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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523669

RESUMEN

Food systems are at the center of a brewing storm consisting of a rapidly changing climate, rising hunger and malnutrition and significant social inequities. At the same time, there are vast opportunities to ensure that food systems produce healthy and safe food in equitable ways that promote environmental sustainability, especially if the world can come together at the UN Food Systems Summit in late 2021 and make strong and binding commitments towards food system transformation. The NIH-funded Nutrition Obesity Research Center at Harvard and the Harvard Medical School Division of Nutrition held their 22nd Annual Harvard Nutrition Obesity Symposium entitled "Global Food Systems and Sustainable Nutrition in the 21st Century" in June 2021. This paper presents a synthesis of this symposium and highlights the importance of food systems to address the burden of malnutrition and non-communicable diseases, climate change, and the economic and social inequities. Transformation of food systems is possible, and the nutrition and health communities have a significant role to play in this transformative process.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5413, 2021 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526495

RESUMEN

Numerous studies have focused on the need to expand production of 'blue foods', defined as aquatic foods captured or cultivated in marine and freshwater systems, to meet rising population- and income-driven demand. Here we analyze the roles of economic, demographic, and geographic factors and preferences in shaping blue food demand, using secondary data from FAO and The World Bank, parameters from published models, and case studies at national to sub-national scales. Our results show a weak cross-sectional relationship between per capita income and consumption globally when using an aggregate fish metric. Disaggregation by fish species group reveals distinct geographic patterns; for example, high consumption of freshwater fish in China and pelagic fish in Ghana and Peru where these fish are widely available, affordable, and traditionally eaten. We project a near doubling of global fish demand by mid-century assuming continued growth in aquaculture production and constant real prices for fish. Our study concludes that nutritional and environmental consequences of rising demand will depend on substitution among fish groups and other animal source foods in national diets.


Asunto(s)
Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos Marinos/estadística & datos numéricos , África , Animales , Acuicultura/métodos , Asia , Europa (Continente) , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Agua Dulce , Geografía , Salud Global , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , América del Norte , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , América del Sur
4.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
5.
Nature ; 598(7880): 315-320, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526720

RESUMEN

Despite contributing to healthy diets for billions of people, aquatic foods are often undervalued as a nutritional solution because their diversity is often reduced to the protein and energy value of a single food type ('seafood' or 'fish')1-4. Here we create a cohesive model that unites terrestrial foods with nearly 3,000 taxa of aquatic foods to understand the future impact of aquatic foods on human nutrition. We project two plausible futures to 2030: a baseline scenario with moderate growth in aquatic animal-source food (AASF) production, and a high-production scenario with a 15-million-tonne increased supply of AASFs over the business-as-usual scenario in 2030, driven largely by investment and innovation in aquaculture production. By comparing changes in AASF consumption between the scenarios, we elucidate geographic and demographic vulnerabilities and estimate health impacts from diet-related causes. Globally, we find that a high-production scenario will decrease AASF prices by 26% and increase their consumption, thereby reducing the consumption of red and processed meats that can lead to diet-related non-communicable diseases5,6 while also preventing approximately 166 million cases of inadequate micronutrient intake. This finding provides a broad evidentiary basis for policy makers and development stakeholders to capitalize on the potential of aquatic foods to reduce food and nutrition insecurity and tackle malnutrition in all its forms.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Internacionalidad , Alimentos Marinos/clasificación , Animales , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Peces , Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Carne Roja , Alimentos Marinos/análisis , Poblaciones Vulnerables
6.
SSM Popul Health ; 15: 100844, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179331

RESUMEN

Understanding and responding to adverse human health impacts of global environmental change will be a major priority of 21st century public health professionals. The emerging field of planetary health aims to face this challenge by studying and promoting policies that protect the health of humans and of the Earth's natural systems that support them. Public health, drawing on its experience of guiding policies to improve population health, has contributed to planetary health's development. Yet, few public health practitioners are familiar with planetary health's systems-oriented approaches for understanding relationships between economic development, environmental degradation, and human health. In this narrative review, we present key planetary health concepts and show how systems thinking has guided its development. We discuss historical approaches to studying impacts of economic development on human health and the environment. We then review novel conceptual frameworks adopted by planetary health scientists to study and forecast impacts of policies that influence human health and Earth's natural systems at varying spatiotemporal scales. We conclude by presenting examples of how applying the "Doughnut" model (an economic framework where the needs of people are met without overshooting the world's ecological limits) could guide policies for promoting health co-benefits to humans and natural systems.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1018, 2021 05 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Large-scale variation in ecological parameters across Madagascar is hypothesized to drive varying spatial patterns of malaria infection. However, to date, few studies of parasite prevalence with resolution at finer, sub-regional spatial scales are available. As a result, there is a poor understanding of how Madagascar's diverse local ecologies link with variation in the distribution of infections at the community and household level. Efforts to preserve Madagascar's ecological diversity often focus on improving livelihoods in rural communities near remaining forested areas but are limited by a lack of data on their infectious disease burden. METHODS: To investigate spatial variation in malaria prevalence at the sub-regional scale in Madagascar, we sampled 1476 households (7117 total individuals, all ages) from 31 rural communities divided among five ecologically distinct regions. The sampled regions range from tropical rainforest to semi-arid, spiny forest and include communities near protected areas including the Masoala, Makira, and Mikea forests. Malaria prevalence was estimated by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) cross-sectional surveys performed during malaria transmission seasons over 2013-2017. RESULTS: Indicative of localized hotspots, malaria prevalence varied more than 10-fold between nearby (< 50 km) communities in some cases. Prevalence was highest on average in the west coast region (Morombe district, average community prevalence 29.4%), situated near protected dry deciduous forest habitat. At the household level, communities in southeast Madagascar (Mananjary district) were observed with over 50% of households containing multiple infected individuals at the time of sampling. From simulations accounting for variation in household size and prevalence at the community level, we observed a significant excess of households with multiple infections in rural communities in southwest and southeast Madagascar, suggesting variation in risk within communities. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the malaria infection burden experienced by rural communities in Madagascar varies greatly at smaller spatial scales (i.e., at the community and household level) and that the southeast and west coast ecological regions warrant further attention from disease control efforts. Conservation and development efforts in these regions may benefit from consideration of the high, and variable, malaria prevalences among communities in these areas.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Madagascar/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Población Rural
8.
Ambio ; 50(5): 981-989, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454882

RESUMEN

The international development community is off-track from meeting targets for alleviating global malnutrition. Meanwhile, there is growing consensus across scientific disciplines that fish plays a crucial role in food and nutrition security. However, this 'fish as food' perspective has yet to translate into policy and development funding priorities. We argue that the traditional framing of fish as a natural resource emphasizes economic development and biodiversity conservation objectives, whereas situating fish within a food systems perspective can lead to innovative policies and investments that promote nutrition-sensitive and socially equitable capture fisheries and aquaculture. This paper highlights four pillars of research needs and policy directions toward this end. Ultimately, recognizing and working to enhance the role of fish in alleviating hunger and malnutrition can provide an additional long-term development incentive, beyond revenue generation and biodiversity conservation, for governments, international development organizations, and society more broadly to invest in the sustainability of capture fisheries and aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Animales , Acuicultura , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Peces , Políticas
9.
Front Public Health ; 8: 500, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042943

RESUMEN

Madagascar has experienced significant environmental change since 1960, particularly through forest clearing for agricultural expansion. Climatic patterns are undergoing change in Madagascar as well, with increasing temperatures, droughts, and cyclonic activity. The impact of these environmental and climatic changes will pose threats to food availability, income generation, and local ecosystems, with significant potential effects on the spatial and temporal distribution of disease burden. This study seeks to describe the health status of a large sample of geographically and socially diverse Malagasy communities through multiple clinical measurements, detailed social surveys, and paired data on regional variation in local ecologies. With an increased understanding of the current patterns of variation in human health and nutrition, future studies will be better able to identify associations with climate and anticipate and mitigate the burdens expected from larger, longer-term changes. Our mixed-method approach included an observational cross-sectional study. Research subjects were men, women, and children from 1,125 households evenly distributed across 24 communities in four ecologically and socio-demographically distinct regions of Madagascar. For these 1,125 households, all persons of both sexes and all ages therein (for a total of 6,292 individuals) were recruited into the research study and a total of 5,882 individuals were enrolled. Through repeated social survey recalls and focus group meetings, we obtained social and demographic data, including broad categories of seasonal movements, and characterized the fluctuation of income generation, food production and dietary consumption. Through collection of clinical and biological samples for both point-of-care diagnoses and laboratory analyses, we obtained detailed occurrence (and importantly co-occurrence) data on micronutrient nutritional, infectious disease, and non-communicable disease status. Our research highlights the highly variable social, cultural, and environmental contexts of health conditions in Madagascar, and the tremendous inter-regional, inter-community, and intra-community variation in nutritional and disease status. More than 30% of the surveyed population was afflicted by anemia and 14% of the population had a current malaria infection. This type of rich metadata associated with a suite of biological samples and nutritional and disease outcome data should allow disentangling some of the underlying drivers of ill health across the changing landscapes of Madagascar.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Estado Nutricional , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Madagascar/epidemiología , Masculino
10.
Malar J ; 19(1): 348, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Deforestation and land use change is widespread in Madagascar, altering local ecosystems and creating opportunities for disease vectors, such as the Anopheles mosquito, to proliferate and more easily reach vulnerable, rural populations. Knowledge of risk factors associated with malaria infections is growing globally, but these associations remain understudied across Madagascar's diverse ecosystems experiencing rapid environmental change. This study aims to uncover socioeconomic, demographic, and ecological risk factors for malaria infection across regions through analysis of a large, cross-sectional dataset. METHODS: The objectives were to assess (1) the ecological correlates of malaria vector breeding through larval surveys, and (2) the socioeconomic, demographic, and ecological risk factors for malaria infection in four ecologically distinct regions of rural Madagascar. Risk factors were determined using multilevel models for the four regions included in the study. RESULTS: The presence of aquatic agriculture (both within and surrounding communities) is the strongest predictive factor of habitats containing Anopheles larvae across all regions. Ecological and socioeconomic risk factors for malaria infection vary dramatically across study regions and range in their complexity. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for malaria transmission differ dramatically across regions of Madagascar. These results may help stratifying current malaria control efforts in Madagascar beyond the scope of existing interventions.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Anopheles/fisiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Ecosistema , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Madagascar/epidemiología , Malaria/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
11.
Nature ; 588(7836): 95-100, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814903

RESUMEN

Global food demand is rising, and serious questions remain about whether supply can increase sustainably1. Land-based expansion is possible but may exacerbate climate change and biodiversity loss, and compromise the delivery of other ecosystem services2-6. As food from the sea represents only 17% of the current production of edible meat, we ask how much food we can expect the ocean to sustainably produce by 2050. Here we examine the main food-producing sectors in the ocean-wild fisheries, finfish mariculture and bivalve mariculture-to estimate 'sustainable supply curves' that account for ecological, economic, regulatory and technological constraints. We overlay these supply curves with demand scenarios to estimate future seafood production. We find that under our estimated demand shifts and supply scenarios (which account for policy reform and technology improvements), edible food from the sea could increase by 21-44 million tonnes by 2050, a 36-74% increase compared to current yields. This represents 12-25% of the estimated increase in all meat needed to feed 9.8 billion people by 2050. Increases in all three sectors are likely, but are most pronounced for mariculture. Whether these production potentials are realized sustainably will depend on factors such as policy reforms, technological innovation and the extent of future shifts in demand.


Asunto(s)
Explotaciones Pesqueras/provisión & distribución , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Océanos y Mares , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Explotaciones Pesqueras/economía , Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/economía , Humanos , Moluscos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Alimentos Marinos/economía , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , Factores de Tiempo
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1177-1199, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246259

RESUMEN

A few data are related to the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. Prior studies focussed mainly to inventories and description of new species. Our goal was to emphasize the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. We worked in the Makira region, using two simultaneous methods: human landing catches (HLC) and CDC light traps. We collected sandflies in three rural communities adjacent to the Makira Natural Park. In each community, three different biotopes were sampled: within community settlements; at the edge of forest, typically in agricultural land; and within the forest. We collected 61 sandflies belonging to two new species presently described: Phlebotomus artemievi sp. nov. and Sergentomyia maroantsetraensis sp. nov. These sandflies were caught exclusively in the forest edge biotope. None were captured within communities or within forests. HLC provided 97% of the collected sandflies, corresponding to a human-biting rate of 15 females per human per night. CDC provided only two females. Ph. artemievi sp. nov. was predominantly captured by HLC and appears to be highly anthropophilic. Here, we update the behavioural ecology of sandflies and describe two new species. Further research is required to understand their vector competence and their ability to transmit arboviruses and other pathogens such as Leishmania.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animales , Vectores de Enfermedades , Ecosistema , Femenino , Madagascar , Masculino , Phlebotomus/clasificación , Psychodidae/clasificación
13.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 305, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612142

RESUMEN

Chickens are a key source of nutrition for rural Malagasy communities. Due to high endemic rates of Newcastle disease, it remains challenging to raise sustainable chicken flocks as a consistent food source. Here, we explore the impact of triannual Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine interventions on the growth and herd immunity acquisition of Malagasy chicken flocks. Between 2011 and 2018 we collected longitudinal data to assess the population dynamics of chicken populations in remote Malagasy communities. In 2016, we launched a pilot campaign for vaccination in six rural communities to determine the impacts on chicken survivorship and productivity. We used these data to specify a mathematical model of realistic Malagasy chicken population dynamics under a triannual vaccination regime. The mathematical model represents an extension to conventional SIR models that allows for modeling the impact of specific vaccinations on chicken flock dynamics, rather than estimation of parameters. Understanding chicken population dynamics is important for realizing the potential for domestic chicken flocks to serve as sustainable food sources. The results suggested that vaccination coverage of at least ~40% is necessary over 5+ years to achieve population doubling, while complete herd immunity may not be possible given the short duration of effectiveness of vaccination, and the high levels of births and deaths in the chicken flocks.

14.
Front Nutr ; 6: 109, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428615

RESUMEN

The Madagascar Health and Environmental Research-Antongil (MAHERY-Antongil) study cohort was set up in September 2015 to assess the nutritional value of seafood for the coastal Malagasy population living along Antongil Bay in northeastern Madagascar. Over 28 months of surveillance, we aimed to understand the relationships among different marine resource governance models, local people's fish catch, the consumption of seafood, and nutritional status. In the Antongil Bay, fisheries governance takes three general forms: traditional management, marine national parks, and co-management. Traditional management involves little to no involvement by the national government or non-governmental organizations, and focuses on culturally accepted Malagasy community practices. Co-management and marine national parks involve management support from either an non-govermental organization (NGO) or the national government. Five communities of varying governance strategies were enrolled into the study including 225 households and 1031 individuals whose diets, resource acquisition strategies, fisheries and agricultural practices, and other social, demographic and economic indicators were measured over the span of 3 years. Clinical visits with each individual were conducted at two points during the study to measure disease and nutritional status. By analyzing differences in fish catch arising from variation in governance (in addition to intra-annual seasonal changes and minor inter-annual changes), the project will allow us to calculate the public health value of sustainable fisheries management approaches for local populations. There is hope that coastal zones that are managed sustainably can increase the productivity of fisheries, increasing the catch of seafood products for poor, undernourished populations.

15.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(12): 2200-2209, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112110

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We collected dietary records over the course of nine months to comprehensively characterize the consumption patterns of Malagasy people living in remote rainforest areas of north-eastern Madagascar. DESIGN: The present study was a prospective longitudinal cohort study to estimate dietary diversity and nutrient intake for a suite of macronutrients, micronutrients and vitamins for 152 randomly selected households in two communities. SETTING: Madagascar, with over 25 million people living in an area the size of France, faces a multitude of nutritional challenges. Micronutrient-poor staples, especially rice, roots and tubers, comprise nearly 80 % of the Malagasy diet by weight. The remaining dietary components (including wild foods and animal-source foods) are critical for nutrition. We focus our study in north-eastern Madagascar, characterized by access to rainforest, rice paddies and local agriculture. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled men, women and children of both sexes and all ages in a randomized sample of households in two communities. RESULTS: Although the Household Dietary Diversity Score and Food Consumption Score reflect high dietary diversity, the Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women indicator suggests poor micronutrient adequacy. The food intake data confirm a mixed nutritional picture. We found that the median individual consumed less than 50 % of his/her age/sex-specific Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, B12, D and E, and Ca, and less than 100 % of his/her EAR for energy, riboflavin, folate and Na. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition in remote communities of north-eastern Madagascar is pervasive and multidimensional, indicating an urgent need for comprehensive public health and development interventions focused on providing nutritional security.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Micronutrientes/análisis , Bosque Lluvioso , Estaciones del Año , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Composición Familiar , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Madagascar , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211473, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811408

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Traditional food systems are under pressure from various stressors, including climate change which is projected to negatively alter the abundance of marine species harvested by coastal First Nations (FNs) in British Columbia (BC). OBJECTIVE: To model the potential impacts of the climate-related declines in seafood production on the nutritional status of coastal BC FNs. In addition, we projected potential changes in nutrient intakes, under different scenarios of substitution where traditional seafood is replaced with alternative non-traditional foods. METHODS: The study design is a mixed-method approach that combines two datasets: projected scenarios of climate-related change on seafood catch potential for coastal BC FNs and data derived from the cross-sectional First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study. The consumption of seafood was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among 356 FNs. The contribution of seafood consumption to protein, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamins (A, B12, D, niacin), and minerals (zinc, selenium and iron) requirements was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). RESULTS: Traditional seafood consumption provided daily recommendations of EPA+DHA (74-184%) and vitamin B12 (84-152%) and substantial levels of niacin (28-55%), selenium (29-55%), vitamin D (15-30%) and protein (14-30%). Projected climate change was estimated to reduce the intakes of essential nutrients by 21% and 31% under 'strong mitigation' (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP2.6) and 'business-as-usual' (RCP8.5) climate change scenarios, respectively, by the year 2050 relative to 2000. The hypothetical substitution of seafood with selected alternative non-traditional foods does not provide adequate amounts of nutrients. CONCLUSION: Traditionally-harvested seafood remains fundamental to the contemporary diet and health of coastal BC FNs. Potential dietary shifts aggravated by climate-related declines in seafood consumption may have significant nutritional and health implications for BC FN. Strategies to improve access to seafood harvest potential in coastal communities are needed to ensure nutritional health and overall well-being and to promote food security and food sovereignty in coastal FNs.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Indios Norteamericanos , Estado Nutricional , Alimentos Marinos , Adulto , Animales , Colombia Británica , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos de Población , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Alimentos Marinos/análisis , Adulto Joven
20.
Cell ; 176(3): 649-662.e20, 2019 01 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661755

RESUMEN

The body-wide human microbiome plays a role in health, but its full diversity remains uncharacterized, particularly outside of the gut and in international populations. We leveraged 9,428 metagenomes to reconstruct 154,723 microbial genomes (45% of high quality) spanning body sites, ages, countries, and lifestyles. We recapitulated 4,930 species-level genome bins (SGBs), 77% without genomes in public repositories (unknown SGBs [uSGBs]). uSGBs are prevalent (in 93% of well-assembled samples), expand underrepresented phyla, and are enriched in non-Westernized populations (40% of the total SGBs). We annotated 2.85 M genes in SGBs, many associated with conditions including infant development (94,000) or Westernization (106,000). SGBs and uSGBs permit deeper microbiome analyses and increase the average mappability of metagenomic reads from 67.76% to 87.51% in the gut (median 94.26%) and 65.14% to 82.34% in the mouth. We thus identify thousands of microbial genomes from yet-to-be-named species, expand the pangenomes of human-associated microbes, and allow better exploitation of metagenomic technologies.


Asunto(s)
Metagenoma/genética , Metagenómica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Macrodatos , Variación Genética/genética , Geografía , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos
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