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1.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19527, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804747

RESUMEN

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA is identified by bronchial asthma, peripheral eosinophilia, high levels of serum immunoglobulin E, pulmonary infiltration, mucoid impaction, and central bronchiectasis. Diagnosing ABPA is important to consider since there are treatment options that are readily available and response to therapy yields positive results. We describe a case of ABPA present in Trinidad, West Indies, which was not described previously in the literature.

2.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18975, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820230

RESUMEN

Cryptococcal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are common opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. They can occur in immunocompetent hosts, and this has been documented in isolated case reports. Rapid neurological deterioration can be seen, particularly with hydrocephalus, and diagnosis can be difficult without a high index of suspicion. Treatment arms include prolonged antifungal therapy and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedures. We present a case of a middle-aged immunocompetent male, who presented with an acute confusional state and papilledema. An urgent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed obstructive hydrocephalus, and an external ventricular drain was placed. CSF samples were collected, and analysis revealed cryptococcal infection. He was treated with antifungal therapy but failed external ventricular drain challenging. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed after negative CSF studies were obtained. While uncommon, cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent hosts can present with obstructive hydrocephalus. It can result in rapid neurological decline and death. Emergent CSF diversion and antifungal therapy are the primary treatment modalities. CSF diversion may be permanently required in some cases.

3.
Cardiol Ther ; 10(2): 561-568, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643895

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This prospective pharmacodynamic (PD) study assessed the effect of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), dapagliflozin, on platelet reactivity. METHODS: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n = 27) who were on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of aspirin 81 mg daily, and clopidogrel 75 mg daily were recruited. Platelet function was evaluated with the VerifyNow™ P2Y12 assay (Werfen, Bedford, MA, USA) and assessed prior to initiation of and after 10 days of treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg once-daily dose regimen. Results were compared with a paired t test. RESULTS: Treatment with dapagliflozin significantly decreased P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) by 20%, (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.5-32.6%, p value 0.002). The mean difference in PRU was 36.70 (95% CI 16.66-56.75). No patients experienced any serious adverse events (SAEs). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly diminished platelet reactivity was observed on dapagliflozin as compared to without dapagliflozin. This dedicated pharmacodynamic study could be potentially informative and applicable for Trinidadian stable CAD patients with T2DM on DAPT. Further studies are required to confirm these exploratory findings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: EDGE ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04400760.

4.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 14: 385-391, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135644

RESUMEN

Pectus excavatum (PEX) is an anterior chest wall deformity with sternal depression relative to the costal cartilages. We describe a patient status post remote PEX repair who presented with presyncope attributed to bifascicular block, partial right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction, and right coronary artery (RCA) ischemia. Key Clinical Message: The clinician should be cognizant of the hemodynamic impact and electrocardiographic changes in a symptomatic patient status post pectus excavatum repair.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598364

RESUMEN

Background: Aluminium encephalopathy results from exposure to aluminium from occupational, recreational, and environmental sources. Movement disorders, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract signs, dementia, microcytic anemia and bone disease are typical manifestations. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman had clinical manifestations, persistent hyperaluminemia without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan changes of toxic encephalopathy following a prolonged exposure to marine grade paints containing 30% aluminium. Chelation therapy with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) demonstrated decreased levels of aluminemia and significant neurological improvement over time. Discussion: This diagnosis should be entertained in patients with movement disorders, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs, and dementia of unknown etiology. Highlights: Aluminium encephalopathy (AE) is a neurological syndrome caused by aluminium neurotoxicity. Manifestations include cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, microcytic anemia and bone disease. This case illustrates AE with hyperaluminemia associated with chronic exposure to industrial paints and clinical and biochemical reversibility after chelation therapy with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Movement disorders are highlighted.

8.
Cardiol Ther ; 10(1): 189-199, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306161

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This prospective pharmacodynamic (PD) study aimed to assess the effect of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) empagliflozin on platelet reactivity. METHODS: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n = 20) who were actively treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of aspirin 81 mg daily and clopidogrel 75 mg daily were recruited. Platelet function was measured with the VerifyNow™ P2Y12 assay (Instrumentation Laboratory, Massachusetts, USA) and assessed before the initiation of and after 10 days of treatment with empagliflozin 25 mg once daily maintenance dose regimen. Results were compared with a paired t test. RESULTS: The mean P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) on empagliflozin was significantly less than without empagliflozin at baseline (187.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 155.38-219.32 vs. 217.25, CI 180.60-253.90; p < 0.030). The mean difference in PRU was 29.90 (95% CI 3.17-56.63). No patients experienced any serious adverse events (SAEs). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly attenuated platelet reactivity was observed on empagliflozin as compared to without empagliflozin. This dedicated pharmacodynamic study could be clinically pertinent for Trinidadian patients with stable CAD and T2DM on DAPT. Further studies are required to confirm these exploratory findings. (Funded by the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine; EFFECT). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04342819.

9.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 13: 623-629, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209063

RESUMEN

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is amongst the leading causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Severe left main disease (LMD) occurs in approximately five percent of HIV-infected patients, with chronic total occlusion (CTO) of this vessel being an even rarer phenomenon. We describe a non-adherent HIV-infected patient with a left main coronary artery (LMCA) CTO that presented with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT).

10.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620925571, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370558

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has significant potential cardiovascular implications for patients. These include myocarditis, acute coronary syndromes, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies with heart failure and cardiogenic shock, and venous thromboembolic events. We describe a Caribbean-Black gentleman with COVID-19 infection presenting with atrial arrhythmias, namely, atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation, which resolved with rate and rhythm control strategies, and supportive care.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Fibrilación Atrial/diagnóstico por imagen , Fibrilación Atrial/etiología , Fibrilación Atrial/terapia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagen
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660255

RESUMEN

Background: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a disease of childhood and adolescence, but can affect adults. Rapidly progressive cognitive decline, seizures including myoclonic jerks, spasticity, ataxia, visual disturbances, and incontinence are typical manifestations. Case report: A 62-year-old woman who presented with rapidly progressive dementia and myoclonus was diagnosed with SSPE. There was resolution of the movement disorder with clonazepam and valproic acid treatment and some amelioration of cognitive decline after 3 months of therapy with interferon alfa and isoprinosine. Discussion: With the recent rise in measles cases worldwide, any increased incidence of SSPE would require vigilance for early interventions.


Asunto(s)
Demencia/diagnóstico por imagen , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Mioclonía/diagnóstico por imagen , Panencefalitis Esclerosante Subaguda/diagnóstico por imagen , Demencia/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mioclonía/complicaciones , Panencefalitis Esclerosante Subaguda/complicaciones , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Open Heart ; 6(1): e000841, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997117

RESUMEN

Objectives: This novel, pilot study aimed to assess the estimated prevalence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: Patients (n=40) who were awaiting elective percutaneous coronary intervention on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin 81 mg daily and clopidogrel 75 mg or loaded at least 48 hours prior were recruited. Platelet reactivity with the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (Accriva Diagnostics, San Diego, California, USA) was assessed prior to cardiac catheterisation. Results: 60.7% (17/28) of the South Asian (Indo-Trinidadians) patients had HPR, whereas 14.3% (1/7) of Africans and 40% (2/5) of mixed ethnicity had HPR. There was a significant association between HPR (P2Y12 reaction units >208) and ethnicity with South Asians (Indo-Trinidadians) (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.18 to 24.66, p=0.029). Conclusions: This pilot study serves to introduce the preliminary observation that the estimated prevalence of HPR is considerably higher within the heterogeneous population in Trinidad at 50% as compared with predominantly Caucasian studies. Furthermore, the HPR is significantly higher in South Asians (Indo-Trinidadians) (>60% of patients) which has severe clinical repercussions considering the cardiovascular disease pandemic. Clopidogrel may not be a satisfactory or optimal antiplatelet agent in this subgroup, and therefore, another more potent antiplatelet such as ticagrelor should be used instead. Further large-scale studies are imperative to confirm these findings. (Funded by the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine; POINT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03667066.).

14.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 12: 61-65, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881148

RESUMEN

Brugada syndrome is a genetic condition that predisposes to an increased risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death in a structurally normal heart. The Brugada type 1 electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern may occur independently of the actual syndrome, and this clinical phenomenon is often referred to as Brugada phenocopy. There are several other factors which have been known to induce this electrocardiographic pattern, and currently, there is a paucity of literature with respect to the pattern that is observed in patients with electrolyte disturbances, specifically hyponatremia. This case report highlights a suspected hyponatremia-induced Brugada type 1 ECG pattern, which subsequently normalized following resolution of the electrolyte derangement.

15.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 6: 2324709618792028, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057925

RESUMEN

Kawasaki disease is an acute multisystemic vasculitis occurring predominantly in children and rarely in adults, with sequelae of potentially life-threatening coronary artery aneurysms. "Incomplete" Kawasaki disease is a novel concept and considered a diagnosis of exclusion as it alludes to patients with fever lasting ⩾5 days and 2 or 3 clinical criteria without another reasonable explanation for the illness. The multidisciplinary team should be vigilant for this oligosymptomatic clinical presentation, specifically within this subgroup despite age and ethnicity, and the syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis in challenging cases presenting as infectious or autoimmune disease.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423336

RESUMEN

Background: Myoclonic jerks are due to sudden, brief, involuntary muscle contractions, positive myoclonus, or brief cessation of ongoing muscular activity, negative myoclonus, and may be difficult to recognize. Case Report: We describe an immunocompetent, adult, male patient with sleep-related, multifocal, myoclonic jerks and neurotoxoplasmosis with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid but normal brain imaging. There was complete resolution of the myoclonus with antitoxoplasmosis therapy after 1 week, and no relapse after 1 year. Discussion: Neurotoxoplasmosis may be subtle in presentation, difficult to diagnose, and more common than realized, and it is being increasingly implicated in epileptogenesis in humans.


Asunto(s)
Mioclonía/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis Cerebral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animales , Gatos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Masculino , Mioclonía/tratamiento farmacológico , Toxoplasmosis Cerebral/tratamiento farmacológico
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20172017 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784905

RESUMEN

Lemierre's syndrome is rare, with no known reported cases in the Caribbean thus far. We highlight a case of a young woman who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis precipitated by oral pharyngeal sepsis, whose condition rapidly deteriorated within 24 hours requiring ventilation and administration of antibiotics. Her sepsis was accompanied by internal jugular vein thrombosis in keeping with a diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome, which was treated aggressively with antibiotics, intensive care and mechanical ventilatory support in the intensive care unit. She made a full recovery. Though this is the first reported case in the Caribbean of this 'forgotten disease', it must not be forgotten because prognosis and outcome are markedly improved with prompt and aggressive treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Lemierre/complicaciones , Faringitis/microbiología , Sepsis/microbiología , Trombosis de la Vena/microbiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Venas Yugulares/microbiología , Síndrome de Lemierre/tratamiento farmacológico , Faringitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Trinidad y Tobago
20.
Case Rep Crit Care ; 2017: 9287021, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29318053

RESUMEN

Miliary tuberculosis, complicated by ARDS and septic shock, is a rare and lethal presentation of this disease. Here we present a case of such a patient, following which we discuss the management of tuberculosis in the ICU and some of the challenges that may be faced. A young HIV negative female presented to us with an acute history of worsening shortness of breath on a background of weight loss, nonproductive cough, and fever. CXR and CT scan showed bilateral miliary type opacities and the patient was admitted to the hospital. Within forty-eight hours of admission she became hypoxemic and was intubated and transferred to the ICU. There she experienced worsening organ dysfunction and developed circulatory shock. Despite escalating doses of noradrenaline, she continued to decline and died before specific anti-TB treatment could be started. Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are the keys to improving outcomes in critically ill TB patients. However there are many challenges in doing so, especially in a general ICU located in a country with a low TB incidence.

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