four cases of alleged DFSA were identified; complainants were predominately female (93%), and their median age was 26 years (range = 18-54). Self-reported premorbid depression (21.1%) and drug and alcohol abuse (9.8%) were four and two times higher than 12-month prevalence rates in Australia, respectively. All assailants were male, half were known to the complainant and half of alleged assaults occurred in private residences. Most (93.6%) complainants reported voluntary consumption of psychoactive substances prior to the alleged DFSA. Alcohol was the most commonly self-reported substance consumed (n = 164; 64%) and concomitant use of alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs was also commonly self-reported (24%). There were 14 cases that produced a positive toxicology result where the complainant did not report voluntary consumption, which suggests these drugs may have been used covertly to facilitate sexual assault. The results of this study indicate that Females in their mid-20's who exhibit higher rates of mental health concerns represent a sub-group of the Australian population with increased vulnerability to DFSA, which typically occurs in a familiar setting in the context of voluntary alcohol and other substance use.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mal Uso de Medicamentos de Venta con Receta/estadística & datos numéricos , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Adulto Joven
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 298: 298-306, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925348

RESUMEN

Synthetic cannabinoids have caused a large number of emergency presentations to hospitals for adverse cardiovascular events including numerous deaths, particularly for the more potent analogs acting on the CB1 receptor. While smoked cannabis use is often associated with significant changes in heart rate and cardiac output, amongst other physiological changes, it has been rarely considered in the forensic literature as a significant contributory or causal factor in sudden unexpected death. A review of case reports of admissions to hospitals for cardiovascular events was undertaken together with a review of epidemiological studies, and case reports of sudden death attributed, at least in part, to use of this drug. These publications show that use of cannabis is not without its risks of occasional serious medical emergencies and sudden death, with reports of at least 35 persons presenting with significant cardiovascular emergencies who had recently smoked a cannabis preparation. At least 13 deaths from a cardiovascular mechanism have been reported from use of this drug which is very likely to be an under-estimate of the true incidence of its contribution to sudden death. In addition, many cases of stroke and vascular arteritis have also been reported with the latter often involving a limb amputation. While it is a drug with widespread usage among the community with relatively few deaths when faced with a circumstance of very recent use (within a few hours), a positive blood concentration of THC and a possible cardiac-related or cerebrovascular cause of death this drug should be considered, at least, a contributory cause of death in cases of sudden or unexpected death.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis/efectos adversos , Fumar Marihuana/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/inducido químicamente , Dronabinol/farmacología , Toxicología Forense , Humanos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/inducido químicamente , Trombosis/inducido químicamente
6.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(5): 325-330, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451007

RESUMEN

AIM: Take-home naloxone (THN) programs have been implemented in order to reduce the number of heroin-overdose deaths. Because of recent legislative changes in Australia, there is a provision for a greater distribution of naloxone in the community, however, the potential impact of these changes for reduced heroin mortality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the entire cohort of fatal heroin overdose cases and assess whether there was an opportunity for bystander intervention had naloxone been available at the location and time of each of the fatal overdose events to potentially avert the fatal outcome in these cases. METHODS: The circumstances related to the fatal overdose event for the cohort of heroin-overdose deaths in the state of Victoria, Australia between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013 were investigated. Coronial data were investigated for all cases and data linkage was performed to additionally investigate the Emergency Medical Services information about the circumstances of the fatal heroin overdose event for each of the decedents. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: There were 235 fatal heroin overdose cases identified over the study period. Data revealed that the majority of fatal heroin overdose cases occurred at a private residence (n = 186, 79%) and where the decedent was also alone at the time of the fatal overdose event (n = 192, 83%). There were only 38 cases (17%) where the decedent was with someone else or there was a witness to the overdose event, and in half of these cases the witness was significantly impaired, incapacitated or asleep at the time of the fatal heroin overdose. There were 19 fatal heroin overdose cases (8%) identified where there was the potential for appropriate and timely intervention by a bystander or witness. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that THN introduction alone could have led to a very modest reduction in the number of fatal heroin overdose cases over the study period. A lack of supervision or a witness to provide meaningful and timely intervention was evident in most of the fatal heroin overdose cases.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1872: 23-39, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350276

RESUMEN

An overview of the detection of benzodiazepines and their respective metabolites and target analytes in urine by LC-MS/MS is described. This overview shows substantial differences in the approach to detection using this technique including optional use of ß-glucuronidase to hydrolyze conjugates present in urine. There are also significant variations in the extraction method employed from the use of direct injection, liquid-liquid extraction to solid-phase extraction options, with little apparent difference in limits of detection. Chromatography was largely based on the use of C18-bonded columns; however both C8- and phenyl-bonded columns were used to affect separation. Modern-day tandem mass spectrometers are capable of exceptional sensitivity enabling detection of sub-nanogram per milliliter amounts in urine, which provide for longer detection times in the urine of suspected drug-facilitated assaults. A method employed in the laboratory of the authors is provided by way of an example for readers wishing to establish a method in their own laboratory.


Asunto(s)
Benzodiazepinas/farmacocinética , Benzodiazepinas/orina , Cromatografía Liquida , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Benzodiazepinas/aislamiento & purificación , Extracción Líquido-Líquido , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos
8.
Addiction ; 114(3): 504-512, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397976

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate the extent of variability in the reporting of heroin-related deaths in Victoria, Australia. Additionally, to identify opportunities to improve the accuracy and consistency of heroin-related death reporting by examining variability in the attribution, death certification, classification and coding of heroin-related death cases. METHODS: Heroin-related deaths in Victoria, Australia during a 2-year period (2012-13) were identified using the National Coronial Information System (NCIS) and used as the 'gold standard' measure in this study. Heroin-related death data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) and Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) were then compared. Differences in the number of deaths reported as well as the classification and coding assigned to the identified heroin-related death cases were investigated by cross-referencing these data sets and examining the assigned ICD-10 codes. RESULTS: A total of 243 heroin-related deaths were identified through the NCIS compared with 165 heroin-related deaths reported by the AIHW and assigned the heroin-specific ICD-10 code of T40.1. Forty per cent of all the missed heroin-related death cases resulted from either the attribution of the death to morphine toxicity or with non-specific drug toxicity certification; 30% occurred where the cases had been attributed to heroin but there were irregularities in death certification. Additional missed heroin-related death cases occurred as a result of late initial registration of these deaths to the Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, and where these cases were then not assessed by the ABS for classification and coding purposes. CONCLUSIONS: In Victoria, Australia, in 2012 and 2013, the overall number of heroin-related deaths was under-reported by 32% compared with the number of deaths currently identified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and reported by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 290: 219-226, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077813

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Heroin use is associated with a disproportionately high level of morbidity and mortality with most deaths attributable to drug overdose. Aggregate heroin purity data has been used to examine the relationship between overdose and variability in street-level heroin, however heroin purity data alone may not be the most appropriate nor a sensitive enough measurement tool for this assessment. The aim of this study was to measure the variability in effective dose of street-level heroin seizures, accounting for variation in both purity and mass, and determine the proportion of samples with higher than expected effective dose that would not be detected using a purity-only measure. METHODS: Data on Victorian heroin seizures ≤150mg in mass made between 01/01/2012 and 31/12/2013 were obtained from the Victoria Police Forensic Services Department. The effective dose of heroin in each sample was determined by multiplying the mass and purity variables. Effective dose outlier samples were considered as those containing either greater than 1.5-2 times or >2 times the median effective dose of heroin for the sample data. RESULTS: The 983 street-level heroin samples of ≤150mg had a median mass of 92mg (IQR of 43mg), a median purity of 13% (range 3.6%-80.9%) and a median effective dose of 12.0mg of heroin (IQR 6.6mg; range 0.4mg-111mg). Approximately one in 13 samples (8%) and one in 17 samples (6%) contained between 1.5-2 times and >2 times the median effective dose of heroin respectively. CONCLUSION: The effective dose of heroin is a more appropriate measure than purity to identify outlier samples that containing larger than expected doses of heroin compared to typical doses that may be expected by users. Together with other identified risk factors, fluctuation in the effective dose of heroin contained in street-level samples may contribute to the potential for overdose.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Medicamentos , Heroína/química , /química , Sobredosis de Droga , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Dependencia de Heroína , Humanos , Modelos Lineales
10.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 14(3): 349-357, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971694

RESUMEN

Hair is a mainstream specimen used in forensic toxicology to determine drug use and exposure. However, the interpretation of an analytical hair result can be complicated by the presence of external drug contamination. Decontamination procedures are included in hair analysis methods to remove external contamination, but the capacity of these washes to completely remove contamination for all drugs is controversial. It is evident that there is no consensus on the most effective decontamination procedure, nor can decontamination procedures consistently remove external drug contamination to less than reportable cut-offs for all analytes. ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol deposited from cannabis smoke is mostly removed by organic solvents, whereas ionizable drugs are more effectively removed by an aqueous wash. Organizations such as the Society of Hair Testing recommend a hair decontamination procedure should include both an organic and aqueous washing step, which is in accordance with the reviewed literature. Studies involving a systematic evaluation of various solvents have shown that the most effective organic solvent was methanol and the most effective aqueous solvent contained sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent. If future systematic studies can demonstrate similar findings, a consensus on the most effective decontamination procedure for forensic hair analysis may be established.


Asunto(s)
Descontaminación/métodos , Toxicología Forense/métodos , Cabello/química , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Contaminación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Narcóticos/análisis , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/análisis , Humo , Manejo de Especímenes
11.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 56(11): 1135-1142, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873588

RESUMEN

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the management of non-fatal heroin overdose in the out-of-hospital environment; irrespective of whether or not naloxone had been administered. Heroin toxicity-related deaths as well as heroin intoxication-related traumatic deaths following patient-initiated refusal of transport were investigated. Methods: Heroin-related deaths in the state of Victoria, Australia between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013 were investigated and data linkage to pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services performed, in order to identify whether the death was related to the last episode of care by paramedics. The number of non-fatal heroin overdose events over the study period were also examined. Results and discussion: There were a total of 3921 heroin-related attendances by paramedics during the study period, including 2455 cases that involved treatment but where the patient was not transported to hospital. There were also 243 heroin-related deaths identified over the study period and 93% (n = 225) of those cases were matched with Ambulance Victoria electronic patient care records. Data linkage revealed 31 heroin-related deaths where there had been a recent presentation with a non-fatal heroin overdose to paramedics; however, none of these deaths were related to that episode of care, including for 11 individuals that were treated on scene by paramedics but not transported to the hospital. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the treatment of uncomplicated heroin overdose in the out-of-hospital environment was safe in terms of mortality, irrespective of whether or not naloxone had been administered. In all of the non-fatal heroin toxicity cases attended by paramedics, whether or not transported to hospital, death occurred as a result of a subsequent and unrelated heroin overdose.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria/normas , Sobredosis de Droga/tratamiento farmacológico , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/normas , Heroína/envenenamiento , Naloxona/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas de Narcóticos/uso terapéutico , Seguridad del Paciente/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Victoria , Adulto Joven
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 187: 95-99, 2018 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655032

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quetiapine is misused due to its anxiolytic and hedonic effects and has been associated with deliberate self-harm. This study analyzed quetiapine-related calls to the Victorian Poisons Information Centre (VPIC), coronial data from Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) and prescribed data from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) to determine current trends in overdose, misuse and mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of multiple databases. Calls to VPIC and coronial data from the VIFM were reviewed from 2006 to 2016. PBS prescription data from 2000 to 2015 was obtained from the Australian Statistics on Medicines website. RESULTS: VPIC data indicated a 6-fold increase in the number of quetiapine-related calls over the 11-year period of which most were overdose-related (77%). Overdose and misuse calls increased by 6-fold and 6.6-fold, respectively. Coronial data also indicated a rise in quetiapine-related harm; a 7.4-fold increase in quetiapine-related deaths was recorded for the same period. Similarly, Australian PBS data showed that quetiapine prescriptions increased 285-fold since 2000. There was a significant positive correlation between the increase in prescribing and overdose (r = 0.75, p < 0.001), and prescribing and mortality (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed an increasing trend of misuse, non-fatal and fatal overdoses in Victoria over the last decade. The increasing rates of prescriptions in Australia and thus increased quetiapine availability are likely to have contributed to increased poisoning and mortality. Further research is warranted to explore the reasons behind increased prescribing, including off-label use.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Sobredosis de Droga/mortalidad , Uso Excesivo de Medicamentos Recetados/mortalidad , Fumarato de Quetiapina/efectos adversos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Victoria/epidemiología
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 281: 18-28, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101904

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Accurate attribution of heroin-related deaths, as well as the differentiation from other opioid analgesic-related deaths, is essential from a public health perspective. Heroin-related deaths involve a number of complexities where heroin-specific or non-specific metabolites and indicators (6-acetylmorphine [6-AM], morphine, and codeine) may or may not be detected. The aims of this study were therefore to develop a model for improved consistency in the attribution of heroin-related deaths and to determine areas of variation in the current decision-making processes. METHODS: A model was developed using different toxicological indicators of heroin use (6-AM, morphine to codeine ratio (M:C) or morphine alone) along with investigative evidence of heroin use (circumstances, scene and clinical findings) which were used to assign a weighted score. The combined scores for the toxicological and investigative evidence were used to determine the relative strength of association for the death being attributable to heroin according to three categories: suspected; likely; or strong. An expert panel was convened to validate the model and a series of test cases were provided to a cohort of forensic toxicologists and pathologists in order to identify sources of variation in decision-making within this group. The model was also evaluated for sensitivity and specificity by reviewing potential heroin-related cases and examining the evidence associated with the attribution of these cases to heroin or not. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Across all potential heroin-related death cases, the use of this model enabled a greater level of consistency in the attribution of death to heroin, especially in cases where 6-AM was not detected. The largest amount of variation in the attribution of a death to heroin was observed with potential intoxication-related deaths and in toxicity cases where a M:C ratio only was reported, even more than when no toxicological evidence was available. The reviewed cases highlighted the same variation in the attribution of a death to heroin, including a large number of cases that were attributed to morphine where 6-AM was not detected. CONCLUSION: This model provides a useful tool for improved accuracy and consistency in the differentiation, attribution and reporting of heroin-related deaths. Previously challenging cases where death occurred after a significant period of time and either no 6-AM was detected or no samples were taken, are able to be captured using this model.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Dependencia de Heroína/diagnóstico , Causas de Muerte , Codeína/análisis , Toxicología Forense , Humanos , Morfina/análisis , Derivados de la Morfina/análisis , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 279: 192-202, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910664

RESUMEN

A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the targeted screening of 132 NPS in hair is described. Drugs include cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, piperazines and other hallucinogenic compounds. This method utilizes hair pulverization in acidified methanol followed by analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS. The limit of detection varied from 0.001 to 0.1ng/mg hair among the various analytes. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and stability. The limit of reporting was set at 0.1ng/mg of hair. The method was successfully applied to 23 medico-legal cases where NPS were detected in blood or where NPS use was suspected. The identified NPS included acetyl fentanyl, 25C-NBOMe, MDPV, PB-22 and AB-FUBINACA, allowing hair to be used where historical or retrospective information on use of NPS is sought. This technique has proven to be efficient for the one step extraction from hair of different classes of NPS in routine toxicological investigations; from unstable and volatile compounds, such as most of the cathinones, to hydrophobic compounds such as synthetic cannabinoids.


Asunto(s)
Cabello/química , Psicotrópicos/análisis , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Cromatografía Liquida , Humanos , Ácido Clorhídrico , Límite de Detección , Metanol , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
15.
J Anal Toxicol ; 41(4): 318-324, 2017 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28158759

RESUMEN

The prevalence of opioid use in therapeutic and recreational settings has steadily increased throughout the western world. The addition of fentanyl into heroin products can produce potentially dangerous consequences, even to opioid tolerant individuals who may be unaware of such additions. Following an observed spike of heroin-fentanyl related deaths in Melbourne, Australia, a study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of these cases. All reportable deaths occurring in Victoria during 2015 and submitted to the toxicology laboratory were analysed using LC-MS-MS to confirm the combination of the heroin marker 6-acetylmorphine and/or morphine, and fentanyl. Over 4,000 coronial cases in 2015 underwent toxicological analysis for these drugs, there were nine cases identified that involved fentanyl-laced heroin. There was no specific mention of fentanyl use in any of these cases. All occurred within 2 months and in two distinct locations. The first four deaths occurred within 3 days of each other, in neighboring suburbs. The ages ranged from 25 to 57 years with an average of 40 and median of 37 years, and consisted of eight males and one female. The average and median femoral blood concentration of fentanyl was 18 and 20 ng/mL (range: <1-45 ng/mL), and morphine 140 and 80 ng/mL (range: 20-400 ng/mL), respectively. All nine cases had 6-acetylmorphine detectable in blood. Urine analysis was also performed where available. A syringe, powder and spoon found at the scene of one case were also analysed and found to be positive for both heroin and fentanyl, which supported the likelihood of fentanyl-laced heroin. This is the first reported case series of fatalities involving heroin and fentanyl outside of North America in published literature. These findings may help inform public health and prevention strategies serving to decrease the potential for such fatalities in the future.


Asunto(s)
Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Fentanilo/sangre , Heroína/sangre , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Adulto , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Toxicología Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Victoria/epidemiología
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 274: 2-6, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899215

RESUMEN

The nature of the global drugs market has evolved rapidly and has become more complex with the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), some of which have been associated with increased abuse, hospital emergency admissions and sometimes fatalities. NPS are characterized by geographic heterogeneity, with some only transient in nature and others not satisfying the criteria for harm required for international control. Consequently, a pragmatic response of the international community is to prioritize the most harmful, persistent and prevalent substances for action - an objective, which is hampered by the paucity of data on harms. The report describes a United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) initiative, in collaboration with the International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT), to collect, analyze and share toxicology data at a global level to reinforce the ability of the international community in making informed decisions using a scientific evidence-based approach, in identifying the most harmful NPS.


Asunto(s)
Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos , Toxicología Forense , Cooperación Internacional , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Recolección de Datos , Drogas Diseñadas/efectos adversos , Drogas Diseñadas/envenenamiento , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Psicotrópicos/envenenamiento , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 408(14): 3737-49, 2016 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26993306

RESUMEN

The number of oral fluid samples collected by the road policing authority in Victoria, Australia, requiring confirmatory laboratory analysis for drugs proscribed under Victorian legislation (methamphetamine, MDMA and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) has greatly increased in recent years, driving the need for improved analysis techniques to enable expedient results. The aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS-based targeted oral fluid screening technique that covers a broad range of basic and neutral drugs of abuse that can satisfy increased caseload while monitoring other compounds of interest for epidemiological purposes. By combining small sample volume, simple extraction procedure, rapid LC-MS/MS analysis and automated data processing, 40 drugs of abuse including amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and major metabolites, opioids, cannabinoids and some designer stimulants were separated over 5 min (with an additional 0.5 min re-equilibration time). The analytes were detected using a Sciex® API 4500 Q-Trap LC-MS/MS system with positive ESI in MRM mode monitoring three transitions per analyte. The method was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines and also monitored carbon-13 isotopes of MDMA and MA to reduce detector saturation effects, allowing for confirmation of large concentrations of these compounds without the need for dilution or re-analysis. The described assay has been successfully used for analysis of oral fluid collected as part of law enforcement procedures at the roadside in Victoria, providing forensic results as well as epidemiological prevalence in the population tested. The fast and reliable detection of a broad range of drugs and subsequent automated data processing gives the opportunity for high throughput and fast turnaround times for forensic toxicology.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Metanfetamina/análisis , N-Metil-3,4-metilenodioxianfetamina/análisis , Saliva/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono , Humanos
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