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1.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 214, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Needs Assessment Tool: Progressive Disease-Heart Failure (NAT: PD-HF) is a tool created to assess the needs of people living with heart failure and their informal caregivers to assist delivering care in a more comprehensive way that addresses actual needs that are unmet, and to improve quality of life. In this study, we aimed to (1) Translate the tool into German and culturally adapt it. (2) Assess internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability of the German NAT: PD-HF. (3) Evaluate whether and how patients and health care personnel understand the tool and its utility. (4) Assess the tool's face validity, applicability, relevance, and acceptability among health care personnel. METHODS: Single-center validation study. The tool was translated from English into German using a forward-backward translation. To assess internal consistency, we used Cronbach´s alpha. To assess inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability, we used Cohen´s kappa, and to assess validity we used face validity. RESULTS: The translated tool showed good internal consistency. Raters were in substantial agreement on a majority of the questions, and agreement was almost perfect for all the questions in the test-retest analysis. Face validity was rated high by health care personnel. CONCLUSION: The German NAT: PD-HF is a reliable, valid, and internally consistent tool that is well accepted by both patients and health care personnel. However, it is important to keep in mind that effective use of the tool requires training of health care personnel.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Evaluación de Necesidades/normas , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Anciano , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuidados Paliativos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Volumen Sistólico , Traducción
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404746

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Surprise Question (SQ) is a prognostic screening tool used to identify patients with limited life expectancy. We assessed the SQ's performance predicting 1-year mortality among patients in ambulatory heart failure (HF) clinics. We determined that the SQ's performance changes according to sex and other demographic (age) and clinical characteristics, mainly left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classifications. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in two HF clinics. To assess the performance of the SQ in predicting 1-year mortality, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the positive and negative predictive values. To illustrate if the results of the SQ changes the probability that a patient dies within 1 year, we created Fagan's nomograms. We report the results from the overall sample and for subgroups according to sex, age, LVEF and NYHA functional class. RESULTS: We observed that the SQ showed a sensitivity of 85% identifying ambulatory patients with HF who are in the last year of life. We determined that the SQ's performance predicting 1-year mortality was similar among women and men. The SQ performed better for patients aged under 70 years, for patients with reduced or mildly reduced ejection fraction, and for patients NYHA class III/IV. CONCLUSIONS: We consider the tool an easy and fast first step to identify patients with HF who might benefit from an advance care planning discussion or a referral to palliative care due to limited life expectancy.

3.
Palliat Support Care ; : 1-14, 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295269

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of home-based palliative care (HBPC) on reducing hospital visits and whether HBPC lowered health care cost. METHOD: We searched six bibliographic databases (Embase (Ovid); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Medline (Ovid); PubMed; Web of Science Core Collection; and, CINAHL) until February 2019 and performed a narrative synthesis of our findings. RESULTS: Of the 1,426 identified references, 21 articles based on 19 unique studies met our inclusion criteria, which involved 92,000 participants. In both oncological and non-oncological patients, HBPC consistently reduced the number of hospital visits and their length, as well as hospitalization costs and overall health care costs. Even though home-treated patients consumed more outpatient resources, a higher saving in the hospital costs counterbalanced this. The reduction in overall health care costs was most noticeable for study periods closer to death, with greater reductions in the last 2 months, last month, and last two weeks of life. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Stakeholders should recognize HBPC as an intervention that decreases patient care costs at end of life and therefore health care providers should assess the preferences of patients nearing the end-of-life to identify those who will benefit most from HBPC.

4.
Palliat Med ; 34(8): 1019-1029, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588755

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators is increasingly common. As patients approach the end of life, it is appropriate to deactivate the shock function. AIM: To assess the prevalence of implantable cardioverter defibrillator reprogramming to deactivate the shock function at the end of life and the prevalence of advance directives among this population. DESIGN: Following a previously established protocol available in PROSPERO, we performed a narrative synthesis of our findings and used the logit transformation method to perform our quantitative synthesis. DATA SOURCES: We searched seven bibliographic databases (Embase, Cochrane Central register of controlled Trials, Medline-Ovid, Web-of-Science, Scopus, PsychInfo, and CINAHL) and additional sources until April 2019. RESULTS: Of the references we identified, 14 were included. We found a pooled prevalence of implantable cardioverter defibrillator reprogramming at the end of life of 28% (95% confidence interval, 22%-36%) with higher reprogramming rates after the recommendations for managing the device at the end of life were published. Among patients with advance directives, the pooled prevalence of advance directives that explicitly mentioned the device was 1% (95% confidence interval, 1%-3%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of implantable cardioverter defibrillator reprogramming and advance directives that explicitly mentioned the device was very low. Study data suggested reprogramming decisions were made very late, after the patient experienced multiple shocks. Patient suffering could be ameliorated if physicians and other healthcare professionals adhere to clinical guidelines for the good management of the device at the end of life and include deactivating the shock function in the discussion that leads to the advance directive.


Asunto(s)
Desfibriladores Implantables , Directivas Anticipadas , Muerte , Humanos
5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(5): 389-399, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430840

RESUMEN

To date, non-pharmacological interventions (NPI) have been the mainstay for controlling the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While NPIs are effective in preventing health systems overload, these long-term measures are likely to have significant adverse economic consequences. Therefore, many countries are currently considering to lift the NPIs-increasing the likelihood of disease resurgence. In this regard, dynamic NPIs, with intervals of relaxed social distancing, may provide a more suitable alternative. However, the ideal frequency and duration of intermittent NPIs, and the ideal "break" when interventions can be temporarily relaxed, remain uncertain, especially in resource-poor settings. We employed a multivariate prediction model, based on up-to-date transmission and clinical parameters, to simulate outbreak trajectories in 16 countries, from diverse regions and economic categories. In each country, we then modelled the impacts on intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths over an 18-month period for following scenarios: (1) no intervention, (2) consecutive cycles of mitigation measures followed by a relaxation period, and (3) consecutive cycles of suppression measures followed by a relaxation period. We defined these dynamic interventions based on reduction of the mean reproduction number during each cycle, assuming a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2.2 for no intervention, and subsequent effective reproduction numbers (R) of 0.8 and 0.5 for illustrative dynamic mitigation and suppression interventions, respectively. We found that dynamic cycles of 50-day mitigation followed by a 30-day relaxation reduced transmission, however, were unsuccessful in lowering ICU hospitalizations below manageable limits. By contrast, dynamic cycles of 50-day suppression followed by a 30-day relaxation kept the ICU demands below the national capacities. Additionally, we estimated that a significant number of new infections and deaths, especially in resource-poor countries, would be averted if these dynamic suppression measures were kept in place over an 18-month period. This multi-country analysis demonstrates that intermittent reductions of R below 1 through a potential combination of suppression interventions and relaxation can be an effective strategy for COVID-19 pandemic control. Such a "schedule" of social distancing might be particularly relevant to low-income countries, where a single, prolonged suppression intervention is unsustainable. Efficient implementation of dynamic suppression interventions, therefore, confers a pragmatic option to: (1) prevent critical care overload and deaths, (2) gain time to develop preventive and clinical measures, and (3) reduce economic hardship globally.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Maturitas ; 135: 6-26, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252966

RESUMEN

Sex is a major determinant of cardiometabolic risk. DNA methylation (DNAm), an important epigenetic mechanism that differs between sexes, has been associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review studies in adults investigating sex-specific associations of DNAm with intermediate cardiometabolic traits and incident cardiovascular disease including stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Five bibliographic databases were searched from inception to 15 July 2019. We selected 35 articles (based on 30 unique studies) from 17,023 references identified, with a total of 14,020 participants of European, North American or Asian ancestry. Four studies reported sex differences between global DNAm and blood lipid levels and stroke risk. In 25 studies that took a genome wide or candidate gene approach, DNAm at 31 gene sites was associated with sex differences in cardiometabolic diseases. The identified genes were PLA2G7, BCL11A, KDM6A, LIPC, ABCG1, PLTP, CETP, ADD1, CNN1B, HOOK2, GFBP-7,PTPN1, GCK, PTX3, ABCG1, GALNT2, CDKN2B, APOE, CTH, GNASAS, INS, PON1, TCN2, CBS, AMT, KDMA6A, FTO, MAP3K13, CCDC8, MMP-2 and ER-α. Prioritized pathway connectivity analysis associated these genes with biological pathways such as vitamin B12 metabolism, statin pathway, plasma lipoprotein, plasma lipoprotein assembly, remodeling and clearance and cholesterol metabolism. Our findings suggest that DNAm might be a promising molecular strategy for understanding sex differences in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic diseases and that future studies should investigate the effects of sex on epigenetic mechanisms in cardiometabolic risk. In addition, we emphasize the gap between the translational potential and the clinical utilization of cardiometabolic epigenetics.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/genética , Metilación de ADN , Enfermedades Metabólicas/genética , Caracteres Sexuales , Humanos
7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(5): 411-429, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076944

RESUMEN

Evidence for associations between long-term protein intake with mortality is not consistent. We aimed to examine associations of dietary protein from different sources with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We followed 7786 participants from three sub-cohorts of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary data were collected using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline (1989-1993, 2000-2001, 2006-2008). Deaths were followed until 2018. Associations were examined using Cox regression. Additionally, we performed a highest versus lowest meta-analysis and a dose-response meta-analysis to summarize results from the Rotterdam Study and previous prospective cohorts. During a median follow-up of 13.0 years, 3589 deaths were documented in the Rotterdam Study. In this cohort, after multivariable adjustment, higher total protein intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality [e.g. highest versus lowest quartile of total protein intake as percentage of energy (Q4 versus Q1), HR = 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)]; mainly explained by higher animal protein intake and CVD mortality [Q4 versus Q1, CVD mortality: 1.28 (1.03, 1.60)]. The association of animal protein intake and CVD was mainly contributed to by protein from meat and dairy. Total plant protein intake was not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality, mainly explained by null associations for protein from grains and potatoes; but higher intake of protein from legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits was associated with lower risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Findings for total and animal protein intake were corroborated in a meta-analysis of eleven prospective cohort studies including the Rotterdam Study (total 64,306 deaths among 350,452 participants): higher total protein intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality [pooled RR for highest versus lowest quantile 1.05 (1.01, 1.10)]; and for dose-response per 5 energy percent (E%) increment, 1.02 (1.004, 1.04); again mainly driven by an association between animal protein and CVD mortality [highest versus lowest, 1.09 (1.01, 1.18); per 5 E% increment, 1.05 (1.02, 1.09)]. Furthermore, in the meta-analysis a higher plant protein intake was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality [e.g. for all-cause mortality, highest versus lowest, 0.93 (0.87, 0.99); per 5 E% increment, 0.87 (0.78, 0.98), for CVD mortality, highest versus lowest 0.86 (0.73, 1.00)]. Evidence from prospective cohort studies to date suggests that total protein intake is positively associated with all-cause mortality, mainly driven by a harmful association of animal protein with CVD mortality. Plant protein intake is inversely associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. Our findings support current dietary recommendations to increase intake of plant protein in place of animal protein.Clinical trial registry number and website NTR6831, https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/6645.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Mortalidad , Proteínas de Plantas/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(1): e185989, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099281

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Objetivo Este estudio tiene como primer objetivo: realizar predicciones del curso de la infección en el horizonte temporal desde marzo 18 a abril 18 del 2020, según diferentes medidas de aislamiento aplicadas. Las predicciones incluyen, población total contagiada, mortalidad y necesidad de recursos hospitalarios. Segundo objetivo: modelar la mortalidad y la necesidad de recursos hospitalarios, estratificando por edad el escenario de contagio del 70% de la población. Métodos Para el primer objetivo, nos basamos en el número de casos confirmados en el país hasta marzo 18, 2020 (n=93). Como suposiciones para el modelo, incluimos un índice de contagio R0=2,5 y el índice de casos reales por cada caso confirmado. Para la proporción de pacientes que necesitarían cuidados intensivos u otros cuidados intrahospitalarios, nos basamos en datos aportados por el Imperial College of London. Para el segundo objetivo usamos como tasa de mortalidad por edad, datos aportados por el Instituto Superiore di Sanità en Italia. Resultados Basándonos en los 93 casos reportados al 18 de marzo, si no se aplicase ninguna medida de mitigación, para el 18 de abril el país tendría un total de 613 037 casos. Medidas de mitigación que reduzcan el R0 en un 10%, generan una reducción del 50% del número de casos. Sin embargo, a pesar de reducirse los casos a la mitad, todavía habría un déficit en el número de camas requeridas y sólo uno de cada dos pacientes tendría acceso a dicho recurso. Conclusión En nuestro modelo encontramos que las medidas de mitigación que han sido implementadas hasta la fecha por el gobierno colombiano, se fundamentan en evidencia suficiente para pensar que es posible reducir significativamente el número de casos contagiados y con esto, el número de pacientes que requerirán manejo hospitalario.(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction First case of COVID-19 in Colombia was diagnosed on March 6th. Two weeks later, cases have rapidly increased, leading the government to establish some mitigation measures. Objectives The first objective is to estimate and model the number of cases, use of hospital resources and mortality by using different R0 scenarios in a 1-month scenario (from March 18 to April 18, 2020), based on the different isolation measures applied. This work also aims to model, without establishing a time horizon, the same outcomes given the assumption that eventually 70% of the population will be infected. Materials and Methods Data on the number of confirmed cases in the country as of March 18, 2020 (n=93) were taken as the basis for the achievement of the first objective. An initial transmission rate of R0= 2.5 and a factor of 27 for undetected infections per each confirmed case were taken as assumptions for the model. The proportion of patients who may need intensive care or other in-hospital care was based on data from the Imperial College of London. On the other hand, an age-specific mortality rate provided by the Instituto Superiore di Sanità in Italy was used for the second objective. Results Based on the 93 cases reported as of March 18, if no mitigation measures were applied, by April 18, the country would have 613 037 cases. Mitigation measures that reduce R0 by 10% generate a 50% reduction in the number of cases. However, despite halving the number of cases, there would still be a shortfall in the number of beds required and only one in two patients would have access to this resource. Conclusion This model found that the mitigation measures implemented to date by the Colombian government and analyzed in this article are based on sufficient evidence and will help to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Colombia. Although a time horizon of one month was used for this model, it is plausible to believe that, if the current measures are sustained, the mitigation effect will also be sustained over time.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cuarentena/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prevención y Mitigación de Desastres , Hospitales/provisión & distribución , Colombia/epidemiología
9.
10.
J Hum Hypertens ; 33(10): 703-715, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346255

RESUMEN

Epigenetic mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and renal failure. We aimed to systematically review studies investigating the association between epigenetic marks (global, candidate-gene or genome-wide methylation of DNA, and histone modifications) and blood pressure or hypertension. Five bibliographic databases were searched until the 7th of December 2018. Of 2984 identified references, 26 articles based on 25 unique studies met our inclusion criteria, which involved a total of 28,382 participants. The five studies that assessed global DNA methylation generally found lower methylation levels with higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and/or presence of hypertension. Eighteen candidate-gene studies reported, in total, 16 differentially methylated genes, including renin-angiotensin-system-related genes (ACE promoter and AGTR1) and genes involved in sodium homeostasis and extracellular fluid volume maintenance system (NET promoter, SCNN1A, and ADD1). Between the three identified epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), lower methylation levels of SULF1, EHMT2, and SKOR2 were found in hypertensive patients as compared with normotensive subjects, and lower methylation levels of PHGDH, SLC7A11, and TSPAN2 were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In summary, the most convincing evidence has been reported from candidate-gene studies, which show reproducible epigenetic changes in the interconnected renin-angiotensin and inflammatory systems. Our study highlights gaps in the literature on the role of histone modifications in blood pressure and the need to conduct high-quality studies, in particular, hypothesis-generating studies that may help to elucidate new molecular mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/genética , Ensamble y Desensamble de Cromatina , Metilación de ADN , Epigénesis Genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Hipertensión/genética , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Hipertensión/metabolismo , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Fenotipo , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Int J Inflam ; 2019: 6273680, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205673

RESUMEN

Epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in the genetic regulation of pathways related to inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review studies investigating the association between DNA methylation and histone modifications with circulatory inflammation markers in blood. Five bibliographic databases were screened until 21 November of 2017. We included studies conducted on humans that examined the association between epigenetic marks (DNA methylation and/or histone modifications) and a comprehensive list of inflammatory markers. Of the 3,759 identified references, 24 articles were included, involving, 17,399 individuals. There was suggestive evidence for global hypomethylation but better-quality studies in the future have to confirm this. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) (n=7) reported most of the identified differentially methylated genes to be hypomethylated in inflammatory processes. Candidate genes studies reported 18 differentially methylated genes related to several circulatory inflammation markers. There was no overlap in the methylated sites investigated in candidate gene studies and EWAS, except for TMEM49, which was found to be hypomethylated with higher inflammatory markers in both types of studies. The relation between histone modifications and inflammatory markers was assessed by one study only. This review supports an association between epigenetic marks and inflammation, suggesting hypomethylation of the genome. Important gaps in the quality of studies were reported such as inadequate sample size, lack of adjustment for relevant confounders, and failure to replicate the findings. While most of the studies have been focused on C-reactive protein, further efforts should investigate other inflammatory markers.

12.
Adv Nutr ; 9(6): 726-740, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462180

RESUMEN

Phytoestrogens might have advantageous effects on diabetes in women. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of phytoestrogens on glucose homeostasis and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among women. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective observational studies that assessed associations of phytoestrogens (supplementation, dietary intake, or biomarkers) with fasting glucose or insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), or with the risk of T2D were included. We identified 18 RCTs (n = 1687 individuals) investigating the effect of phytoestrogen supplementation on glucose homeostasis and 9 prospective population-based studies (n = 212,796 individuals) examining the association between phytoestrogen intake and the risk of T2D. Compared with placebo, phytoestrogen supplementation resulted in improvements in fasting glucose and HOMA-IR: the pooled mean differences of changes were -0.12 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.20, -0.03 mmol/L) and -0.24 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.45, -0.03 mmol/L), respectively. Although there was no significant decrease in insulin concentrations with overall phytoestrogen supplementation, the pooled mean difference in changes was -0.99 pmol/L (95% CI: -4.65, 2.68 pmol/L). However, the results of RCTs varied by type of phytoestrogens: soy-derived isoflavones and genistein improved glucose homeostasis, whereas isoflavone mix and daidzein had no effect or were associated with an adverse glycemic profile. Higher dietary phytoestrogen intake was associated with a 10% lower risk of developing T2D in observational studies (pooled RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.96; for the highest compared with the lowest quantiles). Results were similar when the analyses were restricted to only medium- and high-quality studies. Overall, phytoestrogens may have a positive influence on glycemia and could be used for diabetes prevention in women. However, for some individual types of phytoestrogens, such as mixed isoflavones, caution is needed in recommending their use in women, because their use could lead to an adverse glycemic profile in women.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Homeostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoestrógenos/farmacología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiología , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Insulina/sangre , Resistencia a la Insulina , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo
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