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1.
Hum Pathol ; 55: 72-82, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27184482

RESUMEN

Malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas (MPM) are rare, accounting for approximately 8% of cases of mesothelioma in France. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on frozen MPM samples using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 180 K array. Samples were taken from a total of 33 French patients, comprising 20 men and 13 women with a mean (range) age of 58.4 (17-76) years. Asbestos exposure was reported in 8 patients (24.2%). Median (range) overall survival (OS) was 39 (0-119) months. CGH analysis demonstrated the presence of chromosomal instability in patients with MPM, with a genomic pattern that was similar to that described for pleural mesothelioma, including the loss of chromosomal regions 3p21, 9p21, and 22q12. In addition, novel genomic copy number alterations were identified, including the 15q26.2 region and the 8p11.22 region. Median OS was associated with a low peritoneal cancer index (P=.011), epithelioid subtype (P=.038), and a low number of genomic aberrations (P=.015), all of which constitute good prognostic factors for MPM. Our results provide new insights into the genetic and genomic background of MPM. Although pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas have different risk factors, different therapeutics, and different prognosis; these data provide support to combine pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma in same clinical assays.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Hibridación Genómica Comparativa , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Amplificación de Genes , Dosificación de Gen , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneales/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Asbestos/efectos adversos , Inestabilidad Cromosómica , Femenino , Francia , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Exposición por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/mortalidad , Mesotelioma/patología , Mesotelioma/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Peritoneales/mortalidad , Neoplasias Peritoneales/patología , Neoplasias Peritoneales/terapia , Fenotipo , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
2.
Invest New Drugs ; 33(5): 1078-85, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26189513

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Modufolin® ([6R]-5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate; [6R]-MTHF) is an endogenous biomodulator that is being developed as an alternative to leucovorin, a folate prodrug used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The objective of this phase 1 dose de-escalation trial was to estimate the minimum tolerated dose of [6R]-MTHF to be used in combination with pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) in the neoadjuvant treatment of patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: Adult patients (≥18 years) with resectable rectal adenocarcinoma were allocated to [6R]-MTHF doses of 500, 100, 50, and 10 mg/m(2) in combination with pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2). [6R]-MTHF was administered as an intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection 1 week prior to the first dose of pemetrexed and then once weekly for 9 weeks; pemetrexed was administered by i.v. infusion once every 21 days for three cycles. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (mean [SD] age, 63.1 [12.9] years) were enrolled in the study. A total of 72 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were reported, of which the most common were fatigue (n = 17; 23.6 %), nausea (n = 10; 13.9 %), and diarrhea (n = 5; 6.9 %). The incidence of treatment-related AEs by [6R]-MTHF dose level (500, 100, 50, 10 mg/m(2)) was 11.1 % (n = 8), 13.9 % (n = 10), 45.8 % (n = 33), and 29.2 % (n = 21), respectively. There were no dose-limiting toxicities, and only two (2.8 %) treatment-related AEs were grade 3 in severity. Of the 11 serious AEs reported, none were considered to be related to [6R]-MTHF treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this phase 1 study indicate that the estimated minimum tolerated dose of [6R]-MTHF was 100 mg/m(2) once weekly in combination with pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2). The low toxicity profile of [6R]-MTHF supports its further evaluation as a component of systemic chemotherapy in the management of colon and rectal cancer.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Neoplasias del Recto/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Anciano , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pemetrexed/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Recto/cirugía , Tetrahidrofolatos/uso terapéutico
3.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 14(1): 1-10, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25579803

RESUMEN

Herein we present a historical review of the development of systemic chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) in the metastatic and adjuvant treatment settings. We describe the discovery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by Heidelberger and colleagues in 1957, the potentiation of 5-FU cytotoxicity by the reduced folate leucovorin, and the advent of novel cytotoxic agents, including the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan, the platinum-containing agent oxaliplatin, and the 5-FU prodrug capecitabine. The combination therapies, FOLFOX (5-FU/leucovorin and oxaliplatin) and FOLFIRI (5-FU/leucovorin and irinotecan), have become established as efficacious cytotoxic regimens for the treatment of metastatic CRC, resulting in overall survival times of approximately 2 years. When used as adjuvant therapy, FOLFOX also improves survival and is now the gold standard of care in this setting. Biological agents have been discovered that enhance the effect of cytotoxic therapy, including bevacizumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets vascular endothelial growth factor, a central regulator of angiogenesis) and cetuximab/panitumumab (monoclonal antibodies directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor). Despite the ongoing development of novel antitumor agents and therapeutic principles as we enter the era of personalized cancer medicine, systemic chemotherapy involving infusional 5-FU/leucovorin continues to be the cornerstone of treatment for patients with CRC.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Diseño de Drogas , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/farmacología , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Fluorouracilo/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Leucovorina/administración & dosificación , Terapia Molecular Dirigida
4.
BMC Med Genet ; 10: 13, 2009 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19216768

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: APOA2 is a positional and biological candidate gene for type 2 diabetes at the chromosome 1q21-q24 susceptibility locus. The aim of this study was to examine if HapMap phase II tag SNPs in APOA2 are associated with type 2 diabetes and quantitative traits in French Caucasian subjects. METHODS: We genotyped the three HapMap phase II tagging SNPs (rs6413453, rs5085 and rs5082) required to capture the common variation spanning the APOA2 locus in our type 2 diabetes case-control cohort comprising 3,093 French Caucasian subjects. The association between these variants and quantitative traits was also examined in the normoglycaemic adults of the control cohort. In addition, meta-analysis of publicly available whole genome association data was performed. RESULTS: None of the APOA2 tag SNPs were associated with type 2 diabetes in the French Caucasian case-control cohort (rs6413453, P = 0.619; rs5085, P = 0.245; rs5082, P = 0.591). However, rs5082 was marginally associated with total cholesterol levels (P = 0.026) and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.029). The meta-analysis of data from 12,387 subjects confirmed our finding that common variation at the APOA2 locus is not associated with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSION: The available data does not support a role for common variants in APOA2 on type 2 diabetes susceptibility or related quantitative traits in Northern Europeans.


Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteína A-II/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genotipo , Humanos , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable
5.
Diabetes ; 57(7): 1992-6, 2008 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18430866

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We performed a comprehensive genetic association study of common variation spanning the IGF2BP2 locus in order to replicate the association of the "confirmed" type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants rs4402960 and rs1470579 in the French Caucasian population and to further characterize the susceptibility variants at this novel locus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped a total of 21 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning the IGF2BP2 locus in our type 2 diabetes case-control cohort comprising 3,093 French Caucasian subjects. RESULTS: IGF2BP2 variants rs4402960 and rs1470579 were not associated with type 2 diabetes in the present study (P = 0.632 and P = 0.896, respectively). Meta-analysis of genotype data from over 34,000 subjects demonstrated that our inability to replicate rs4402960/rs1470579 was consistent with the findings from several previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets that were underpowered to detect this modest association signal (odds ratio [OR] 1.14). We obtained novel evidence that rs9826022, a borderline rare variant (5% minor allele frequency) in the 3' downstream region, was associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.0002; OR 1.53 [95% CI 1.22-1.91]). This result was corroborated by the meta-analysis of 10,542 genotypes from the current study and GWAS datasets using both fixed (P = 9.47 x 10(-6); 1.30 [1.16-1.46]) and random effects (P = 0.001; 1.30 [1.11-1.52)] calculations. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to replicate the confirmed rs4402960/rs1470579 susceptibility variants but found novel evidence for a rare variant in the 3' downstream region of IGF2BP2. Further genetic and functional studies are required to identify the etiological IGF2BP2 variants.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variación Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteínas de Unión al ARN/genética , Anciano , Canadá , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Familia , Femenino , Francia/etnología , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa
6.
BMC Med Genet ; 9: 14, 2008 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18312624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: PBX1 is a biological candidate gene for type 2 diabetes at the 1q21-q24 susceptibility locus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of common PBX1 variants with type 2 diabetes in French Caucasian subjects. METHODS: Employing a case-control design, we genotyped 39 SNPs spanning the PBX1 locus in 3,093 subjects to test for association with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Several PBX1 SNPs, including the G21S coding SNP rs2275558, were nominally associated with type 2 diabetes but the strongest result was obtained with the intron 2 SNP rs2792248 (P = 0.004, OR 1.20 [95% CI 1.06-1.37]). The SNPSpD multiple testing correction method gave a significance threshold of P = 0.002 for the 39 SNPs genotyped, indicating that the rs2792248 association did not survive multiple testing adjustment. SNP rs2792248 did not show evidence of association with the French 1q linkage signal (P = 0.31; weighted NPL score 2.16). None of the PBX1 SNPs nominally associated with type 2 diabetes were associated with a range of quantitative metabolic traits in the normoglycemic control subjects CONCLUSION: The available data does not support a major influence of common PBX1 variants on type 2 diabetes susceptibility or quantitative metabolic traits. In order to make progress in identifying the elusive susceptibility variants in the 1q region it will be necessary to carry out further large association studies, meta-analyses of existing data from individual studies, and deep resequencing of the 1q region.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variación Genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas/genética , Anciano , Alelos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Mapeo Cromosómico , Estudios de Cohortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Factor de Transcripción 1 de la Leucemia de Células Pre-B , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo
7.
BMC Med Genet ; 7: 44, 2006 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16677372

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, a negative regulator for insulin and leptin signalling, potentially modulates glucose and energy homeostasis. PTP1B is encoded by the PTPN1 gene located on chromosome 20q13 showing linkage with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in several populations. PTPN1 gene variants have been inconsistently associated with T2D, and the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of PTPN1 genetic variations on the risk of T2D, obesity and on the variability of metabolic phenotypes in the French population. METHODS: Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PTPN1 locus were selected from previous association reports and from HapMap linkage disequilibrium data. SNPs were evaluated for association with T2D in two case-control groups with 1227 cases and 1047 controls. Association with moderate and severe obesity was also tested in a case-control study design. Association with metabolic traits was evaluated in 736 normoglycaemic, non-obese subjects from a general population. Five SNPs showing a trend towards association with T2D, obesity or metabolic parameters were investigated for familial association. RESULTS: From 14 SNPs investigated, only SNP rs914458, located 10 kb downstream of the PTPN1 gene significantly associated with T2D (p = 0.02 under a dominant model; OR = 1.43 [1.06-1.94]) in the combined sample set. SNP rs914458 also showed association with moderate obesity (allelic p = 0.04; OR = 1.2 [1.01-1.43]). When testing for association with metabolic traits, two strongly correlated SNPs, rs941798 and rs2426159, present multiple consistent associations. SNP rs2426159 exhibited evidence of association under a dominant model with glucose homeostasis related traits (p = 0.04 for fasting insulin and HOMA-B) and with lipid markers (0.02 = p = 0.04). Moreover, risk allele homozygotes for this SNP had an increased systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03). No preferential transmission of alleles was observed for the SNPs tested in the family sample. CONCLUSION: In our study, PTPN1 variants showed moderate association with T2D and obesity. However, consistent associations with metabolic variables reflecting insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are found for two intronic SNPs as previously reported. Thus, our data indicate that PTPN1 variants may modulate the lipid profile, thereby influencing susceptibility to metabolic disease.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatasas/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Francia , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatasa no Receptora Tipo 1
8.
Diabetes ; 54(10): 3040-2, 2005 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16186412

RESUMEN

Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family that has been shown to regulate the expression of a raft of key genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The USF1 gene is located at chromosome 1q22-q23, within the most consistently replicated type 2 diabetes susceptibility locus in the human genome. In this study, we have examined the contribution of eight common USF1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the French Caucasian population. None of the USF1 SNPs genotyped, including two SNPs previously associated with familial combined hyperlipidemia (rs2073658 and rs3737787), showed evidence of association with type 2 diabetes. In addition, USF1 SNPs were not associated with plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, or apolipoproteins A1 or B in normoglycemic subjects. A total of four common USF1 haplotypes were identified, accounting for >99% of chromosomes. There was no significant difference in the USF1 haplotype distribution of the case and control subjects. In conclusion, we report here that we were unable to find any evidence to support the hypothesis that genetic variation in the USF1 gene makes a significant contribution to type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the French Caucasian population.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Factores Estimuladores hacia 5'/genética , Adulto , Glucemia/análisis , Índice de Masa Corporal , Cromosomas Humanos Par 1/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Exones , Femenino , Francia , Genotipo , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
Diabetes ; 54(10): 3049-55, 2005 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16186414

RESUMEN

Murine models have been highly effective in identifying the monogenic forms of human obesity discovered to date. Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) has been shown to be significant in the downstream orexigenic activity of the leptin-melanocortin pathway by such models. In this study, the human MCHR1 gene was extensively characterized by sequencing 3.5 kb of coding, untranslated and intronic regions plus 1 kb of putative promoter region in 180 morbidly obese adults and 87 morbidly obese children, a total of >2.4 Mb of sequencing. Thirty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found, seven of which encode an amino acid change. One mutation, R248Q, appeared to cosegregate with the obesity trait in one pedigree but was also found to be a rare polymorphism in control samples. To investigate the possible polygenic role of MCHR1, the six common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) found in the sequenced regions were then screened in 557 morbidly obese adults, 552 obese children, and 1,195 nonobese nondiabetic control subjects. The plausible promoter SNP, rs133068, was found to be associated with protection against obesity in obese children only (allele frequency P = 0.006 and genotype frequency P = 0.004). Most significant results were found when using a dominant model (P = 0.001, odds ratio 0.695 [95% CI 0.560-0.863]). However, similar associations were found when both adults and children were analyzed together (P = 0.006, 0.783 [0.658-0.930]), suggesting that severe forms of obesity with early onset may be associated with SNPs in MCHR1.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Mórbida/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Membrana Celular/química , Niño , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Oportunidad Relativa , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/química
10.
Diabetes ; 54(8): 2477-81, 2005 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16046317

RESUMEN

alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) is an abundant plasma protein synthesized predominantly in the liver. The AHSG gene, consisting of seven exons and spanning 8.2 kb of genomic DNA, is located at chromosome 3q27, a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. AHSG is a natural inhibitor of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, and AHSG-null mice exhibit significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity. These observations suggested that the AHSG gene is a strong positional and biological candidate for type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Direct sequencing of the AHSG promoter region and exons identified nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency > or =5%. We carried out a detailed genetic association study of the contribution of these common AHSG SNPs to genetic susceptibility of type 2 diabetes in French Caucasians. The major allele of a synonymous coding SNP in exon 7 (rs1071592) presented significant evidence of association with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.008, odds ratio 1.27 [95% CI 1.06-1.52]). Two other SNPs (rs2248690 and rs4918) in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs1071592 showed evidence approaching significance. A haplotype carrying the minor allele of SNP rs1071592 was protective against type 2 diabetes (P = 0.014). However, our analyses indicated that rs1071592 is not associated with the evidence for linkage of type 2 diabetes to 3q27.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Alelos , Exones , Femenino , Francia , Frecuencia de los Genes , Haplotipos , Humanos , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/genética , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS
11.
Diabetes ; 53(11): 2977-83, 2004 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15504979

RESUMEN

We have carried out a detailed reexamination of the genetics of the APM1 locus and its contribution to the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the French Caucasian population. The G allele of single nucleotide polymorphism -11426 in the APM1 promoter showed modest association with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.44 [95% CI 1.04-1.98]; P = 0.03), providing corroborative evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APM1 promoter region contribute to the genetic risk of type 2 diabetes. A "sliding window" analysis identified haplotypes 1-1-1, 1-1-1-1, and 1-1-1-1-1 as being strongly protective against type 2 diabetes (P

Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Adiponectina , Mapeo Cromosómico , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Francia , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Factores de Riesgo
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