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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 775, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to estimate the direct and indirect effects of the unit environment alongside individual and nursing care variables on eating dependence among residents who are cognitively impaired and living in a nursing home. METHOD: A multicentre observational study was carried out in 2017: 13 Italian nursing homes were involved in data collection. Included residents were aged > 65 at baseline, living in the considered facility for the last 6 months and during the entire study period and having received at least one comprehensive assessment. Data were collected (a) at the individual level: eating dependence using the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia Scale and other clinical variables; (b) at the nursing care level with daily interventions to maintain eating independence assessed with a checklist; and (c) at the nursing home level, using the Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes. RESULTS: One thousand twenty-seven residents were included with an average age of 85.32 years old (95% CI: 84.74-85.89), mainly female (781; 76%). The path analysis explained the 57.7% variance in eating dependence. Factors preventing eating dependence were: (a) at the individual level, increased functional dependence measured with the Barthel Index (ß - 2.374); eating in the dining room surrounded by residents (ß - 1.802) as compared to eating alone in bed; and having a close relationship with family relatives (ß - 0.854), (b) at the nursing care level, the increased number of interventions aimed at promoting independence (ß - 0.524); and (c) at the NH level, high scores in 'Space setting' (ß - 4.446), 'Safety' (ß - 3.053), 'Lighting' (ß - 2.848) and 'Outdoor access' (ß - 1.225). However, environmental factors at the unit level were found to have also indirect effects by influencing the degree of functional dependence, the occurrence of night restlessness and the number of daily interventions performed by the nursing staff. CONCLUSION: Eating dependence is a complex phenomenon requiring interventions targeting individual, nursing care, and environmental levels. The NH environment had the largest direct and indirect effect on residents' eating dependence, thus suggesting that at this level appropriate interventions should be designed and implemented.

2.
Int J Older People Nurs ; : e12282, 2019 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631519

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To validate a tool measuring self-directed learning (SDL) abilities and to determine these abilities among older individuals attending the University of the Third Age. BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) and SDL abilities have been documented as being closely linked to each other and as prerequisites in enhancing self-management competences required by older people to protect their health and to manage health issues. Furthermore, individuals with SDL abilities have been documented to have a full understanding of their health treatment prescriptions, to be able to demonstrate increased compliance and to further develop self-care competences. DESIGN: A validation and a cross-sectional study design. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 313 older people (68.7% female) who attended lessons in two Italian Universities of the Third Age and who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled. The Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning (SRSSDL) validated previously in the healthcare context, was used. RESULTS: At the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the SRSSDL in Older people (SRSSDLO) has demonstrated good psychometric properties: the tool is composed by four factors ("Awareness," "Attitudes," "Availability" and "Motivation") and 13 items. According to the findings, the average SDL score was 54.27 ± 6.69 out of 65, and women achieved significantly higher scores compared with men (54.81 ± 6.69 vs. 53.08 ± 6.54, p = .033), while participants with a university degree (55.95 ± 6.56) or secondary education (54.75 ± 6.13) had higher scores than those with lower secondary education (50.37 ± 7.34, p = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Participants were responsible for their learning processes and were capable of identifying learning needs and goals. They were also internally motivated to develop learning methods and to organise learning activities. However, they were less able to keep up to date with the learning resources available. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The SRSSDLO can help nurses identify healthy older people that lack SDL abilities and design tailored educational interventions to prevent health conditions and/or promote self-care management in chronic conditions.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e025575, 2019 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898820

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore nursing students' interprofessional educational (IPE) experiences during their most recent clinical rotation and to explore the factors supporting IPE experiences. DESIGN: National cross-sectional study on data collected in 2016. SETTING: 95 Bachelor of Nursing Sciences programmes; 27 Italian Universities. PARTICIPANTS: Students who (a) were attending or just completed their clinical rotations lasting at least 2 weeks in the same unit, and (b) willing to participate in the study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: First to measure the occurrence of IPE experiences in the most recent clinical rotation; the secondary outcome was to discover factors associated with IPE occurrence. MEASURES: The primary outcome was measured using questions based on a 4-point Likert scale (from 0='never' to 3='always'). Explanatory variables were collected at both individual and regional levels with items included in the same questionnaire. RESULTS: 9607 out of 10 480 students took part in the study. Overall, 666 (6.9%) perceived not having had any IPE experience, while 3248 (33.8%), 3653 (38%) and 2040 (21.3%) reported having experienced IPE opportunities 'only a little', to 'some extent' or 'always', respectively. From the multilevel analysis performed using the generalised linear mixed model, factors promoting the occurrence of IPE experiences were mainly set at (a) the clinical learning environment level (high: learning environment quality, self-directed learning encouragement, learning opportunities, quality of safety and nursing care and quality of tutorial strategies); and (b) the regional level, where significant differences emerged across regions. In contrast, male gender was negatively associated with the perception of having had IPE experiences. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of nursing students experienced either 'never' or 'only a little' IPE opportunities, thus suggesting that nursing education tends to remain within the nursing profession. Limiting students' interprofessional exposure during education can prevent future collaborative approaches that have been shown to be essential in providing best patient care. In order to increase IPE exposure, it is necessary to develop strategies designed both at the singular unit and regional levels.

4.
Nurse Educ Today ; 75: 13-21, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669021

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Effective performance of clinical handovers should be one of the priorities of nursing education to promote efficient communication skills and ensure patient safety. However, to date, no studies have explored to what extent nursing students are involved in handovers. OBJECTIVE: To explore nursing students' handover involvement during their clinical rotations and associated factors. METHOD: This was a secondary analysis of a large national cross-sectional study that involved 9607 undergraduate nursing students in 27 universities across 95 three-year Italian baccalaureate nursing programs. The involvement in the clinical handovers was the end point (from 0, never, to 3, always). A path analysis was performed to identify variables directly and indirectly affecting students' handover involvement. RESULTS: Handover involvement was reported as 'only a little', 'to some extent', and 'always' by 1739 (18.1%), 2939 (30.6%), and 4180 (43.5%) students, respectively; only 749 (7.8%) of students reported never being involved. At the path analysis explaining the 19.1% of variance of nursing students' involvement, some variables emerged that directly increased the likelihood of being involved in handovers. These were being female (ß = 0.115, p < 0.001); having children (ß = 0.107, p = 0.011); being a 3rd-year student (ß = 0.142, p < 0.001) and being a 2nd-year student as compared to a 1st-year student (ß = 0.050, p = 0.036); and having a longer clinical rotation (ß = 0.015, p < 0.001) in units with high 'quality of the learning environment' (ß = 0.279, p < 0.001). Moreover, students who were supervised by the nurse teacher (ß = -0.279, p < 0.001), or by a nurse on a daily basis (ß = -0.253, p = 0.004), or by the staff (ß = -0.190, p < 0.001) reported being less involved in handovers as compared to those students supervised by a clinical nurse. Variables with indirect effects also emerged (model of student's supervision adopted at the unit level, and number of previous clinical rotations attended by students). Moreover, handover involvement explained 11.5% of students self-reported degree of competences learned during the clinical experience. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting students' opportunity to be involved in handover can prevent the development of communication skills and the professional socialization processes. Strategies at different levels are needed to promote handover among undergraduate nursing students.


Asunto(s)
Pase de Guardia/estadística & datos numéricos , Preceptoría/métodos , Estudiantes de Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Bachillerato en Enfermería/métodos , Bachillerato en Enfermería/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Preceptoría/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
Nurs Health Sci ; 21(3): 297-306, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663233

RESUMEN

The aim of this regionally-based, retrospective study was to describe the incidence of self-feeding dependence and predictors among elderly patients admitted from 2008 to 2013 to 105 Italian nursing homes. Data reported in a regional database collected at the time of nursing home admission and every 6 months up to the resident's death were accessed. The self-feeding degree of dependence was the dependent variable; at the individual and nursing home levels, explanatory variables were those collected at nursing home admission and every 6 months. The structural equation model and the ordinal polynomial logit regression analysis were performed. A total of 13 175 records of residents when admitted to the nursing home and their following 69 341 records, were included. At the time of nursing home admission, 6496 residents (49.3%) reported a certain degree of dependence in self-feeding and showed slight worsening in their dependence every 6 months. At the individual level, the increased functional dependence raised the proportional odds ratios of approximately 4.36 times of an increased dependence in self-feeding; the degree of cognitive impairment, the lack of social interactions, the occurrence of pressure sores, comorbidities, as well as the clinical instability and time all raised the risk of self-feeding dependence progression. At the nursing home level, an increased number of beds emerged as a factor also increasing the proportional odds of dependence in self-feeding. Factors affecting self-feeding dependence are multi-faceted at the individual and at the nursing home levels.

6.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; 15(6): 480-490, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Easy-to-access tools have been demonstrated to improve evidence-based practice (EBP) competences among nursing students. However, students' perception of access to EBP tools (e.g., clinical practice guidelines [CPGs], protocols) is unknown. AIMS: To explore: (1) nursing students' opportunity to access EBP tools during their education, and (2) associated factors. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study including all Italian nursing programs. Nursing students were deemed eligible according to the following inclusion criteria: Those who (1) were attending or just ended their practical rotation lasting at least 2 weeks at the time of the survey, and (2) expressed through written informed consent their willingness to take part in the study. Participants were asked about their perceived opportunity to access EBP tools during their most recent clinical learning experience (from 0 - not at all to 3 - always). A set of explanatory variables was collected at the individual, nursing program, and regional levels by using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Nine thousand six hundred and seven (91.6%) out of 10,480 nursing students took part in the study. Overall, 4,376 (45.6%) students perceived not at all or only a small opportunity to access EBP tools during their most recent clinical rotation. In the multilevel analysis, factors promoting access were mainly set at the clinical learning environment level (high safety and nursing care quality, high self-directed learning opportunities, high quality of the learning environment, and being supervised by a clinical nurse). In contrast, male gender and lower academic class were associated with a lower perception of accessibility to EBP tools. A consistent variability in the perceived opportunity to access EBP tools emerged across regions. LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Evidence-based decision-making is increasingly expected from nurses. Therefore, nursing faculties should safeguard and continuously improve students' competence regarding EBP, by implementing strategies mainly at the nursing program and regional levels.

7.
Med Educ ; 52(11): 1156-1166, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345687

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Error reporting is considered one of the most important mediating factors for patient safety (PS). However, reporting errors can be challenging for health care students. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were: (i) to describe nursing students' opportunity to report errors, near misses or PS issues that emerged during their clinical learning experience; and (ii) to explore associated factors of the process of reporting itself. METHODS: A national survey was conducted on 9607 (91.7%) undergraduate nursing students. The endpoint was to have reported PS issues in the last clinical learning experience (from 0 'never' to 3 'always'). Explanatory variables were set individual, nursing programme and regional levels. RESULTS: A total of 4004 (41.7%) nursing students reported PS issues from 'never/rarely' to 'sometimes'. In the multi-level analysis, factors increasing the likelihood of reporting events affecting PS have been mainly at the nursing programme level: specifically, higher learning opportunities (odds ratio [OR] = 3.040; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.667-3.466), self-directed learning opportunities (OR = 1.491; 95% CI, 1.364-1.630), safety and nursing care quality (OR = 1.411; 95% CI, 1.250-1.594) and quality of tutorial strategies OR = 1.251; 95% CI, 1.113-1.406). By contrast, being supervised by a nurse teacher (OR = 0.523; 95% CI, 0.359-0.761) prevented the disclosure of PS issues compared with being supervised by a clinical nurse. Students attending their nursing programmes in some Italian regions showed a higher likelihood (OR from 1.346 to 2.938) of reporting PS issues compared with those undertaking their education in other regions. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing students continue to be reticent to report PS issues. Given that they represent the largest generation of future health care workers, their education regarding PS should be continuously monitored and improved; moreover, strategies aimed at developing a non-blaming culture should be designed and implemented both at the clinical learning setting and regional levels.

8.
Nurs Ethics ; : 969733018774617, 2018 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783904

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Undergraduate nursing students have been documented to experience ethical distress during their clinical training and felt poorly supported in discussing the ethical issues they encountered. Research aims: This study was aimed at exploring nursing students' perceived opportunity to discuss ethical issues that emerged during their clinical learning experience and associated factors. RESEARCH DESIGN: An Italian national cross-sectional study design was performed in 2015-2016. Participants were invited to answer a questionnaire composed of four sections regarding: (1) socio-demographic data, (2) previous clinical learning experiences, (3) current clinical learning experience quality and outcomes, and (4) the opportunity to discuss ethical issues with nurses in the last clinical learning experience (from 0 - 'never' to 3 - 'very much'). Participants and research context: Participants were 9607 undergraduate nursing students who were attending 95 different three-year Italian baccalaureate nursing programmes, located at 27 universities in 15 Italian regions. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accordance with the Human Subject Research Ethics Committee guidelines after the research protocol was approved by an ethics committee. FINDINGS: Overall, 4707 (49%) perceived to have discussed ethical issues 'much' or 'very much'; among the remaining, 3683 (38.3%) and 1217 (12.7%) students reported the perception of having discussed, respectively, 'enough' or 'never' ethical issues emerged in the clinical practice. At the multivariate logistic regression analysis explaining 38.1% of the overall variance, the factors promoting ethical discussion were mainly set at the clinical learning environment levels (i.e. increased learning opportunities, self-directed learning, safety and nursing care quality, quality of the tutorial strategies, competences learned and supervision by a clinical nurse). In contrast, being male was associated with a perception of less opportunity to discuss ethical issues. CONCLUSION: Nursing faculties should assess the clinical environment prerequisites of the settings as a context of student experience before deciding on their accreditation. Moreover, the nursing faculty and nurse managers should also enhance competence with regard to discussing ethical issues with students among clinical nurses by identifying factors that hinder this learning opportunity in daily practice.

9.
Health Policy ; 122(3): 301-308, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409682

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: An increased amount of functional dependence has been reported among residents living in nursing homes. Among others, feeding dependence is one of the most complex needs to satisfy: behind the attempt to personalise meals with individual preferences and clinical regimens, all residents require help at the same moment and for long periods of time, three or more times a day. With the intent of debating policy implications, the aims of this study were to advance the knowledge in the field of feeding dependence prevalence and predictors in Italy, a country where life expectancy is among the highest in the World. METHOD: A large retrospective regionally-based study approaching all nursing homes (n = 105) was performed in 2014; all residents (n = 10,900) were eligible and those with a completed assessment recorded in the regional database and aged >65 years (n = 8875) were included. RESULTS: 1839 residents (20.7%) were in total need of help in feeding on a daily basis. At the multilevel analysis, predictors were moderate/severe dementia (OR 4.044, CI 95% 3.213-5.090); dysphagia (OR 4.003 CI 95% 3.155-5.079); pressure sores (OR 2.317 CI 95% 1.803-2.978); unintentional weigh loss (OR 2.197 CI 95% 1.493-3.233); unsociability (OR 1.561 CI 95% 1.060-2.299); and clinical instability (OR 1.363 CI 95% 1.109-1.677). CONCLUSIONS: The feeding dependence prevalence emerged seem to be unique compared to that documented at the international levels. Modifiable and unmodifiable predictors found require new policies regarding workforce skills-mix and shifts schedules; as well as alliances with families, associations and communities' stakeholders. According to the complexity of the resident profile emerged, staff education and training is also recommended.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Dependencia (Psicología) , Conducta Alimentaria , Casas de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Políticas , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 16(1): 100-108, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28135123

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The increases in capillary wall permeability and capillary hydrostatic pressure are considered to be the causes for the acute swelling seen in flaps; however, disruption of the circulating flap lymphatics could be another contributory factor. In this study we monitor the development of flap edema in a series of 18 prefabricated flaps and aim to delineate the natural history of this phenomenon by use of lymphography. METHODS: Postoperative swelling was monitored in a series of 18 pre-expanded prefabricated cervical skin flaps used for hemi-facial burns-scar resurfacing. Time to spontaneous resolution, presence or absence of venous congestion, and clinical outcome were recorded. In two cases, indocyanine-green (ICG) lymphography was used to monitor the dermal backflow pattern until swelling had completely resolved. Average moving velocity of ICG after injection as well as flap thickness was also recorded over the follow-up period. RESULTS: The average moving velocity of ICG in the flap lymphatics improved from 0.48 cm/min to 1.5 cm/min in the first 12 days after flap transfer. The dermal backflow pattern was stardust in the first 12 days, indicating moderate lymphedema, transforming to splash from week three, and a robust collecting lymphatic vessel occurring from the fifth month, indicating mild lymphedema and lymphatic channel recovery, respectively. CONCLUSION: Transient swelling was observed in all prefabricated flaps in our series. We postulate that this is mostly secondary to lymphatic disruption that subsides as lymphangiogenesis takes place. ICG lymphography is an inexpensive, safe, and easy-to-use imaging technology that could be used in the monitoring of postoperative lymphedema seen in prefabricated flaps.

11.
Arch Plast Surg ; 44(3): 234-237, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573099

RESUMEN

Paraffinoma is a destructive complication of paraffin oil injection, usually associated with massive tissue destruction, thus requiring radical surgery and subsequent complex reconstruction. Although breast and penile paraffinomas have been widely described and their management is quite standardized, paraffinomas of the knee are still rare and only few case reports or small case series are available in the current literature. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man with a large paraffinoma of the right knee that occurred after self-injection of paraffin oil, 58 years before. He underwent wide surgical resection of the soft tissues overlying the knee and subsequent two-stage reconstruction by using acellular dermal matrix and, after 20 days, split-thickness skin grafts. Follow-up after 16 months showed no signs of skin ulcerations or inflammation, with an overall improvement in function. Even though conventional flap reconstructions may be still useful, the authors believe that acellular dermal matrices represent a safe, reliable, and less invasive alternative for challenging soft tissue reconstructions even in elderly patients with multiple medical problems.

12.
Waste Manag ; 67: 222-231, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579144

RESUMEN

This study looks at the performance of household electrical and electronic waste (WEEE) collection in 20 Italian regions from 2008 to 2015. The impact of several explicative variables on the results of e-waste collection is evaluated. The independent variables are socio-economic and demographic ones (age, gender, household size, education level, migration and income) along with technical-organisational variables (population density, presence of metropoles, macro regions, characteristics of the territory, percentage of household waste collected separately and number of e-waste collection points). The results show that the presence of collection points, the percentage of household waste collected separately and the percentage of females are positively correlated with the kg collected per inhabitant per year. For example, a variation of 1% of input (presence of collection points) corresponds to a 0.25% variation in the output (collection results) while 1% difference in the percentage of females in the population corresponds to a 7.549% difference in the collection rate. Population density, instead, is negatively correlated. It is interesting to note that there is a discrepancy between the Southern regions and the Centre regions (the former have an outcome 0.66 times lower than the latter) while the Northern regions perform similarly to the Centre ones. Moreover, the first year (2008) had a very low performance compared to the following years when the scheme constantly improved, mainly due to the additional collection points available. The Stochastic Frontier Model allows for the identification of the optimal production function among the 20 Italian regions. The best performing region is Tuscany (in the Centre), followed by Sardinia and Sicily (in the South).


Asunto(s)
Residuos Electrónicos , Reciclaje , Eliminación de Residuos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sicilia , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 36(1): 41-50, 2017 Jan-Mar.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398391

RESUMEN

. The Clinical Learning Quality Evaluation Index for nursing students. INTRODUCTION: The Italian nursing programs, the need to introduce tools evaluating the quality of the clinical learning as perceived by nursing students. Several tools already exist, however, several limitations suggesting the need to develop a new tool. AIM: A national project aimed at developing and validating a new instrument capable of measuring the clinical learning quality as experience by nursing students. METHODS: A validation study design was undertaken from 2015 to 2016. All nursing national programs (n=43) were invited to participate by including all nursing students attending regularly their clinical learning. The tool developed based upon a) literature, b) validated tools already established among other healthcare professionals, and c) consensus expressed by experts and nursing students, was administered to the eligible students. RESULTS: 9606 nursing in 27 universities (62.8%) participated. The psychometric properties of the new instrument ranged from good to excellent. According to the findings, the tool consists in 22 items and five factors: a) quality of the tutorial strategies, b) learning opportunities; c) safety and nursing care quality; d) self-direct learning; e) quality of the learning environment. CONCLUSIONS: The tool is already used. Its systematic adoption may support comparison among settings and across different programs; moreover, the tool may also support in accrediting new settings as well as in measuring the effects of strategies aimed at improving the quality of the clinical learning.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/normas , Educación en Enfermería/normas , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Psicometría/normas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
Lasers Med Sci ; 32(3): 485-494, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28127644

RESUMEN

Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.


Asunto(s)
Rayos Infrarrojos/uso terapéutico , Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad/métodos , Linfedema/radioterapia , Tejido Linfoide/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , Microcirculación , Calidad de Vida
15.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 68: 60-72, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088008

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The clinical learning environment is fundamental to nursing education paths, capable of affecting learning processes and outcomes. Several instruments have been developed in nursing education, aimed at evaluating the quality of the clinical learning environments; however, no systematic review of the psychometric properties and methodological quality of these studies has been performed to date. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were: 1) to identify validated instruments evaluating the clinical learning environments in nursing education; 2) to evaluate critically the methodological quality of the psychometric property estimation used; and 3) to compare psychometric properties across the instruments available. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature (using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines) and an evaluation of the methodological quality of psychometric properties (using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments guidelines). DATA SOURCES: The Medline and CINAHL databases were searched. Eligible studies were those that satisfied the following criteria: a) validation studies of instruments evaluating the quality of clinical learning environments; b) in nursing education; c) published in English or Italian; d) before April 2016. REVIEW METHODS: The included studies were evaluated for the methodological quality of the psychometric properties measured and then compared in terms of both the psychometric properties and the methodological quality of the processes used. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded a total of 26 studies and eight clinical learning environment evaluation instruments. A variety of psychometric properties have been estimated for each instrument, with differing qualities in the methodology used. Concept and construct validity were poorly assessed in terms of their significance and rarely judged by the target population (nursing students). Some properties were rarely considered (e.g., reliability, measurement error, criterion validity), whereas others were frequently estimated, but using different coefficients and statistical analyses (e.g., internal consistency, structural validity), thus rendering comparison across instruments difficult. Moreover, the methodological quality adopted in the property assessments was poor or fair in most studies, compromising the goodness of the psychometric values estimated. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical learning placements represent the key strategies in educating the future nursing workforce: instruments evaluating the quality of the settings, as well as their capacity to promote significant learning, are strongly recommended. Studies estimating psychometric properties, using an increased quality of research methodologies are needed in order to support nursing educators in the process of clinical placements accreditation and quality improvement.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería/normas , Psicometría , Humanos
16.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 17(12): 1099-1105, 2016 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27575983

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: It has been amply reported that nursing home (NH) residents are largely inactive, a condition that may further increase functional decline, behavioral disorders, and risk of death. To date, studies have mainly focused on individual characteristics that may decrease residents' involvement in activities. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of inactive NH residents in an Italian context, identifying predictors of inactivity at the individual and NH levels. DESIGN: Retrospective regional-based study performed in 2014. SETTING: All NHs (n = 105) located in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, northeastern region of Italy. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 8875 residents with at least 1 nursing assessment and living in an NH for at least 1 year. MEASUREMENTS: The dependent variable was inactivity in the last week, defined as the resident not being involved in any socially or individually based, or meaningful recreational (eg, gardening) activities. The independent variables were set at individual and NH levels. Aiming at identifying predictors of inactivity, a hierarchical generalized linear (mixed-effects) model incorporating both fixed-effect parameters and random effects, was performed. RESULTS: A total of 4042 (45.6%) residents were inactive during the week before the evaluation. At the resident level, those with severe cognitive impairment [odds (OR) 4.462, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.880-5.132], unsociable behavior (OR 2.961, 95% CI 2.522-3.473), night restlessness (OR 1.605, 95% CI 1.395-1.853), lack of cooperation in daily care (OR 1.408, 95% CI 1.199-1.643), pressure sores (OR 1.314, 95% CI 1.065-1.622), depressive disorders (OR 1.242, 95% CI 1.089-1.416), and clinical instability (OR 1.110, 95% CI 1.037-1.188) reported an increased risk of being inactive. At the NH level, for each additional hour of care offered by professional educators, there was 1% less likelihood of inactive residents (OR .964, 95% .933-.996). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-half of the residents in this study living in Italian NHs are inactive. Inactivity is significantly associated with the presence of severe cognitive impairment, behavioral disorders (eg, unsociability, night restlessness, and lack of cooperation in daily care), pressure sores, depressive symptoms, and clinical instability. Moreover, receiving care from professional educators whose aim in their training program and professional mission is to improve individual and social engagement, decreased the likelihood of resident inactivity.


Asunto(s)
Casas de Salud , Conducta Sedentaria , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Actividades Recreativas , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 22(5): 771-80, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27144880

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: There is growing interest in validating tools aimed at supporting the clinical decision-making process and research. However, an increased bureaucratization of clinical practice and redundancies in the measures collected have been reported by clinicians. Redundancies in clinical assessments affect negatively both patients and nurses. METHODS: To validate a meta-tool measuring the risks/problems currently estimated by multiple tools used in daily practice. A secondary analysis of a database was performed, using a cross-validation and a longitudinal study designs. In total, 1464 patients admitted to 12 medical units in 2012 were assessed at admission with the Brass, Barthel, Conley and Braden tools. Pertinent outcomes such as the occurrence of post-discharge need for resources and functional decline at discharge, as well as falls and pressure sores, were measured. Explorative factor analysis of each tool, inter-tool correlations and a conceptual evaluation of the redundant/similar items across tools were performed. Therefore, the validation of the meta-tool was performed through explorative factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation model to establish the ability of the meta-tool to predict the outcomes estimated by the original tools. RESULTS: High correlations between the tools have emerged (from r 0.428 to 0.867) with a common variance from 18.3% to 75.1%. Through a conceptual evaluation and explorative factor analysis, the items were reduced from 42 to 20, and the three factors that emerged were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. According to the structural equation model results, two out of three emerged factors predicted the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: From the initial 42 items, the meta-tool is composed of 20 items capable of predicting the outcomes as with the original tools.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia Organizacional , Evaluación en Enfermería/organización & administración , Habitaciones de Pacientes , Anciano , Bases de Datos Factuales , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Italia , Masculino , Observación , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 35(1): 29-35, 2016 Jan-Mar.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27183424

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: . Validation of the Italian Clinical Learning Environment Instrument (SVIAT): study protocol. INTRODUCTION: Nursing students obtain most of their university credits in internship environments whose quality can affect their clinical learning. Several tools are available to measure the quality of the clinical learning environment (CLE) as perceived by students: these instruments developed in other countries, were validated in Italian but do not discriminate those CLEs capable (or not) to promote significant clinical learning. AIM: To validate an instrument to measure the capability of the CLE to generate clinical learning; the secondary aim is to describe the learning environments as perceived by nursing students according to individual course site and tutorial models adopted. METHODS: The study will be developed in three phases: a) instrument development and pilot phase, b) validation of the psychometric properties of the instrument and c) description of the CLEs as perceived by the students including factors/item confirmed in the validation process. Expected outcomes. A large validation, with more than 8,000 participating students is expected; the construct under lying will be confirmed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and will report high internal consistency; the instrument will report also a high test-retest and inter-rater reliability; in addition, the instrument will demonstrate predictive ability by discriminating those units able (or not) to activate effective learning processes.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería/normas , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Italia , Aprendizaje , Psicometría , Autoinforme
19.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 32(5): 411-4, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27128261

RESUMEN

Background Reconstruction of the central facial subunits is a complex and challenging task. In cases in which both the nasal and upper lip subunits are involved, a technique that can reconstruct both aesthetic units with tissue of similar color and texture from a single donor site will be ideal. In this article we present our experience with the bipedicled preexpanded forehead flap for simultaneous nasal and upper lip resurfacing. Patients and Methods Between January 2012 and January 2015 we used this technique in the simultaneous reconstruction of total nasal and upper lip subunits in five patients. All cases were for burns scar resurfacing. Results Good aesthetic results were achieved in each of our five cases to date and no complications were encountered. All donor sites closed primarily with aesthetically pleasing well-concealed linear scars. In all cases small modifications such as philtral shaping and further flap thinning were performed under local anesthesia between 6 and 12 months postoperatively Conclusion The preexpanded forehead flap provides an unparalleled color and texture match when it comes to facial resurfacing. When both total nasal and upper lip resurfacings are required, it is possible to achieve this in a single sitting from a single donor site by using a bipedicled preexpanded forehead flap.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Faciales/cirugía , Frente/cirugía , Labio/cirugía , Nariz/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Quemaduras/patología , Quemaduras/cirugía , Cicatriz/patología , Cicatriz/cirugía , Estética , Traumatismos Faciales/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Labio/lesiones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nariz/lesiones , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
20.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 40(3): 410-20, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944891

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although application of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for the treatment of forehead rhytides has become very popular, the effects of its intramuscular injections on the skin mechanical properties remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We prospectively investigated the alterations in the mechanical properties of the skin of patients who received intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) for forehead rhytides and compared two injection doses. METHODS: Of the 42 enrolled patients, one randomly assigned half received intramuscular injections of two units (group I), and the other half received four units (group II) of BTX-A in each injection point. The baseline and post-treatment skin mechanical parameters, including gross elasticity (R2), net elasticity (R5), viscoelastic ratio (R6) and biological elasticity (R7), were measured using the Cutometer(®) and compared. RESULTS: Treatment with BTX-A resulted in significant overall alterations in the mechanical properties of skin at the injection sites of both treatment groups during the 16-week period, and no significant differences were observed between groups. Significant decreases in biological elasticity, net elasticity and viscoelasticity properties were observed at 2 weeks follow-up and began to recover at that time. All of the skin mechanical properties recovered to baseline levels by 16 weeks of follow-up in both dosage groups, which indicates that the higher dosage (4 units) did not delay relapse compared to the two-unit dosage. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that intramuscular injections of BTX-A significantly regulated the gross elasticity, net elasticity, functional elasticity and viscoelastic elasticity at the injection point over a radius of 1.5 cm at 2, 4 and 8 weeks follow-up. The alteration in the skin measurements had completely diminished by the 16-week follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administración & dosificación , Fármacos Neuromusculares/administración & dosificación , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Método Doble Ciego , Esquema de Medicación , Estética , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Frente , Humanos , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
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