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1.
Pathogens ; 13(3)2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535555

RESUMEN

Methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and others, except for Staphylococcus aureus (SOSA), are common in healthcare-associated infections. SOSA encompass largely coagulase-negative staphylococci, including coagulase-positive staphylococcal species. Biofilm formation is encoded by the icaADBC operon and is involved in virulence. mecA encodes an additional penicillin-binding protein (PBP), PBP2a, that avoids the arrival of ß-lactams at the target, found in the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). This work aims to detect mecA, the bap gene, the icaADBC operon, and types of SCCmec associated to biofilm in MRSA and SOSA strains. A total of 46% (37/80) of the strains were S. aureus, 44% (35/80) S. epidermidis, 5% (4/80) S. haemolyticus, 2.5% (2/80) S. hominis, 1.25% (1/80) S. intermedius, and 1.25% (1/80) S. saprophyticus. A total of 85% were MR, of which 95.5% showed mecA and 86.7% ß-lactamase producers; thus, Staphylococcus may have more than one resistance mechanism. Healthcare-associated infection strains codified type I-III genes of SCCmec; types IV and V were associated to community-acquired strains (CA). Type II prevailed in MRSA mecA strains and type II and III in MRSOSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococci other than Staphylococcus aureus). The operon icaADBC was found in 24% of SA and 14% of SOSA; probably the arrangement of the operon, fork formation, and mutations influenced the variation. Methicillin resistance was mainly mediated by the mecA gene; however, there may be other mechanisms that also participate, since biofilm production is related to genes of the icaADBC operon and methicillin resistance was not associated with biofilm production. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen surveillance to prevent the spread of these outbreaks both in the nosocomial environment and in the community.

2.
Pathogens ; 12(12)2023 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38133331

RESUMEN

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacillus associated with nosocomial infections in intensive care units, and nowadays, its acquired resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) by sul genes within class 1 integrons is a worldwide health problem. Biofilm and motility are two of the major virulence factors in this bacterium and are auto-induced by the diffusible signal factor (DSF). In recent studies, retinoids have been used to inhibit (Quorum Quenching) these virulence factors and for their antimicrobial effect. The aim was to reduce biofilm formation and motility with retinoic acid (RA) in S. maltophilia SXT-resistant strains. Eleven SXT-resistant strains and two SXT-susceptible strains were tested for biofilm formation/reduction and planktonic/sessile cell viability with RA and SXT-MIC50/RA; motility (twitching, swimming, swarming) was measured with/without RA; and MLST typing was determined. The biofilm formation of the strains was classified as follows: 15.38% (2/13) as low, 61.54% (8/13) as moderate, and 23.08% (3/13) as high. It was significantly reduced with RA and SXT-MIC50/RA (p < 0.05); cell viability was not significantly reduced with RA (p > 0.05), but it was with SXT-MIC50/RA (p < 0.05); and swimming (p < 0.05) and swarming (p < 0.05) decreased significantly. MLST typing showed the first and novel strains of Mexican S. maltophilia registered in PubMLST (ST479-485, ST497, ST23, ST122, ST175, ST212, and ST300). In conclusion, RA reduced biofilm formation and motility without affecting cell viability; furthermore, antimicrobial synergism with SXT-MIC50/RA in different and novel STs of S. maltophilia was observed.

3.
Microorganisms ; 11(9)2023 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37764160

RESUMEN

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and outbreaks. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and virulence factors allow it to survive and spread in the hospital environment. However, the molecular mechanisms of these traits and their association with international clones are frequently unknown in low- and middle-income countries. Here, we analyze the phenotype and genotype of seventy-six HAIs and outbreak-causing A. baumannii isolates from a Mexican hospital over ten years, with special attention to the carbapenem resistome and biofilm formation. The isolates belonged to the global international clone (IC) 2 and the Latin America endemic IC5 and were predominantly extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Oxacillinases were identified as a common source of carbapenem resistance. We noted the presence of the blaOXA-143-like family (not previously described in Mexico), the blaOXA-72 and the blaOXA-398 found in both ICs. A low prevalence of efflux pump overexpression activity associated with carbapenem resistance was observed. Finally, strong biofilm formation was found, and significant biofilm-related genes were identified, including bfmRS, csuA/BABCDE, pgaABCD and ompA. This study provides a comprehensive profile of the carbapenem resistome of A. baumannii isolates belonging to the same pulse type, along with their significant biofilm formation capacity. Furthermore, it contributes to a better understanding of their role in the recurrence of infection and the endemicity of these isolates in a Mexican hospital.

4.
Biomedica ; 43(2): 200-212, 2023 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37433170

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The identity of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors involved in chronic osteomyelitis remains unresolved. SapS is a class C non-specific acid phosphatase and a well-known virulence factor that has been identified in S. aureus strain 154 but in protein extracts from rotting vegetables. OBJECTIVE: To identify the SapS gene and characterize the activity of SapS from S. aureus strains: 12 isolates from bone infected samples of patients treated for chronic osteomyelitis and 49 from a database with in silico analysis of complete bacterial genomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SapS gene was isolated and sequenced from 12 S. aureus clinical isolates and two reference strains; 49 S. aureus strains and 11 coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested using in silico PCR. Culture media semi-purified protein extracts from the clinical strains were assayed for phosphatase activity with p-nitro-phenylphosphate, O-phospho-L-tyrosine, O-phospho-L-serine, and OphosphoL-threonine in conjunction with various phosphatase inhibitors. RESULTS: SapS was detected in the clinical and in-silico S. aureus strains, but not in the in silico coagulase-negative staphylococci strains. Sec-type I lipoprotein-type N-terminal signal peptide sequences; secreted proteins, and aspartate bipartite catalytic domains coding sequences were found in the SapS nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis. SapS dephosphorylated with p-nitro-phenyl-phosphate and ophosphoLtyrosine were selectively resistant to tartrate and fluoride, but sensitive to vanadate and molybdate. CONCLUSION: SapS gene was found in the genome of the clinical isolates and the in silico Staphylococcus aureus strains. SapS shares biochemical similarities with known virulent bacterial, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases, suggesting it may be a virulence factor in chronic osteomyelitis.


Introducción: Se desconoce la identidad de los factores de virulencia de Staphylococcus aureus implicados en la osteomielitis crónica. Sin embargo, SapS, una fosfatasa ácida no específica de clase C, es un factor de virulencia reconocido y ya fue identificada en la cepa 154 de S. aureus, pero en extractos proteicos de vegetales podridos. Objetivo: Detectar el gen SapS y caracterizar la actividad de la fosfatasa SapS en cepas de S. aureus aisladas de pacientes con osteomielitis crónica y en las reportadas en una base de datos de análisis in silico de genomas bacterianos completos. Materiales y métodos: Se aisló y secuenció el gen SapS en los 12 aislamientos clínicos de S. aureus y en dos cepas de referencia; estas secuencias se analizaron junto con las secuencias de las cepas reportadas en la base de datos de genomas bacterianos: 49 cepas de S. aureus y 11 cepas de estafilococos negativos para coagulasa. Se evalúo la actividad de la fosfatasa SapS, presente en los extractos de los sobrenadantes de los cultivos de las cepas clínicas, mediante la hidrólisis de fosfato p-nitrofenil, O-fosfo-Ltirosina, O-fosfo-L serina y O-fosfo-L treonina junto con varios inhibidores de fosfatasas. Resultados: Se detectó el gen SapS en el genoma de las cepas clínicas y en las 49 cepas de S. aureus analizadas in silico, pero no en las 11 cepas de estafilococos negativos para coagulasa. La secuenciación de SapS reveló un péptido señal presente en el extremo N-terminal de proteínas extracelulares y los dominios bipartitos de aspartato (DDDD) en su sitio catalítico. SapS hidroliza selectivamente el fosfato p-nitrofenil y la O-fosfo-L-tirosina, pero es sensible a vanadato y molibdato. Conclusión: Se encontró SapS en el genoma de S. aureus de las cepas clínicas y de las cepas de simulación computacional. La SapS con actividad específica para la hidrólisis de la O-fosfo-L-tirosina comparte similitudes bioquímicas con las fosfatasas-tirosina bacterianas, por lo que puede formar parte de la red de factores de virulencia de la osteomielitis crónica.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fosfatasa Ácida/genética , Coagulasa , Staphylococcus
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(2): 200-212, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533925

RESUMEN

Introduction. The identity of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors involved in chronic osteomyelitis remains unresolved. SapS is a class C non-specific acid phosphatase and a well-known virulence factor that has been identified in S. aureus strain 154 but in protein extracts from rotting vegetables. Objective. To identify the SapS gene and characterize the activity of SapS from S. aureus strains: 12 isolates from bone infected samples of patients treated for chronic osteomyelitis and 49 from a database with in silico analysis of complete bacterial genomes. Materials and methods. The SapS gene was isolated and sequenced from 12 S. aureus clinical isolates and two reference strains; 49 S. aureus strains and 11 coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested using in silico PCR. Culture media semi-purified protein extracts from the clinical strains were assayed for phosphatase activity with p-nitro-phenyl- phosphate, O-phospho-L-tyrosine, O-phospho-L-serine, and OphosphoL-threonine in conjunction with various phosphatase inhibitors. Results. SapS was detected in the clinical and in-silico S. aureus strains, but not in the in silico coagulase-negative staphylococci strains. Sec-type I lipoprotein-type N-terminal signal peptide sequences; secreted proteins, and aspartate bipartite catalytic domains coding sequences were found in the SapS nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis. SapS dephosphorylated with p-nitro-phenyl-phosphate and ophosphoLtyrosine were selectively resistant to tartrate and fluoride, but sensitive to vanadate and molybdate. Conclusion. SapS gene was found in the genome of the clinical isolates and the in silico S. aureus strains. SapS shares biochemical similarities with known virulent bacterial, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases, suggesting it may be a virulence factor in chronic osteomyelitis.


Introducción. Se desconoce la identidad de los factores de virulencia de Staphylococcus aureus implicados en la osteomielitis crónica. Sin embargo, SapS, una fosfatasa ácida no específica de clase C, es un factor de virulencia reconocido y ya fue identificada en la cepa 154 de S. aureus, pero en extractos proteicos de vegetales podridos. Objetivo. Detectar el gen SapS y caracterizar la actividad de la fosfatasa SapS en cepas de S. aureus aisladas de pacientes con osteomielitis crónica y en las reportadas en una base de datos de análisis in silico de genomas bacterianos completos. Materiales y métodos. Se aisló y secuenció el gen SapS en los 12 aislamientos clínicos de S. aureus y en dos cepas de referencia; estas secuencias se analizaron junto con las secuencias de las cepas reportadas en la base de datos de genomas bacterianos: 49 cepas de S. aureus y 11 cepas de estafilococos negativos para coagulasa. Se evalúo la actividad de la fosfatasa SapS, presente en los extractos de los sobrenadantes de los cultivos de las cepas clínicas, mediante la hidrólisis de fosfato p-nitrofenil, O-fosfo-L- tirosina, O-fosfo-L serina y O-fosfo-L treonina junto con varios inhibidores de fosfatasas. Resultados. Se detectó el gen SapS en el genoma de las cepas clínicas y en las 49 cepas de S. aureus analizadas in silico, pero no en las 11 cepas de estafilococos negativos para coagulasa. La secuenciación de SapS reveló un péptido señal presente en el extremo N-terminal de proteínas extracelulares y los dominios bipartitos de aspartato (DDDD) en su sitio catalítico. SapS hidroliza selectivamente el fosfato p-nitrofenil y la O-fosfo-L-tirosina, pero es sensible a vanadato y molibdato. Conclusión. Se encontró SapS en el genoma de S. aureus de las cepas clínicas y de las cepas de simulación computacional. La SapS con actividad específica para la hidrólisis de la O-fosfo-L-tirosina comparte similitudes bioquímicas con las fosfatasas-tirosina bacterianas, por lo que puede formar parte de la red de factores de virulencia de la osteomielitis crónica.


Asunto(s)
Osteomielitis , Staphylococcus aureus , Factores de Virulencia
6.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 98(6): 436-445, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-221370

RESUMEN

Introducción: Cada año se notifican ciento treinta millones de infecciones por Chlamydia trachomatis en todo el mundo. Diecinueve serotipos de este patógeno pueden causar infecciones en mujeres embarazadas y recién nacidos. En México se desconoce la distribución de estos genotipos en recién nacidos con infecciones respiratorias. Material y métodos: Se analizaron mil sesenta y dos muestras de lavado bronquial de neonatos con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria para detección de infección por clamidia. El diagnóstico de clamidia se realizó mediante la detección de plásmidos con un ensayo PCR interno y los genotipos se identificaron mediante un ensayo PCR-RFLP del gen ompA. Resultados: El genotipado de 40 cepas identificó a 14 como I/Ia (35%), 13 como E (32,5%), 7 como D (17,5%), 5 como F (12,5%) y 1 como L2 (2,5%). El análisis de riesgo relativo mostró que el genotipo D se asoció con sepsis neonatal (RR=5,83; IC 95%: 1,51-25,985; p <0,02), mientras que el genotipo I/Ia mostró asociación significativa con madres que desarrollaron corioamnionitis (2,8; IC 95%: 1,4-5,5; p <0,05). Conclusiones: Si bien los genotipos I/Ia y E de Chlamydia trachomatis fueron la causa más frecuente de infección respiratoria en neonatos mexicanos, el 80% de los genotipos F produjeron este padecimiento. En cambio, el genotipo D se asoció con el desarrollo de sepsis neonatal y el genotipo I/Ia con corioamnionitis. (AU)


Introduction: One hundred thirty million Chlamydia trachomatis infections are reported worldwide each year. Nineteen serotypes of this pathogen can cause infection in pregnant women and neonates. The distribution of these genotypes in newborns with respiratory infections in Mexico is unknown. Material and methods: We tested 1062 bronchial lavage samples from neonates with respiratory distress syndrome for Chlamydia infection. The diagnosis of Chlamydia was made by plasmid detection with an in-house PCR assay, and genotypes were identified using a PCR-RFLP assay for the ompA gene. Results: The genotyping of 40 strains identified 14 as I/Ia (35%), 13 as E (32.5%), 7 as D (17.5%), 5 as F (12.5%), and 1 as L2 (2.5%). The relative risk analysis showed that genotype D was associated with neonatal sepsis (RR, 5.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-25.985; P<.02), while the I/Ia genotype was significantly associated with chorioamnionitis in the mother (2.8; 95% CI, 1.4–5.5; P<.05). Conclusions: Although Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes I/Ia and E of were the strains involved most frequently in respiratory infections in Mexican neonates, 80% of patients with genotype F developed respiratory disease. In contrast, genotype D was associated with neonatal sepsis, and genotype I/Ia with chorioamnionitis. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Genotipo , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Estudios Transversales , Epidemiología Descriptiva , México , Infecciones por Chlamydia , Neumonía por Clamidia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio
7.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 98(6): 436-445, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37169687

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: One hundred thirty million Chlamydia trachomatis infections are reported worldwide each year. Nineteen serotypes of this pathogen can cause infection in pregnant women and neonates. The distribution of these genotypes in newborns with respiratory infections in Mexico is unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We tested 1062 bronchial lavage samples from neonates with respiratory distress syndrome for Chlamydia infection. The diagnosis of Chlamydia was made by plasmid detection with an in-house PCR assay, and genotypes were identified using a PCR-RFLP assay for the ompA gene. RESULTS: The genotyping of 40 strains identified 14 as I/Ia (35%), 13 as E (32.5%), 7 as D (17.5%), 5 as F (12.5%), and 1 as L2 (2.5%). The relative risk analysis showed that genotype D was associated with neonatal sepsis (RR, 5.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-25.985; P < .02), while the I/Ia genotype was significantly associated with chorioamnionitis in the mother (2.8; 95% CI, 1.4-5.5; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Although C. trachomatis genotypes I/Ia and E of were the strains involved most frequently in respiratory infections in Mexican neonates, 80% of patients with genotype F developed respiratory disease. In contrast, genotype D was associated with neonatal sepsis, and genotype I/Ia with chorioamnionitis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia , Corioamnionitis , Sepsis Neonatal , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Embarazo , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Genotipo , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología
8.
Pathogens ; 12(5)2023 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37242304

RESUMEN

Global dispersion, hospital outbreaks, and lineage relationships between emerging antibiotic-resistant strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae are of public health interest. This study aimed to isolate and identify K. pneumoniae clones from third-level healthcare hospitals in Mexico to establish their multidrug-resistant phenotype, phylogeny, and prevalence. Biological and abiotic surface samples were used to isolate K. pneumoniae strains and to test their antibiotic susceptibility to classify them. The housekeeping genes: gapA, InfB, mdh, pgi, phoE, ropB, and tonB were used for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic networks were constructed with 48 strains. Isolated strains (93) were mainly from urine and blood, 96% were resistant to ampicillin as expected, 60% were extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL), 98% were susceptible to ertapenem and meropenem and 99% were susceptible to imipenem, 46% were multi-drug resistant (MDR), 17% were extensively-drug resistant (XDR), 1% were pan-drug resistant (PDR), and 36% were not classified. The tonB, mdh, and phoE genes were the most variable, and the InfB gene showed positive selection. The most prevalent sequence types (STs) were ST551 (six clones), ST405 (six clones), ST1088 (four clones), ST25 (four clones), ST392 (three clones), and ST36 (two clones). ST706 was PDR, and ST1088 clones were MDR; neither of these STs has been reported in Mexico. The strains analyzed were from different hospitals and locations; thus, it is important to maintain antibiotic surveillance and avoid clone dissemination to prevent outbreaks, adaptation to antibiotics, and the transmission of antibiotic resistance.

9.
PeerJ ; 11: e15007, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37013147

RESUMEN

Bloodstream infections due to bacteria are a highly consequential nosocomial occurrences and the organisms responsible for them are usually multidrug-resistant. The aims of this study were to describe the incidence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative ESKAPE bacilli during the COVID-19 pandemic and characterize the clinical and microbiological findings including antimicrobial resistance. A total of 115 Gram-negative ESKAPE isolates were collected from patients with nosocomial bacteremia (18% of the total bacteremias) in a tertiary care center in Mexico City from February 2020 to January 2021. These isolates were more frequently derived from the Respiratory Diseases Ward (27), followed by the Neurosurgery (12), Intensive Care Unit (11), Internal Medicine (11), and Infectious Diseases Unit (7). The most frequently isolated bacteria were Acinetobacter baumannii (34%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (28%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%) and Enterobacter spp (16%). A. baumannii showed the highest levels of multidrug-resistance (100%), followed by K. pneumoniae (87%), Enterobacter spp (34%) and P. aeruginosa (20%). The bla CTX-M-15 and bla TEM-1 genes were identified in all beta-lactam-resistant K. pneumoniae (27), while bla TEM-1 was found in 84.6% (33/39) of A. baumannii isolates. The carbapenemase gene bla OXA-398 was predominant among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (74%, 29/39) and bla OXA-24was detected in four isolates. One P. aeruginosa isolate was bla VIM-2 gene carrier, while two K. pneumoniae and one Enterobacter spp were bla NDM gene carriers. Among colistin-resistant isolates mcr-1 gene was not detected. Clonal diversity was observed in K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. Two outbreaks caused by A. baumannii ST208 and ST369 were detected, both belonging to the clonal complex CC92 and IC2. A. baumannii was associated with a death rate of 72% (28/32), most of them (86%, 24/28) extensively drug-resistant or pandrug-resistant isolates, mainly in patients with COVID-19 (86%, 24/28) in the Respiratory Diseases Ward. A. baumannii isolates had a higher mortality rate (72%), which was higher in patients with COVID-19. There was no statistically significant association between the multidrug-resistant profile in Gram-negative ESKAPE bacilli and COVID-19 disease. The results point to the important role of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative ESKAPE bacteria causing bacteremia in nosocomial settings before and during the COVID-19 epidemic. Additionally, we were unable to identify a local impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial resistance rates, at least in the short term.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Bacteriemia , COVID-19 , Infección Hospitalaria , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Sepsis , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacterias Gramnegativas/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Enterobacter , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis/epidemiología
10.
Microorganisms ; 10(11)2022 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422364

RESUMEN

Enterococci exhibit clumping under the selective pressure of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of supernatants from a plasmid-free clone (C29) of Enterococcus faecalis subjected to 0.25×, 0.5×, and 0.75× of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin on the expression of an aggregation substance (AS) by a donor plasmid clone (1390R). A clumping assay was performed. The relative expression of prgB (gene that encodes AS) was determined and semiquantified in 1390R, and iad1 expression was determined and semiquantified in C29. AS expression was analyzed in the stimulated 1390R cells by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA. Adherence was also measured. Maximal clumping was observed with the pheromone medium 0.25×. Only the 1390R strain stimulated with the C29 supernatant without ampicillin and with 0.25× was able to express prgB. No expression of prgB was observed at 0.5× and 0.75×. The difference in relative expression (RE) of 1390R without ampicillin and with 0.25× was 0.5-fold. AS expression in 1390R showed the greatest increase upon stimulation with 0.25×. When 1390R was stimulated with 0.5× and 0.75×, AS expression was also observed but was significantly lower. Ampicillin stimulated C29 switch-off pheromone expression in recipient cells, which in turn switched off AS expression in donor cells. We observed that although prgB was switched off after 0.5× stimulation in C29, the supernatants induced expression in certain 1390R strains. In conclusion, ampicillin was able to modulate pheromone expression in free plasmid clones which, in turn, modulated AS expression in plasmid donor cells. The fact that PrgB gene expression was switched off after the ampicillin stimulus at 0.5× MIC, whereas AS proteins were present on the surface of the bacteria, suggested that a mechanism of rescue associated with mechanism pheromone sensing may be involved.

11.
Reprod Biol ; 22(1): 100604, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033900

RESUMEN

Intrauterine infections caused by bacteria like group B streptococcus (GBS) and the subsequent activation of the maternal inflammatory response have been long suspected to be the underlying cause of preterm labor. The inflammatory network triggered by maternal decidua has been widely described and includes the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as IL-1ß and IL-10; however, the mechanisms that regulate their secretion have not been completely elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical modulators of the inflammatory response by regulating cytokine expression in several cell types. Here, we explored the role of miR-21 in the expression of IL-1ß and IL-10 in human decidual stromal cells (DSCs) exposed in vitro to GBS. We observed that IL1B and IL10 expression at the mRNA level was increased in DSCs after GBS infection. IL-10 but not IL-1ß secretion was detected in the culture supernatants. We found a higher miR-21 expression (22-fold) in infected DSCs as compared with non-infected cells. miR-21 functional analysis revealed that DSCs transfected with an antagomiR vs. miR-21 significantly increased the secretion of IL-1ß but decreased that of IL-10 in DSCs cells infected with GBS. Our results suggest that miR-21 participates in balancing the inflammatory response in infected decidua through at least IL-1ß and IL-10 regulation. This is the first study attributing a functional role of miR-21 in the regulation of key molecules involved in the inflammatory response in infected DSCs, providing new insights into the epigenetic control of human decidual inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Decidua/citología , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-1beta , MicroARNs , Células Cultivadas , Decidua/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , MicroARNs/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Streptococcus , Células del Estroma/metabolismo
12.
J Oncol ; 2021: 5528378, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567117

RESUMEN

NK cells represent a heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes of the innate immune system, which possess powerful antitumor activity. NK cells exhibit their function through a complex collection of receptors that act synergistically to recognize, regulate, or amplify the immune response. TLRs allow cells to detect PAMPs, MAMPs, or DAMPs, which are essential for the initiation of the immune response. Studies on the different subpopulations of NK cells and their expression profile of innate immune receptors in hematological cancers are limited. In this study, the specific subpopulations of NK cells in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the repertoire and level of expression of TLRs in cytotoxic NK cells were assessed. The results suggested that pediatric patients with ALL exhibited a significant decrease in NK cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow, in addition to alterations in the distribution of the subpopulations of cells. Regulatory and cytotoxic NK cells were diminished, whereas dysfunctional phenotype was considerably increased. Cytotoxic NK cells from children with ALL expressed all 10 TLRs, and expression of TLR1 and TLR9 was decreased compared with the controls. Interestingly, cytotoxic NK cells exhibited a higher expression of TLR1 in the bone marrow than in the peripheral blood of patients with ALL. The present study is the first to show that TLR10 was expressed in the cytotoxic NK cells and the first to assess the profile and levels of the 10 known TLRs in cytotoxic NK cells from patients with ALL. The alterations in expression levels and cellular distribution may be involved in the immune response.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 611274, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841344

RESUMEN

Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae are a major health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae strains causing bacteremia in a tertiary referral hospital in Mexico. MDR K. pneumoniae isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of resistance genes. In resistant isolates, plasmids were identified and conjugation assays were performed. Clonal diversity and the sequence types were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. A total of 80 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients with bacteremia over a 1-year period. These isolates showed a level of resistance of 59% (47/80) to aztreonam, 56-60% (45-48/80) to cephalosporins, 54% (43/80) to colistin and 12.5% (10/80) to carbapenems. The carbapenem resistant isolates were bla NDM- 1 carriers and negative for bla KPC, bla NDM, bla IMP, bla VIM and bla OXA- 48 -like carbapenemases genes. Conjugative plasmids IncFIIA and IncF group with sizes of 82-195 kbp were carriers of bla NDM- 1, bla CTX-M- 15, bla TEM- 1, aac(6')-Ib and/or aac(3')-IIa. Clonal variability and nine different multilocus sequence types were detected (ST661, ST683, ST1395, ST2706, ST252, ST1198, ST690, ST1535, and ST3368) for the first time in the isolates carrying bla NDM- 1 in Mexico. This study demonstrates that bla NDM- 1 has remained within this hospital in recent years and suggests that it is currently the most prevalent carbapenemase among K. pneumoniae MDR strains causing bacteremia in Mexico. The horizontal transfer of bla NDM- 1 gene through IncF-like plasmids among different clones demonstrates the dissemination pathway of antimicrobial resistance and underscore the need for strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM-1 carbapenemase in the hospital.

14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 1067-1076, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515065

RESUMEN

Giardia intestinalis is a human parasite that causes a diarrheal disease in developing countries. G. intestinalis has a cytoskeleton (CSK) composed of microtubules and microfilaments, and the Giardia genome does not code for the canonical CSK-binding proteins described in other eukaryotic cells. To identify candidate actin and tubulin cross-linking proteins, we performed a BLAST analysis of the Giardia genome using a spectraplakins consensus sequence as a query. Based on the highest BLAST score, we selected a 259-kDa sequence designated as a cytoskeleton linker protein (CLP259). The sequence was cloned in three fragments and characterized by immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy, and mass spectrometry (MS). CLP259 was located in the cytoplasm in the form of clusters of thick rods and colocalized with actin at numerous sites and with tubulin in the median body. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry revealed that CLP259 interacts with structural proteins such as giardins, SALP-1, axonemal, and eight coiled-coils. The vesicular traffic proteins detected were Mu adaptin, Vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B, Bip, Sec61 alpha, NSF, AP complex subunit beta, and dynamin. These results indicate that CLP259 in trophozoites is a CSK linker protein for actin and tubulin and could act as a scaffold protein driving vesicular traffic.


Asunto(s)
Actinas/metabolismo , Giardia lamblia/metabolismo , Plaquinas/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Actinas/química , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Ancirinas/química , Secuencia de Bases , Western Blotting , Biología Computacional , Secuencia de Consenso , Citoplasma/química , Citoesqueleto/química , Citoesqueleto/fisiología , Citoesqueleto/ultraestructura , Dinaminas/análisis , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Giardia lamblia/química , Giardia lamblia/ultraestructura , Humanos , Inmunoprecipitación , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Microscopía Confocal , Plaquinas/química , Alineación de Secuencia , Tubulina (Proteína)/química
15.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(2): 171-178, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285851

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization estimates that bacterial resistance will cause 10 million deaths by 2050. As part of the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, it proposed networks of specialized laboratories in order to preserve strains and optimize the use of antimicrobials. That is the case of the Latin American Surveillance Network of Antimicrobials Resistance. In a 2019 study, the main bacteria of the ESKAPE group (which are highly resistant to the most widely used antibiotics) that cause infections in Mexican Hospitals were identified to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp., ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. With information on drug resistance, regimens are recommended to treat infection caused by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen related to the development of cancer and whose prevalence in the adult population of Latin America is estimated to range between 60 and 70 %.


La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que en 2050 la resistencia bacteriana ocasionará 10 millones de muertes. Como parte del Plan de Acción Mundial sobre la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos propuso redes de laboratorios especializados, para conservar cepas y optimizar el uso de los antimicrobianos. En un estudio de 2019 se identificó que las principales bacterias del grupo ESKAPE (con alta resistencia a los antibióticos más usados) que causan infecciones en hospitales de México son Klebsiella spp. resistentes a múltiples fármacos (MDR) y productoras de betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE), Enterobacter spp. BLEE, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MDR, Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente y Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina. Con la información de resistencia a los fármacos se recomiendan esquemas para tratar la infección causada por Helicobacter pylori, relacionado con el desarrollo de cáncer y cuya prevalencia en la población adulta de Latinoamérica se estima es de entre 60 y 70 %.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología
16.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(2): 172-180, mar.-abr. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249889

RESUMEN

Resumen La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que en 2050 la resistencia bacteriana ocasionará 10 millones de muertes. Como parte del Plan de Acción Mundial sobre la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos propuso redes de laboratorios especializados, para conservar cepas y optimizar el uso de los antimicrobianos. En un estudio de 2019 se identificó que las principales bacterias del grupo ESKAPE (con alta resistencia a los antibióticos más usados) que causan infecciones en hospitales de México son Klebsiella spp. resistentes a múltiples fármacos (MDR) y productoras de betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE), Enterobacter spp. BLEE, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MDR, Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente y Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina. Con la información de resistencia a los fármacos se recomiendan esquemas para tratar la infección causada por Helicobacter pylori, relacionado con el desarrollo de cáncer y cuya prevalencia en la población adulta de Latinoamérica se estima es de entre 60 y 70 %.


Abstract The World Health Organization estimates that bacterial resistance will cause 10 million deaths by 2050. As part of the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, it proposed networks of specialized laboratories in order to preserve strains and optimize the use of antimicrobials. In a 2019 study, the main bacteria of the ESKAPE group (which are highly-resistant to the most widely used antibiotics) that cause infections in Mexican hospitals were identified to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp., ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. With information on drug resistance, regimens are recommended to treat infection caused by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen related to the development of cancer and whose prevalence in the adult population of Latin America is estimated to range between 60 and 70%.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , América Latina/epidemiología
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 539115, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643927

RESUMEN

Helicobacter pylori strains carry a range of mutations in genes that confer antimicrobial resistance and restrict the available options to treat the infection. Latin America is a region that conserve a large number of indigenous communities relatively isolated that practice a traditional medicine without consumption of drugs. We hypothesized that rates of antibiotic resistance are lower in these communities. Recent progress in whole-genome sequencing has allowed the study of drug susceptibility by searching for the known mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. The aim of this work was to study trends of antibiotic resistance over a 20-year period in Mexican H. pylori strains and to compare susceptibility between strains from Mexican mestizos and from indigenous population; we also aimed to learn the prevalence of mutational patterns in genes gyrA, gyrB, rdxA, frxA, rpsU, omp11, dppA, and 23S rRNA and its association with phenotypic tests. Resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin was determined in167 H. pylori isolates by E-test, and the occurrence of mutational patterns in specific genes was determined by whole genome sequencing (WGS). The trend of resistance over 20 years in mestizo isolates showed significant resistant increase for clarithromycin and levofloxacin to frequencies that banned its clinical use. Resistance in H. pylori isolates of native communities was lower for all antibiotics tested. Phenotypic resistance showed good to moderate correlation with genotypic tests. Genetic methods for characterizing antibiotic resistance require further validation in each population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Infecciones por Helicobacter/epidemiología , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , México , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
18.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2116, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616391

RESUMEN

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens distributed worldwide. Due to its multidrug-resistance and the propensity for the epidemic spread, the World Health Organization includes this bacterium as a priority health issue for development of new antibiotics. The aims of this study were to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile, the clonal relatedness, the virulence profiles, the innate host immune response and the clonal dissemination of A. baumannii in Hospital Civil de Guadalajara (HCG), Hospital Regional General Ignacio Zaragoza (HRGIZ) and Pediatric ward of the Hospital General de México Eduardo Liceaga (HGM-P). A total of 252 A. baumannii clinical isolates were collected from patients with nosocomial infections in these hospitals between 2015 and 2016. These isolates showed a multidrug-resistant profile and most of them only susceptible to colistin. Furthermore, 83.3 and 36.9% of the isolates carried the bla OXA- 24 and bla TEM- 1 genes for resistance to carbapenems and ß-lactam antibiotics, respectively. The clonal relatedness assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated a genetic diversity. Remarkably, the ST136, ST208 and ST369 that belonged to the clonal complex CC92 and ST758 and ST1054 to the CC636 clonal complex were identified. The ST136 was a high-risk persistent clone involved in an outbreak at HCG and ST369 were related to the first carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii outbreak in HRGIZ. Up to 58% isolates were able to attach to A549 epithelial cells and 14.5% of them induced >50% of cytotoxicity. A549 cells infected with A. baumannii produced TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1ß and the oxygen and nitrogen reactive species that contributes to the development of an inflammatory immune response. Up to 91.3% of clinical isolates were resistant to normal human serum activity. Finally, 98.5% of the clinical isolates were able to form biofilm over polystyrene tubes. In summary, these results demonstrate the increasingly dissemination of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clones in three hospitals in Mexico carrying diverse bacterial virulence factors that could contribute to establishment of the innate immune response associated to the fatality risks in seriously ill patients.

19.
Microb Drug Resist ; 25(6): 830-838, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835632

RESUMEN

The emergence of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase 1 on carbapenemase-producing bacteria has raised a major worldwide public health concern. This study reports the dissemination of blaNDM-1 in carbapenem-resistant isolates that caused nosocomial infections in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City. Seven Enterobacter cloacae and three Klebsiella pneumoniae nosocomial isolates from the same time period harbored the blaNDM-1 gene. The resistance phenotype and the blaNDM-1 gene were transferred through conjugative plasmids belonging to the incompatibility group IncFIA of 85, 101, and 195 kb in E. cloacae and 95 and 101 kb in K. pneumoniae isolates. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that blaNDM-1 was carried in similar plasmids with molecular sizes of 101 and 85 kb, each one in three isolates of E. cloacae and one of 101 kb on two isolates of K. pneumoniae. During a 9-month period, six of the seven isolates of E. cloacae analyzed harbored blaNDM-1 and belonged to clone E1. Similarly, over a 5-month period, two of the three K. pneumoniae isolates that harbored blaNDM-1 belonged to clone K1. These results demonstrate the horizontal transfer of blaNDM-1 between different bacterial species, dissemination of clones with high levels of resistance to carbapenems, and underscore the need for heightened measures to control their further spread.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/aislamiento & purificación , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Plásmidos/genética , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiología , Humanos , Infecciones por Klebsiella/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Klebsiella/microbiología , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , México , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Centros de Atención Terciaria
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