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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(4): e23280, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821806

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: South Africa adopted a universal test and treatment program for HIV infection in 2015. The standard of care that people living with HIV receive consists of 3 sessions of readiness counseling delivered by lay counselors (LCs). In the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) program worldwide, effective and early HIV and ART education and support are key for ensuring ART adoption, adherence, and retention in care. Having LCs to deliver readiness counseling allows for the wide task-sharing of this critical activity but carries the risks of loss of standardization, incomplete content delivery, and inadequate monitoring and supervision. Systems for ensuring that a minimum standard of readiness counseling is delivered to the growing number of people living with HIV are essential in the care cascade. In resource-constrained, high-burden settings, mobile health (mHealth) apps may potentially offer solutions to these treatment gaps by providing content structure and delivery records. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore, at a large Cape Town-based nonprofit HIV care organization, the staff's perceived preimplementation barriers and facilitators of an mHealth intervention (Masivukeni) developed as a structured app for ART readiness counseling. METHODS: Masivukeni is a laptop-based app that incorporates written content, graphics, short video materials, and participant activities. In total, 20 participants were included in this study. To explore how an mHealth intervention might be adopted across different staff levels within the organization, we conducted 7 semistructured interviews (participants: 7/20, 35%) and 3 focus groups (participants in 2 focus groups: 4/20, 20%; participants in 1 focus group: 3/20, 15%) among LCs, supervisors, and their managers. In total, 20 participants were included in this study. Interviews lasted approximately 60 minutes, and focus groups ranged from 90 to 120 minutes. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to explore the perceived implementation barriers and facilitators of the Masivukeni mHealth intervention. RESULTS: Several potential facilitators of Masivukeni were identified. Multimedia and visual elements were generally regarded as aids in content delivery. The interactive learning components were notably helpful, whereas facilitated updates to the adherence curriculum were important to facilitators and managers. The potential to capture administrative information regarding LC delivery and client logging was regarded as an attractive feature. Barriers to implementation included security risks and equipment costs, the high volume of clients to be counseled, and variable computer literacy among LCs. There was uncertainty about the app's appeal to older clients. CONCLUSIONS: mHealth apps, such as Masivukeni, were perceived as being well placed to address some of the needs of those who deliver ART adherence counseling in South Africa. However, the successful implementation of mHealth apps appeared to be dependent on overcoming certain barriers in this setting.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236088

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is an urgent need to make neuropsychological (NP) testing more acceptable, accessible, and culturally salient, particularly for culturally, educationally, and linguistically diverse individuals from countries who may have little-to-no experience with NP testing. In settings with limited resources such as South Africa, unique cultural and contextual factors (e.g., structural inequality, poverty) may impact the experience of NP evaluation. Research in this area is limited and requires further exploration. This qualitative study explores the role of cultural and contextual factors that may impact the experience of NP evaluation in a sample of Xhosa-speaking South African adults. Participant interviews explored the context from which individuals arrived at the NP assessment (e.g., quality of education, understanding of cognitive disorders), and their experience of completing NP tests. METHOD: This qualitative study used data from semistructured interviews to conduct a thematic analysis exploring contextual factors and the experience of completing NP tests for the first time among Xhosa-speaking South African adults (N = 22). Results: Although no participants had prior experience with NP testing, most found testing procedures acceptable. Most participants, however, reported a limited understanding of the purpose of NP testing and cognitive problems. Additionally, some participants reported perceptions and attitudes that could affect test performance, such as misinterpreting standard testing procedures (e.g., no feedback from the examiner, being stopped mid-task) as indicative of poor performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided much needed exploration into unique cultural factors that may impact the experience of NP assessment in South Africa, which could bias test performance and interpretation, and may aid the field of cross-cultural NP in better serving culturally and linguistically diverse populations. In these countries, neuropsychologists may need to actively evaluate participants' understanding of NP testing to help foster optimal assessment conditions. They may also need to educate participants on possible causes of cognitive disorders.

3.
AIDS Behav ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025390

RESUMEN

Despite evidence of premature, accentuated and accelerated aging for some age-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases in people living with HIV (PLHIV), the evidence for these abnormal patterns of aging on neurocognition remains unclear. Further, no systematic review has been dedicated to this issue. Using PRISMA guidelines, we searched standard databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO). Articles were included if they analyzed and reported the effect of age on neurocognition among PLHIV as one of their major findings, if they were conducted in the combination anti-retroviral therapy era (after 1996) and published in a peer-reviewed journal in English. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) appraisal tools. To systematically target the abnormal patterns of neurocognitive aging, we define premature cognitive aging as significant interaction effect of HIV status and age on cross-sectional neurocognitive test performance covering both the normal and abnormal performance range; accentuated cognitive aging as significant interaction effect of HIV status and age on cross-sectional neurocognitive impairment (NCI) rate, thus covering the abnormal performance range only; accelerated cognitive aging as significant interaction effect of HIV status and age on longitudinal neurocognitive test performance or incidence of NCI. Because these definitions require an age-comparable HIV-negative (HIV-) control group, when no controls were included, we determined the range of the age effect on neurocognitive test performance or NCI among PLHIV. A total of 37 studies originating from the US (26), UK (2), Italy (2), Poland (2), China (2), Japan (1), Australia (1), and Brazil (1) were included. Six studies were longitudinal and 14 included HIV- controls. The quality appraisal showed that 12/37 studies neither used an age-matched HIV- controls nor used demographically corrected cognitive scores. A meta-analysis was not possible because study methods and choice of neurocognitive measurement methods and outcomes were heterogeneous imposing a narrative synthesis. In studies with an HIV- control sample, premature neurocognitive aging was found in 45% of the cross-sectional analyses (9/20), while accelerated neurocognitive aging was found in 75% of the longitudinal analyses (3/4). There was no evidence for accentuated aging, but this was tested only in two studies. In studies without an HIV- control sample, the age effect was always present but wide (NCI OR = 1.18-4.8). While large sample size (> 500) was associated with abnormal patterns of cognitive aging, most of the studies were under powered. Other study characteristics such as longitudinal study design and higher proportion of older participants were also associated with the findings of abnormal cognitive aging. There is some support for premature and accelerated cognitive aging among PLHIV in the existing literature especially among large and longitudinal studies and those with higher proportion of older samples. Future HIV and cognitive aging studies need to harmonize neuropsychological measurement methods and outcomes and use a large sample from collaborative multi-sites to generate more robust evidences.

4.
J Community Health ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728878

RESUMEN

Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains prevalent amongst people living with HIV. Testing for HIV-associated NCI in routine clinical care is limited in South Africa and reasons for this are unclear. We conducted an online survey amongst healthcare workers (HCW) to assess HIV-associated NCI knowledge and current practices. The final sample included four hundred surveys (n=400). Chi-square analyses were used to explore HCW knowledge of HIV-associated NCI and screening tools. One-way ANOVA was used to compare mean responses between HCW categories. We observed low awareness of HIV-associated NCI terminology and screening tools. HCW seldom suspected NCI among patients and screening practices were uncommon. Referrals for further NCI investigations were never requested. HCW expressed a desire to receive further training to identify HIV associated NCI. The current study highlights the context of HIV-associated NCI knowledge and practices among front-line HIV HCW in resource-limited settings.

5.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 779-784, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728896

RESUMEN

Few studies have examined neuroimmune pathways that could contribute to impulsivity in people living with HIV who use substances. Eighty-four methamphetamine-using, sexual minority men with an undetectable HIV viral load were administered the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity. We examined the associations between kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio with BART scores using multiple linear regression. A higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio was independently associated with greater BART scores (beta = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.05-1.23; p = 0.034). The phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio was not significantly associated with BART scores. Findings support the need for further research to elucidate the neuroimmune mechanisms linking tryptophan degradation with impulsivity to catalyze the development novel pharmacologic treatments for people living with HIV who use methamphetamine.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677005

RESUMEN

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH), especially the mild forms, even those with well-controlled HIV. Recommendations from the literature suggest routine and regular screening for HAND to detect it early and manage it effectively and adjust treatments, if warranted, when present. However, screening for HAND is not routinely done, as there are no current guidelines on when to screen and which test or tests to use. Furthermore, many of the available screening tools for HAND often cannot accurately detect the mild forms of HAND and require highly trained healthcare professionals to administer and score the tests, a requirement that is not feasible for those low- and middle-income countries with the highest HIV incidence and prevalence rates. The purpose of this chapter was to review recent research on screening tests to detect HAND and report on the strengths, limitations, and psychometric properties of those tests to detect HAND.

7.
AIDS Care ; : 1-10, 2020 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698680

RESUMEN

First-time antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiators may be more vulnerable to poor ART adherence because they may be coping with a new HIV diagnosis, facing logistical challenges to accessing and adhering to ART for the first time, and have not yet developed support networks or the skills to support long-term adherence. We recruited 324 participants in two HIV clinics near Cape Town, South Africa. Sociodemographic/psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and self-reported adherence at the 6 month follow-up. We conducted multivariable regression to determine which baseline factors were associated with 6-month adherence. A better patient-clinic relationship score (OR: 1.08 [95% CI: 1.05-1.11]) was associated with higher adherence. A drug use problem (0.51 [0.29-0.87]), higher social isolation (0.93 [0.87-0.99]), and greater number of years living with HIV before initiating ART (0.92 [0.86-1.00]) were associated with adherence levels below 90%. Patient-clinic relationships and social support are key psycho-social factors in early adherence behavior. Reducing drug use problems through targeted screening and early intervention may improve ART adherence.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 383, 2020 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in approximately 50% of people living with HIV. It typically affects memory, learning, working memory, fine motor skills, speed of information processing, verbal fluency and executive functioning cognitive domains. NCI can affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), employability, driving ability and activities of daily living. NCI is not routinely screened for in Zimbabwe, and the burden is not known in this setting. The objectives of this study were: 1) To determine NCI prevalence using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at two primary health care clinics in Harare; 2) To assess the pattern of cognitive impairment across cognitive domains using a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) battery in HIV-positive patients compared to HIV-negative controls. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 18 years or older; minimum 7 years education; no neurological or psychiatric disorders. HIV-positive participants were on ART for ≥3 months; HIV-negative participants had a confirmed HIV negative status in the past month. A comprehensive NP battery, functional assessments, demographic and medical history questionnaires were administered. The NP battery consisted of tests assessing memory, learning, working memory, fine motor skills, speed of information processing, verbal fluency and executive functioning. RESULTS: Two-hundred-and-thirty-one participants were recruited. Of those, 155 were HIV-positive (Female = 70%, Age M = 37.8; SD 11.2) and 76 HIV-negative (Female = 63%, Age M = 31.2; SD 9.9). HIV-positive participants were on ART for an average of 6 years. NCI was present in 49.7% HIV positive participants. Compared to HIV-negative participants, the HIV-positive group had significantly poorer scores in 5 out of 7 cognitive domains. A good level of education is negatively correlated with NCI. CONCLUSIONS: NCI prevalence in HIV-positive population Zimbabwe is consistent with global estimates. NCI persists in adults who are on ART. Routine assessment of NCI in adults attending primary care clinics using this adapted battery is therefore important so that they are identified early and are provided the necessary interventions.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH , Atención Primaria de Salud , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
9.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138523

RESUMEN

Management of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is becoming increasingly important with HIV-positive people living normal life spans. We aimed to establish the level of HAND awareness among doctor and nurse occupational health practitioners, screening used to detect impairment, factors limiting screening for HAND, and training needs. One-hundred-and-five members of the nursing and physician professional societies for occupational health practitioners in South Africa and Occupational Health Departments at five South African universities responded to an email invitation to complete an online survey addressing demographics, HAND knowledge, screeners being used to screen for HAND and related training needs. While 80% had heard of HAND, few (13.3%) were aware of the Frascati criteria. Only 2% had received training addressing HAND; 11.4% screened for HAND; 45.7% did not know what screening tool to us; 80% preferred spending <15 min on screening. The largest obstacle to screening was lack of expertise (77.1%) but 77.3% thought it important to screen for HAND. 94.3% wanted screening training. Health providers are poorly informed about HAND and lack expertise and tools to screen for HAND in their treatment programs. While few had relevant training, they recognize the importance of screening for HAND in the workplace and desire training.

10.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 27(2): 173-180, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265567

RESUMEN

The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) has been adapted for use in many different languages and in low- and middle-income countries. However, few adaptations have evaluated performance differences between home- and acquired-language administrations. The present study examined performance on an adapted HVLT-R between multilingual South Africans who chose to be tested in a home or acquired language. The HVLT-R was administered to 112 multilingual, isiXhosa as home language, Black South African adults (49% men) with no major medical, neurological, or psychiatric problems. Sixty-one preferred to take the test in isiXhosa and 51 preferred English. We examined between-language differences in word equivalency, primary scores, learning indices, and serial position effects. We also examined language, age, education, and gender on test performance. English-examinees were significantly younger and more educated than isiXhosa-examinees (p's < .05). Although isiXhosa words had more letters and syllables than English words (p's <.001), there were no significant differences between groups on HVLT-R performance or serial recall (p's > .05). More education and being a woman predicted better Total and Delayed Recall (p's<.05). Performance on this modified HVLT-R appears similar between English and isiXhosa administrations among South African isiXhosa first language speakers, which makes comparisons between preferred language administrations appropriate.


Asunto(s)
Multilingüismo , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Aprendizaje Verbal , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Sudáfrica/etnología , Aprendizaje Verbal/fisiología
11.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(sup1): 1-26, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043112

RESUMEN

Objective: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at risk for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)/Neurocognitive Impairment (NCI). HIV prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is high, but neuropsychological screening and testing for NCI among HIV-infected individuals is not done frequently. This systematic review aims to establish how NCI among HIV-infected individuals is being assessed in SSA, if and how the tests are adapted, if norms exist and identify personnel who administer them.Method: We searched PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Two reviewers screened the articles for inclusion and risk of bias. We included studies from SSA with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery.Results: We retrieved 212 articles and 23 articles met inclusion criteria. The most commonly used tests were the Color Trails Test 1, Color Trails Test 2, and the WAIS III Digit Symbol Test. Some tests were translated into French (Cameroon), Luganda (Uganda), Chichewa (Malawi), isiXhosa (South Africa), and Afrikaans (South Africa). Some verbal learning tests were adapted to reflect culturally appropriate language. Test administrators were either non-specialized personnel supervised by clinical neuropsychologists or clinical psychologists.Conclusion: Overall, the tests used are similar to the tests being used globally to assess NCI among HIV-infected individuals and there is a general consistency across countries. However, there is generally a lack of norms for the tests and the process of adaptation is not always well described. Future research should establish whether these tests measure neuropsychological constructs as successfully as they do in western populations where the tests were developed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Trastornos Neurocognitivos/etiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/normas , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica
12.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 685-700, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869933

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Impaired processing speed (PS) is a feature of cognitive profiles associated with neurological disorders particularly prevalent in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs). However, commonly used PS tests are not validated for use in LMICs. We assessed, using a sample of healthy South African adults, the construct validity of PS tests contained within NeuroScreen (a tablet-based application and test battery designed to be culturally fair), and established preliminary normative data for those tests (Study 1). Moreover, because South Africa has the highest population prevalence of people living with HIV and PS deficits are a core feature of HIV-associated cognitive impairment, we assessed whether NeuroScreen could detect PS impairment in a sample of HIV-infected South African adults (Study 2). METHODS: In Study 1 (N = 112 healthy adults) and Study 2 (the Study 1 sample, plus n = 102 HIV-infected adults), we administered Neuroscreen and a standardized paper-and-pencil neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: In Study 1, factor analyses indicated that NeuroScreen PS scores loaded onto one factor and converged with scores on paper-and-pencil PS tests. Regression modeling indicated that age significantly predicted NeuroScreen PS performance (i.e., younger participants performed better). In Study 2, HIV-infected participants performed significantly more poorly on NeuroScreen PS tests than their HIV-uninfected counterparts. Moreover, a significantly larger proportion of HIV-infected participants displayed impaired PS when judged against the regression-based norms. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that NeuroScreen has cross-cultural utility in assessing adult PS performance, and that it might be useful in tracking trajectories of PS decline within HIV infection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/normas , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estándares de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
13.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 32(3): 210-217, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695001

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive disorders remain a major global burden with an estimated 47 million people living with dementia worldwide. Rates of cognitive disorders are expected to grow, especially as the global population ages. Global trends also indicate that about half of the global population lives in urban settings. To help guide future research, as well as the development of targeted and tailored interventions to prevent and care for people living with cognitive disorders, we present an up-to-date review and summary of the literature examining cognitive disorders and urbanization. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature between January 2017 and September 2018 on cognitive disorders and urbanization. We found that rates of dementia among urban dwellers tends to be lower than those of rural dwellers. Leading theories explaining this difference tend to focus on better access to higher quality education, as well as public and health services among urban dwellers. We also found that greater exposure to air and noise pollutants may negatively impact cognition. SUMMARY: The reasons why older adults living in urban settings appear to have lower rates of dementia and better performance on cognitive measures are not well understood. Furthermore, the definitions of urban and rural and cognitive disorder, as well as how they are measured vary greatly between studies, making comparisons difficult.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Salud Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Urbanización , Trastornos del Conocimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
14.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(1): e5, 2018 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305338

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is one of the most common complications of HIV infection, and has serious medical and functional consequences. South Africa has 7 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) with up to three-quarters of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve individuals having NCI. South Africa's health system struggles to meet the care needs of its millions of PLHIV; screening for NCI is typically neglected due to limited clinical staff trained to administer, score, and interpret neuropsychological tests, as well as long test batteries and limited screening tools for South African populations. Without accurate, clinically useful, and relatively brief NCI screening tests that can be administered by all levels of clinical staff, critical opportunities to provide psychoeducation, behavioral planning, additional ART adherence support, and adjuvant therapies for NCI (when they become available) are missed. To address these challenges and gap in care, we developed an mHealth app screening tool, NeuroScreen, to detect NCI that can be administered by all levels of clinical staff, including lay health workers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine sensitivity and specificity of an adapted version of NeuroScreen to detect NCI (as determined by a gold standard neuropsychological test battery administered by a trained research psychometrist) among HIV-infected South Africans when administered by a lay health worker. METHODS: A total of 102 HIV-infected black South African adults who had initiated ART at least 12 months prior were administered NeuroScreen and a gold standard neuropsychological test battery in the participants' choice of language (ie, English or isiXhosa). Three composite z scores were calculated for NeuroScreen: (1) sum of all individual test scores, (2) sum of all individual test scores and error scores from four tests, and (3) sum of four tests (abbreviated version). Global deficit scores were calculated for the gold standard battery where a score of 0.5 or greater indicated the presence of NCI. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 33.31 (SD 7.46) years, most (59.8%, 61/102) had at least 12 years of education, and 81.4% (83/102) of the sample was female. Gold standard test battery results indicated that 26.5% (27/102) of the sample had NCI. Sensitivity and specificity of age-, education-, and sex-adjusted NeuroScreen scores were 81.48% and 74.67% for composite score 1, 81.48% and 81.33% for composite score 2, and 92.59% and 70.67% for composite score 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: NeuroScreen, a highly automated, easy-to-use, tablet-based screening test to detect NCI among English- and isiXhosa-speaking South African HIV patients demonstrated robust sensitivity and specificity to detect NCI when administered by lay health workers. NeuroScreen could help make screening for NCI more feasible. However, additional research is needed with larger samples and normative test performance data are needed.

15.
J Neurovirol ; 23(5): 686-695, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748448

RESUMEN

We compared the diagnostic accuracy of two brief screening tools (the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), and the IHDS combined with a novel self-report instrument, the HIV Cognitive Symptom Questionnaire (HCSQ)) with that of three brief neuropsychological screening batteries (a 2-, a 3-, and a 4-test battery, each consisting of standardized cognitive tests) in discriminating individuals with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) from those with milder forms of cognitive impairment. We analyzed data from 94 isiXhosa-speaking South African HIV-infected participants who were screened as part of a clinical trial evaluating adjunctive treatment in patients with moderate to severe HIV-associated cognitive impairment. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery diagnosed 53% (50/94) of the participants with HAD. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity for the screening tools and screening batteries. The brief screening tool performed better compared to the brief neuropsychology battery. The IHDS-HCSQ combination delivered 94% sensitivity and 63% specificity for HAD compared to the IHDS (74 and 70% at a cutoff of ≤8) which offers a viable and quick way to screen for HAD in people living with HIV. It is easy to administer, is time- and cost-efficient, and it appears to be a better option, for these purposes, than brief neuropsychology batteries. It is viable for use in clinical, research, and workplace settings when identification of HIV-infected people with severe cognitive impairment is required.


Asunto(s)
Complejo SIDA Demencia/diagnóstico , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Autoinforme , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
16.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 28(4): 504-517, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377125

RESUMEN

Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-readiness counseling has been deemed critical to adherence, instilling knowledge, and promoting positive beliefs and attitudes. In the landscape of changing policy in South Africa, some ART initiators have had prior ART-readiness counseling (e.g., for prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission [PMTCT] programs). The extent to which previous counseling resulted in retained knowledge and belief is unknown, which may be important to the promotion of women's ART adherence. We compared 320 women living with HIV and initiating ART, with and without prior PMTCT on HIV knowledge, treatment, beliefs, and attitudes. The PMTCT group held more accurate beliefs and more positive attitudes about ART. Both groups lacked understanding of basic HIV biology. Nondisclosure of HIV status was high. Thus, in individuals re-initiating therapy, some knowledge about HIV and its treatment was not well retained. Tailored education and counseling may be critical to adherence, with a focus on biological concepts that impact ART resistance.


Asunto(s)
Consejo , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
17.
Addict Behav ; 66: 132-137, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940387

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Matrix model of substance use treatment has been evaluated extensively in the United States as an effective treatment for methamphetamine use disorders. Since 2007, the Matrix model has been implemented in Cape Town, South Africa, where one in four treatment-seeking individuals are primarily opioid rather than stimulant users. Yet, there has been limited data on the application of the Matrix model for other types of substance use disorders in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: We compared primary opioid and primary methamphetamine users seeking treatment at the first certified Matrix model substance use treatment site in Cape Town, South Africa from 2009 to 2014 (n=1863) on engagement in treatment, an important early predictor of later substance use treatment outcomes, and urine-verified abstinence at treatment exit. RESULTS: Compared to primary opioid users, primary methamphetamine users had over 50% greater odds of initiating treatment (defined as attending at least one treatment session following intake; OR=1.55; 95%CI: 1.24-1.94), and 4.5 times greater odds of engaging in treatment (i.e., attending at least four treatment sessions; OR=4.48; 95%CI: 2.27-8.84). There were no significant differences in rates of urine-verified abstinence at treatment exit. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest primary opioid users may experience additional barriers to treatment initiation and engagement in the Matrix model of substance use treatment, yet those who enter treatment are equally as likely to be abstinent at treatment exit compared to primary methamphetamine users. Findings highlight the need for additional strategies to optimize treatment initiation and engagement among primary opioid users in this setting, for instance by integrating medication-assisted treatment (e.g., methadone).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Anfetaminas/rehabilitación , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central , Metanfetamina , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/rehabilitación , Adulto , Trastornos Relacionados con Anfetaminas/epidemiología , Análisis de Varianza , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
18.
AIDS Behav ; 20(10): 2387-2397, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26873492

RESUMEN

South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Anfetaminas/psicología , Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Metanfetamina/efectos adversos , Asunción de Riesgos , Parejas Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos Relacionados con Anfetaminas/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Anfetaminas/terapia , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Conducta Sexual , Medio Social , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias , Sexo Inseguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
19.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0147900, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26816208

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study documented the treatment cascade for engagement in care and abstinence at treatment exit as well as examined correlates of these outcomes for the first certified Matrix Model® substance abuse treatment site in Sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: This retrospective chart review conducted at a resource-limited community clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, assessed treatment readiness and substance use severity at treatment entry as correlates of the number of sessions attended and biologically confirmed abstinence at treatment exit among 986 clients who initiated treatment from 2009-2014. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of treatment outcomes were examined using logistic regression, modeling treatment completion and abstinence at treatment exit separately. RESULTS: Of the 2,233 clients who completed screening, approximately 44% (n = 986) initiated treatment. Among those who initiated treatment, 45% completed at least four group sessions, 30% completed early recovery skills training (i.e., at least eight group sessions), and 13% completed the full 16-week program. Approximately half (54%) of clients who provided a urine sample had negative urine toxicology results for any substance at treatment exit. Higher motivation at treatment entry was independently associated with greater odds of treatment completion and negative urine toxicology results at treatment exit. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide initial support for the successful implementation the Matrix Model in a resource-limited setting. Motivational enhancement interventions could support treatment initiation, promote sustained engagement in treatment, and achieve better treatment outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/orina , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
20.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 35(5): 580-3, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26661781

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent in parts of South Africa, and there is concern this will contribute to the country's substantial HIV epidemic. We examined the feasibility of implementing routine HIV testing at a community-based substance abuse treatment centre in Cape Town and determined the HIV sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking treatment at this site. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 293 participants completed measures of demographics, substance use and HIV treatment. HIV sero-prevalence was determined by a rapid finger-prick HIV test, and prior HIV diagnosis was confirmed via clinic records. RESULTS: The majority of participants were male and self-identified as 'Coloured', with a mean age of 28 years. The HIV sero-prevalence was 3.8%. Of the 11 participants who tested HIV positive, four were newly diagnosed. HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants were comparable on demographic and substance use factors. Uptake of HIV testing among all clients at the drug treatment centre increased from <5% prior to study initiation to 89% after study completion. Measures implemented to ensure high rates of HIV testing were regarded as sustainable. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that integrating routine HIV testing into substance abuse treatment is feasible in a community-based health centre. The low HIV prevalence among this sample of treatment-seeking methamphetamine users highlights the potential benefits of supporting expanded efforts to optimise HIV prevention with this young adult population. [Gouse H, Joska JA, Lion RR, Watt MH, Burnhams W, Carrico AW, Meade CS. HIV testing and sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking substance abuse treatment in Cape Town. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:580-583].


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Anfetaminas/terapia , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Seropositividad para VIH/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos Relacionados con Anfetaminas/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Consumidores de Drogas , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Seroprevalencia de VIH , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Metanfetamina , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Medio Social , Sudáfrica , Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias , Adulto Joven
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