Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
Filtros adicionales











País/Región como asunto
Intervalo de año
1.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(2): 223-244, 2019 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317955

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), which are commonly used as a treatment for acute phases and prevention of relapses in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizoaffective disorder (SAD), have been often associated to adverse outcomes in pregnancy and major congenital malformations (MCM). We aimed to summarize available evidence assessing these outcomes when AEDs are used in pregnant women with BD and/or SAD. METHODS: We searched four databases from inception to 18 January, 2019. We included peer-reviewed observational studies on the use of AEDs in pregnant women with BD or SAD. We excluded studies not reporting data on BD or SAD, not specifying the AED or not assessing pregnancy outcomes or MCM. RESULTS: The pooled records amounted to 2,861. After duplicate removal and inclusion/exclusion criteria application, we included 9 observational studies assessing patients with BD and SAD. The AEDs evaluated were lamotrigine (LTG), valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC), topiramate (TPR) and gabapentin (GBP). VPA and CBZ were the AED most commonly associated to MCM. LTG showed the best safety profile. Higher rates of complications during pregnancy were observed in treated and untreated women with BD compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: AEDs may produce adverse outcomes in pregnancy and MCM in children of pregnant women with BD or SAD, showing higher risks at higher doses. LTG could be considered in this type of patients, given the low rate of adverse events. VPA and CBZ use should be avoided during pregnancy.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 249: 199-207, 2019 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego (TEMPS-A) is a self-administered questionnaire intended to assess five affective temperaments: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. Our objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the TEMPS-A using a sample comprised by patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls (HC) and to determine cut-off scores for each temperament. METHODS: Five hundred and ninety-eight individuals (327 BD and 271 HC) completed the TEMPS-A. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine internal consistency reliability. Test-retest reliability and association between different temperamental scales were assessed using Spearman correlation. To confirm factor structure a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out. Cut-off scores indicating the presence of dominant temperament were also calculated. RESULTS: Internal consistency was optimal for all temperament subscales (α: 0.682- 0.893). The questionnaire demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ρ: 0.594-0.754). The strongest positive associations were found between cyclothymic and anxious and between depressive and anxious temperaments. Hyperthymic and depressive as well as hyperthymic and anxious temperaments showed a strong negative correlation. LIMITATIONS: The HC sample was not matched with the BD group. There were some sociodemographic and clinical differences between groups that may impact on the obtained results. A portion of patients with BD was recruited from tertiary centers. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of the Barcelona TEMPS-A questionnaire presents a good internal consistency and their results are stable in clinical population. The performance of the Barcelona TEMPS-A is as good as the original scale.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Temperamento/clasificación , Adulto , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Humor/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Humor/psicología , Inventario de Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España , Traducciones
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 470, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337889

RESUMEN

Background: Patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) suffer from cognitive impairment, which negatively influences their functionality. Cognitive remediation (CR) interventions have been shown to be effective in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), but evidence in SAD is limited so far. The aim of this study is to systematically review the published data on CR interventions, either in neurocognition or social cognition, in patients with SAD. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive, computerized literature search using terms related to CR interventions in psychotic and affective disorders, and particularly in SAD. Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Knowledge databases were used up to February 28th, 2018 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The search returned 2672 articles of which four were finally selected meeting the inclusion criteria. Results: Cognitive Enhancement Therapy, computerized Cognitive Remediation Therapy and Cognitive Training showed positive results in subsamples of patients with SAD regarding neurocognition and functioning in comparable terms to patients with schizophrenia as well as in a greater extent in quality of life. Benefits in social cognition were also described when Social Cognition Interaction Training was considered in patients with SAD. Conclusions: CR interventions seem to improve neurocognition and social cognition in patients with SAD as well as functioning and quality of life. However, further randomized controlled trials on CR interventions with an optimized design focusing on selected sample of patients with SAD are imperative.

4.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 30(6): 457-463, nov.-dic. 2016. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-157537

RESUMEN

Objectives: To describe food consumption frequency in adolescents in the context of the financial crisis in 2012, and to analyse potential fluctuations in excess body weight between 2008 and 2012. Method: A cross-sectional study of eating habits and excess body weight was conducted in adolescents aged 13 to 19 years old from public, subsidised and private secondary schools in Barcelona, Spain. The FRESC lifestyle risk factors survey was used, and food frequency consumption, food recommendations and body mass index were analysed according to gender, year of education and socioeconomic status. Results: Girls ate vegetables and fruits more frequently than boys, while the prevalence of junk food consumption was higher in boys. The prevalence of compliance with food recommendations was lower than 50% for all foods, and gender and socioeconomic differences were found for eggs, red meat and soft drinks. Regarding excess body weight, boys had a higher prevalence than girls in the 2 years analysed. Furthermore, a reduction in excess body weight was observed among girls in secondary education in the highest socioeconomic groups (28.7% [95% CI: 24.8-32.6%] in 2008 to 20.5% [95% CI: 17.1-23.8%] in 2012). Conclusions: The prevalence of adolescents following food recommendations is low, and gender differences were found in terms of food consumption frequency, even in the context of financial crisis. There is a need to promote programmes and policies to reduce inequalities related to eating habits and excess body weight in adolescents (AU)


Objetivos: Describir la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos en adolescentes en un contexto de crisis económica en el año 2012, y analizar los potenciales cambios en el exceso de peso entre los años 2008 y 2012. Diseño: Estudio transversal de los hábitos alimentarios y el exceso de peso en adolescentes de entre 13 y 19 años de edad pertenecientes a escuelas públicas, concertadas y privadas de Barcelona. Se utilizó la encuesta FRESC sobre factores de riesgo asociados a estilos de vida y se analizaron, según sexo, curso académico y nivel socioeconómico, las frecuencias de consumo, recomendaciones alimentarias e índice de masa corporal. Resultados: Las chicas realizaban un mayor consumo de frutas y verduras, mientras que los chicos consumían comida no saludable con mayor frecuencia. La prevalencia de cumplimiento de las recomendaciones alimentarias es inferior al 50% para todos los alimentos, y se encontraron diferencias según el sexo y el nivel socioeconómico en el consumo de huevos, carne roja y refrescos. En relación al exceso de peso, la prevalencia fue mayor en los chicos que en las chicas en los 2 años analizados. Además, se observó una reducción del exceso de peso en las chicas cursando Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y de nivel socioeconómico alto (de 28,7% [IC95%: 24,8-32,6%] en 2008 a 20,5% [IC95%: 17,1-23,8%] en 2012). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de adolescentes que siguen las recomendaciones de consumo es baja. Hay diferencias de sexo en las frecuencias de consumo de los alimentos, incluso en un contexto de crisis económica. Existe una necesidad de promover programas y políticas para reducir las desigualdades relacionadas con los hábitos alimentarios y el exceso de peso en los adolescentes (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Conducta Alimentaria , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Consumo de Alimentos , Nutrición del Adolescente , Recesión Económica , Encuestas Nutricionales/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades Nutricionales
5.
Gac Sanit ; 30(6): 457-463, 2016 Nov - Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27173088

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe food consumption frequency in adolescents in the context of the financial crisis in 2012, and to analyse potential fluctuations in excess body weight between 2008 and 2012. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of eating habits and excess body weight was conducted in adolescents aged 13 to 19 years old from public, subsidised and private secondary schools in Barcelona, Spain. The FRESC lifestyle risk factors survey was used, and food frequency consumption, food recommendations and body mass index were analysed according to gender, year of education and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Girls ate vegetables and fruits more frequently than boys, while the prevalence of junk food consumption was higher in boys. The prevalence of compliance with food recommendations was lower than 50% for all foods, and gender and socioeconomic differences were found for eggs, red meat and soft drinks. Regarding excess body weight, boys had a higher prevalence than girls in the 2 years analysed. Furthermore, a reduction in excess body weight was observed among girls in secondary education in the highest socioeconomic groups (28.7% [95% CI: 24.8-32.6%] in 2008 to 20.5% [95% CI: 17.1-23.8%] in 2012). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of adolescents following food recommendations is low, and gender differences were found in terms of food consumption frequency, even in the context of financial crisis. There is a need to promote programmes and policies to reduce inequalities related to eating habits and excess body weight in adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Recesión Económica , Conducta Alimentaria , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/etiología , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , España/epidemiología , Verduras , Adulto Joven
6.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 28(2): 170-172, mar.-abr. 2014. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-124546

RESUMEN

La aparición del teléfono móvil en las últimas décadas ha hecho disminuir la cobertura de hogares españoles con teléfono fijo. Este estudio analiza características sociodemográficas e indicadores de salud según el tipo de teléfono disponible (sólo móvil frente a fijo o fijo y móvil). Se realizaron dos encuestas telefónicas en muestras españolas (febrero de 2010 y febrero de 2011). Se analizaron diferencias en las principales características sociodemográficas según el tipo de teléfono disponible en el hogar, mediante análisis de regresión logística multivariada. Entre las dos encuestas se obtuvieron 2027 respuestas válidas (1627 en fijos y 400 en móviles). La probabilidad de seleccionar individuos extranjeros, de clase social manual, de menor nivel de estudios y fumadores fue mayor en la población contactada mediante teléfono móvil que mediante fijo. El perfil de la población que sólo dispone de teléfono móvil es diferente al de la que dispone de fijo, por lo que la realización de encuestas telefónicas exclusivamente mediante teléfonos fijos puede conllevar un sesgo de selección (AU)


The increasing use of mobile phones in the last decade has decreased landline telephone coverage in Spanish households. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators by type of telephone service (mobile phone vs. landline or landline and mobile phone). Two telephone surveys were conducted in Spanish samples (February 2010 and February 2011). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze differences in the main sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators according to the type of telephone service available in Spanish households. We obtained 2027 valid responses (1627 landline telephones and 400 mobile phones). Persons contacted through a mobile phone were more likely to be a foreigner, to belong to the manual social class, to have a lower educational level, and to be a smoker than those contacted through a landline telephone. The profile of the population that has only a mobile phone differs from that with a landline telephone. Therefore, telephone surveys that exclude mobile phones could show a selection bias (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/métodos , Sesgo de Selección , Teléfono , Teléfono Celular , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Eur J Public Health ; 24(1): 5-10, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23397582

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the last few years, several studies have reported a high screen time use among adolescents that can be related to negative health effects. The aims of this study were to describe screen time use among secondary school students and to identify individual- and school-level factors associated with media use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire was performed among a representative sample of 2675 secondary school students (13-19 years old). Adolescents reported the amount of time spent viewing television, playing videogames and using the computer as well as other health-related behaviours and attitudes. Multilevel analysis was carried out and prevalence ratios were calculated to determine the association between media use and related factors. RESULTS: Around 50% of the students reported watching television for ≥2 h/day during weekdays. Boys reported playing videogames for ≥2 h/weekday much more often than girls (14.6 and 1.5%, respectively). 68.2% of boys and 61.7% of girls reported using the computer for ≥2 h/weekday. In the multilevel analysis, the main factors associated with screen-related sedentary behaviours were attending schools from a low socio-economic status neighbourhood, eating unhealthy food and not reading books frequently. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of adolescents reporting an excessive use of media devices is high, especially among students attending schools from deprived areas. Interventions to reduce screen time among adolescents may be necessary to reduce the risk of some metabolic and cardiovascular diseases such as being overweight and obesity in late adolescence or early adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Computadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Sedentaria , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
8.
Gac Sanit ; 28(2): 170-2, 2014 Mar-Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24300381

RESUMEN

The increasing use of mobile phones in the last decade has decreased landline telephone coverage in Spanish households. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators by type of telephone service (mobile phone vs. landline or landline and mobile phone). Two telephone surveys were conducted in Spanish samples (February 2010 and February 2011). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze differences in the main sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators according to the type of telephone service available in Spanish households. We obtained 2027 valid responses (1627 landline telephones and 400 mobile phones). Persons contacted through a mobile phone were more likely to be a foreigner, to belong to the manual social class, to have a lower educational level, and to be a smoker than those contacted through a landline telephone. The profile of the population that has only a mobile phone differs from that with a landline telephone. Therefore, telephone surveys that exclude mobile phones could show a selection bias.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos/estadística & datos numéricos , Sesgo de Selección , Teléfono , Adulto , Teléfono Celular , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 21(17): 5407-13, 2013 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23911197

RESUMEN

Non-peptidomimetic drug-like protease inhibitors have potential for circumventing drug resistance. We developed a much-improved synthetic route to our previously reported inhibitor candidate displaying an unusual quaternized hemi-aminal. This functional group forms from a linear precursor upon passage into physiological media. Seven variants were prepared and tested in cellulo with our HIV-1 fusion-protein technology that result in an eGFP-based fluorescent readout. Three candidates showed inhibition potency above 20µM and toxicity at higher concentrations, making them attractive targets for further refinement. Importantly, our class of original inhibitor candidates is not recognized by two major multidrug resistance pumps, quite in contrast to most clinically applied HIV-1 protease inhibitors.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/química , Proteasa del VIH/química , VIH-1/enzimología , Miembro 1 de la Subfamilia B de Casetes de Unión a ATP/genética , Miembro 1 de la Subfamilia B de Casetes de Unión a ATP/metabolismo , Transportador de Casetes de Unión a ATP, Subfamilia G, Miembro 2 , Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/genética , Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/metabolismo , Animales , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células HEK293 , Proteasa del VIH/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/síntesis química , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/toxicidad , Humanos , Ratones , Células 3T3 NIH , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Urea/síntesis química , Urea/química , Urea/toxicidad
10.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 27(4): 350-354, jul.-ago. 2013. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-115275

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados al acoso escolar entre adolescentes escolarizados, analizando víctimas, agresores y víctimas/agresores por separado. Métodos: Estudio transversal en una muestra representativa de 3089 estudiantes de escuelas de secundaria (13-18 años) de Barcelona. Los roles de acoso escolar se definieron a partir de tres ítems sobre diferentes tipos de maltrato (insultos, agresión física y marginación social). Resultados: Los escolares involucrados en acoso escolar tenían mayor probabilidad de ser chicos y presentar un estado de ánimo negativo con respecto a los no involucrados. Además, las víctimas eran más jóvenes, presentaban más sobrepeso u obesidad, y consumían menos cannabis, mientras que los agresores también eran más jóvenes pero declaraban realizar conductas antisociales en mayor medida, y un mayor consumo de cannabis y alcohol. Las víctimas/agresores realizaban más conductas antisociales y presentaban sobrepeso. Conclusiones: Estar involucrado en acoso escolar, con independencia del rol, se asoció a problemas relacionados con la salud, que podrían llegar a derivar en trastornos psicológicos en la edad adulta (AU)


Objective: To identify the factors associated with bullying behaviors among adolescents by analyzing victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors separately. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3,089 secondary school students (13-18 years old) in Barcelona (Spain). To define bullying behaviors, we used three questions about different types of mistreatment (jeering, attacking, marginalizing). Results: Compared with secondary school students not involved in bullying, victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors were more likely to be boys and to report negative mood states. Victims were younger, were more overweight or obese and were lighter cannabis users, while aggressors were also younger but reported more antisocial behaviors and more cannabis and alcohol use. Victims/aggressors reported more antisocial behaviors and were overweight. Conclusions: Being involved in bullying, independently of the role adopted, was associated with health-related problems, which can lead to psychological disorders in adulthood (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Agresión/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Salud del Adolescente , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología
11.
Gac Sanit ; 27(4): 350-4, 2013 Jul-Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23416025

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with bullying behaviors among adolescents by analyzing victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors separately. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3,089 secondary school students (13-18 years old) in Barcelona (Spain). To define bullying behaviors, we used three questions about different types of mistreatment (jeering, attacking, marginalizing). RESULTS: Compared with secondary school students not involved in bullying, victims, aggressors and victims/aggressors were more likely to be boys and to report negative mood states. Victims were younger, were more overweight or obese and were lighter cannabis users, while aggressors were also younger but reported more antisocial behaviors and more cannabis and alcohol use. Victims/aggressors reported more antisocial behaviors and were overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Being involved in bullying, independently of the role adopted, was associated with health-related problems, which can lead to psychological disorders in adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Gac Sanit ; 25 Suppl 1: 9-16, 2011 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22055546

RESUMEN

Evaluation of public health interventions poses numerous methodological challenges. Randomization of individuals is not always feasible and interventions are usually composed of multiple factors. To face these challenges, certain elements, such as the selection of the most appropriate design and the use of a statistical analysis that includes potential confounders, are essential. The objective of this article was to describe the most frequently used designs in the evaluation of public health interventions (policies, programs or campaigns). The characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of each of these evaluative designs are described. Additionally, a brief explanation of the most commonly used statistical analysis in each of these designs is provided.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Salud Pública , Proyectos de Investigación , Sesgo , Factores de Confusión (Epidemiología) , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de Regresión , Muestreo
13.
Prev Med ; 53(3): 203-6, 2011 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21781983

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study describes the preventive measures adopted by the Spanish population towards 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and their associated factors. METHOD: An anonymous computer-assisted telephone interview survey was conducted in Spain in December 2009 and February 2010. Respondents were asked about their perceptions of influenza A (H1N1) virus and the preventive measures adopted. Factors associated with the adoption of preventive measures were assessed by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Out of 4892 households approached, 1627 valid responses were obtained (response rate of 33.3%). The most commonly adopted preventive measures were respiratory hygiene and hand washing. Factors independently associated with the adoption of the preventive measures recommended by the Spanish Ministry of Health were female gender, higher educational level, size of municipality of residence >50,000 inhabitants, high perceived susceptibility to infection, high perceived effectiveness of the measures and high perceived usefulness of the information provided by the government. The presence of school-aged children in household was associated with purchasing masks and hand sanitizer. CONCLUSION: In addition to demographic factors, modifiable factors such as personal beliefs and expectations play a role in the adoption of preventive measures.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Medicina Preventiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Intervalos de Confianza , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Higiene , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Salud Pública/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , España/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
14.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 25(supl.1): 9-16, jun. 2011.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-141000

RESUMEN

La evaluación de las intervenciones de salud pública, en la cual rara vez es posible la aleatorización de individuos y habitualmente intervienen múltiples factores, implica numerosos retos metodológicos. Para afrontarlos hay que tener en cuenta determinados aspectos, como la elección de un diseño evaluativo apropiado y la realización de un análisis estadístico que considere los posibles confusores. El objetivo de este artículo es describir los diseños más frecuentes en la evaluación de intervenciones (políticas, programas o campañas) de salud pública, enumerando sus características, analizando sus principales ventajas y limitaciones, y haciendo una breve descripción del análisis estadístico más utilizado en cada uno de ellos (AU)


Evaluation of public health interventions poses numerous methodological challenges. Randomization of individuals is not always feasible and interventions are usually composed of multiple factors. To face these challenges, certain elements, such as the selection of the most appropriate design and the use of a statistical analysis that includes potential confounders, are essential. The objective of this article was to describe the most frequently used designs in the evaluation of public health interventions (policies, programs or campaigns). The characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of each of these evaluative designs are described. Additionally, a brief explanation of the most commonly used statistical analysis in each of these designs is Provided (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Salud Pública , Proyectos de Investigación , Sesgo , Confusión/epidemiología , Ensayo Clínico , Análisis de Regresión , Muestreo
15.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 85(1): 81-88, ene.-mar. 2011. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-86098

RESUMEN

Fundamentos: En la primavera de 2009 la aparición del nuevo virus de la gripe (H1N1) 2009 causó una enorme alarma social. El objetivo de este estudio es describir los conocimientos y las percepciones de riesgo sobre la enfermedad y su vacuna así como las medidas preventivas adoptadas por la población general en España. Métodos: Encuesta telefónica en dos oleadas a una muestra de teléfonos fijos con cuotas por edad, sexo, Comunidades Autonómicas y tamaño de municipio. El cuestionario incluía preguntas sobre percepciones, medidas preventivas y vacunación contra la gripe (H1N1) 2009. Se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo de las principales variables del estudio y se aplicó la prueba chi-cuadrado para estudiar la relación estadística para datos categóricos. Resultados: Respondieron el cuestionario 1.627 personas. 823 (51,6%) eran mujeres; 502 (30,9%) tenían entre 18 y 35 años y 580 (35,6%) entre 35 y 55. 729 (49,1%) eran trabajadores manuales y 857 (52,7%) vivían en municipios de más de 50.000 habitantes. Únicamente un 15,7% de los que respondieron se sentía a riesgo de contraer la enfermedad, percepción que disminuyó al 3,9% en la segunda oleada, tra el pico epidémico. En conjunto, más del 80% (n=1.353) pensaba que se había generado alarma social, y el 77% adoptó al menos una medida preventiva.. Las medidas preventivas más frecuentemente adoptadas fueron cubrirse la boca y la nariz con un pañuelo al toser o estornudar (n=951 ; 58,5%) y la higiene de manos con mayor frecuencia (n= 624 ; 38,4%). Conclusión: Las principales medidas adoptadas fueron las recomendadas por las autoridades sanitarias(AU)


Background: In the spring of 2009 the emergence of new influenza virus (H1N1) 2009 caused widespread alarm. The objective of this study is to describe the knowledge and risk perceptions towards the disease and its vaccine and the preventive measures adopted by the population. Methods:Atelephone survey was conducted in two rounds with quotas for age, sex, Autonomous Regions and size of municipality. Respondents were asked regarding perceptions, preventive measures, vaccination related to 2009 influenza (H1N1) 2009 and sociodemographic data. Proportional quota sampling based on age, sex, province and size of municipality was used.We performed a descriptive analysis of the main study variables and applied the chi-square test to study the statistical analysis for categorical data Results: Overall we obtained 1,627 valid responses. 823 (51,6%) were women, 502 (30.9%) were between 18 and 34 years old and 580 (35.6%) were between 35 and 55 years old. 729 (49,1%) were unskilled, manual workers, and 857 (52,7%) were living in cities larger than 50,000 inhabitants. Only 15,7 % declared to feel at risk to get influenza, and this proportion was much lower (3,9%) in the second wave, after the epidemic peak.. Overall, more than 80% (n=1353) felt that unnecessary social alarm had been generated (n=1353). 1.253 (77%) of the participants adopted at least one preventive measure. Respiratory hygiene (n=951 58,5%) and hand washing (n= 624 38,4%). were the most common preventive measures adopted. Conclusions: The main adopted measures were those recommended by the government(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/psicología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Teléfono , Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis Estadístico , Encuesta Socioeconómica , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 22(3): 217-226, jul.-sept. 2010. graf, tab, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-83052

RESUMEN

Introducción: Con frecuencia los efectos positivos observados de las intervenciones preventivas escolares son menores a los esperados, habitualmente por una implementación inadecuada. Objetivos: Describir la evaluación de proceso del programa de prevención del consumo de cánnabis en escolares (xkpts.com), medir la satisfacción de los profesores con el programa y definir los parámetros cuantitativos y cualitativos para valorar la exhaustividad de la intervención. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra: 117 aulas de 39 escuelas de 3º ESO (2812 escolares). La información se recogió mediante fichas de evaluación cumplimentadas por el profesorado y las familias. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de la implementación de la intervención en las aulas y de la participación de las familias. Resultados: Tasa de respuesta de los profesores del 65%. La discusión fue la técnica más aplicada (100% de las aulas) y el DVD el recurso más utilizado (93,4%). El entrenamiento de habilidades se aplicó en el 72,4%de aulas. El 59,2% de aulas realizó una intervención aceptable (mínimo 8 de 16 actividades preventivas) frente al 38,2% de aulas con intervención cualificada (mínimo 1 actividad por cada sesión general y 2 por cada específica). La puntuación media de la valoración del programa fue 7,4 y el 81,6% del profesorado volvería a aplicarlo. La tasa de participación de las familias fue del 28,3% (796). Conclusiones: En dos de cada tres aulas la intervención fue aceptable y cuatro de cada diez cumplieron estrictamente el protocolo. Una mayor participación de las familias se corresponde con las escuelas con una mejor implementación de la intervención (AU)


Background: The observed positive effects of school-based prevention programs are frequently lower than what was expected, usually due to inadequate implementation. Aims: To describe the process evaluation of a cannabis use school-based prevention program (xkpts.com), to measure teachers’ satisfaction with the program and to define quantitative and qualitative parameters for assessing the exhaustiveness of the intervention. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Sample: 117 9th-gradeclasses in 39 schools (2812 students). The information was gathered by means of a self-report questionnaire for teachers and families. A descriptive analysis was made of the implementation of the intervention in the classrooms and of the families’ participation. Results: Teachers’ response rate was 65%. Discussion was the method most widely applied (100% of the classrooms) and DVD was the most widely used material (93.4%). Skills training was applied in 72.4% of the classrooms. In 59.2% of the classrooms there was an acceptable intervention (at least 8 of the 16 preventive activities), while in 38.2% there was a qualified intervention (at least 1 activity for each general lesson and 2 for each specific one). Mean score given to the program by teachers was 7.4, and 81.6% of them reported their intention to apply it again. Participation rate of the students’ families was 28.3% (796). Conclusions: The intervention was acceptable in two out of three classrooms, while in four out of ten the protocol was applied strictly. Greater participation of the students’ families corresponded to those schools in which the intervention was better implemented (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Abuso de Marihuana/prevención & control , Evaluación de Resultados de Acciones Preventivas , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Relaciones Familiares
17.
Adicciones ; 22(3): 217-26, 2010.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20802984

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The observed positive effects of school-based prevention programs are frequently lower than what was expected, usually due to inadequate implementation. AIMS: To describe the process evaluation of a cannabis use school-based prevention program (xkpts.com), to measure teachers' satisfaction with the program and to define quantitative and qualitative parameters for assessing the exhaustiveness of the intervention. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SAMPLE: 117 9th-grade classes in 39 schools (2812 students). The information was gathered by means of a self-report questionnaire for teachers and families. A descriptive analysis was made of the implementation of the intervention in the classrooms and of the families' participation. RESULTS: Teachers' response rate was 65%. Discussion was the method most widely applied (100% of the classrooms) and DVD was the most widely used material (93.4%). Skills training was applied in 72.4% of the classrooms. In 59.2% of the classrooms there was an acceptable intervention (at least 8 of the 16 preventive activities), while in 38.2% there was a qualified intervention (at least 1 activity for each general lesson and 2 for each specific one). Mean score given to the program by teachers was 7.4, and 81.6% of them reported their intention to apply it again. Participation rate of the students' families was 28.3% (796). CONCLUSIONS: The intervention was acceptable in two out of three classrooms, while in four out of ten the protocol was applied strictly. Greater participation of the students' families corresponded to those schools in which the intervention was better implemented.


Asunto(s)
Abuso de Marihuana/prevención & control , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Docentes , Humanos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Servicios de Salud Escolar , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 24(2): 103-108, abr. 2010. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-83966

RESUMEN

ObjetivosLa violencia y el acoso escolar constituyen un problema social y de salud que ha generado una gran alarma en los últimos años. En este estudio se describe el acoso escolar y los factores relacionados en estudiantes de Barcelona.MétodosEstudio transversal de una muestra representativa de 2.727 estudiantes de 66 centros escolares de secundaria de Barcelona. Se definió «acoso escolar» como haber sido objeto de burla, golpeado o marginado cuatro o más veces, o al menos una vez en cada uno de los ítems, en los últimos 12 meses. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística bivariado y multivariado para estudiar la relación entre el acoso y diversos factores, incluyendo variables sociodemográficas, actitudes y comportamientos.ResultadosLa prevalencia de acoso escolar fue del 18,2%, 10,9% y 4,3% en chicos, y del 14,4%, 8,5% y 4,5% en chicas de 2° y 4° de educación secundaria obligatoria y 2° de bachillerato o ciclos formativos de grado medio, respectivamente. Los factores que se asociaron con un incremento de la probabilidad de padecer acoso fueron el estado de ánimo negativo y la conducta violenta, mientras que tener mayor edad, el consumo de riesgo de alcohol, el consumo de cannabis e ir a bares y discotecas se asociaron negativamente.ConclusionesLos resultados confirman la relevancia del problema del acoso escolar en nuestro medio, y señalan diversos factores asociados, como el estado de ánimo negativo y varios comportamientos de riesgo, que deberían ser analizados con detalle en estudios longitudinales para diseñar e implementar programas preventivos apropiados(AU)


ObjectivesViolence and bullying in the school setting are a serious social and health problem that have created great alarm in the last few years. We aimed to describe bullying and factors related to this phenomenon in students in the city of Barcelona.MethodsWe performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 2,727 students from 66 secondary schools in Barcelona. Bullying was defined as having been laughed at, hit or marginalized four or more times, or as having been the target of all three of these behaviors at least once, in the last 12 months. To analyze the associations among bullying and related factors including sociodemographic variables, attitudes and behaviors, we used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression.ResultsThe prevalence of bullying was 18.2%, 10.9% and 4.3% in boys and 14.4%, 8.5% and 4.5% in girls in the 8th, 10th and 12th grades, respectively. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of being bullied were negative mood states and violent behavior, while being older, alcohol consumption, cannabis use and going to bars and discos were negatively associated with being bullied.ConclusionsThis study confirms that bullying is a serious problem in our context and identifies certain factors, such as negative mood states and other risk behaviors. These factors should be further analyzed in longitudinal studies in order to design and implement appropriate prevention programs(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Social , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , España , Población Urbana
19.
Gac Sanit ; 24(2): 103-8, 2010 Mar-Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20005603

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Violence and bullying in the school setting are a serious social and health problem that have created great alarm in the last few years. We aimed to describe bullying and factors related to this phenomenon in students in the city of Barcelona. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 2,727 students from 66 secondary schools in Barcelona. Bullying was defined as having been laughed at, hit or marginalized four or more times, or as having been the target of all three of these behaviors at least once, in the last 12 months. To analyze the associations among bullying and related factors including sociodemographic variables, attitudes and behaviors, we used bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of bullying was 18.2%, 10.9% and 4.3% in boys and 14.4%, 8.5% and 4.5% in girls in the 8th, 10th and 12th grades, respectively. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of being bullied were negative mood states and violent behavior, while being older, alcohol consumption, cannabis use and going to bars and discos were negatively associated with being bullied. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that bullying is a serious problem in our context and identifies certain factors, such as negative mood states and other risk behaviors. These factors should be further analyzed in longitudinal studies in order to design and implement appropriate prevention programs.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana
20.
Cancer Res ; 67(17): 8255-63, 2007 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17804740

RESUMEN

During 2007, approximately 200,000 people in the United States will be diagnosed with brain tumors. Gliomas account for 77% of primary malignant brain tumors, and the prognosis has hardly changed in the past 20 years, with only 30% of patients with malignant glioma surviving 5 years after diagnosis. Oncolytic adenoviruses are promising therapies for the treatment of gliomas. Here, report the antiglioma activity of the tumor-selective ICOVIR-5 adenovirus, which encompasses an early 1A adenoviral (E1A) deletion in the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein-binding region, substitution of the E1A promoter for E2F-responsive elements, and an RGD-4C peptide motif inserted into the adenoviral fiber to enhance adenoviral tropism. Mechanistic studies showed a dramatic addiction of ICOVIR-5 to the E2F1 oncogene in vitro and in vivo. This addiction was mediated by the occupancy of the ectopic adenoviral E2F1-responsive elements by the endogenous E2F1 protein resulting in high level of E1A expression in cancer cells and potent antiglioma effect. Importantly, we showed for the first time the ability of oncolytic adenoviruses to enhance E2F transcriptional activity in vivo, and we provided direct evidence of the interaction of the E2F1 protein with native and ectopic adenovirus promoters. Restoration of Rb function led to the association of Rb/E2F1 repressor complexes with ICOVIR-5 ectopic E2F1 promoter and subsequent down-modulation of E1A, dramatically impairing adenoviral replication. In xenografted mice, intratumoral injection of ICOVIR-5 resulted in a significant improvement of the median survival (P < 0.0001), and furthermore, led to 37% of long-term survivors free of disease. The antitumor activity of ICOVIR-5 suggests that it has the potential to be an effective agent in the treatment of gliomas.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae , Proteínas E1A de Adenovirus/genética , Factor de Transcripción E2F1/metabolismo , Glioma/terapia , Viroterapia Oncolítica/métodos , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/fisiología , Animales , Regulación Viral de la Expresión Génica , Glioma/patología , Glioma/virología , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Desnudos , Virus Oncolíticos/genética , Virus Oncolíticos/fisiología , Proteína de Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína de Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Células Tumorales Cultivadas , Replicación Viral , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA