Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 38
Filtrar
1.
Addict Behav ; 132: 107367, 2022 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584555

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of sleep duration on next-day alcohol and cannabis craving and use among young adults. METHOD: A community sample of young adults who reported recent simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use at screening (N = 409; Mage = 21.61; 50.9% female) completed twice daily surveys (morning and afternoon) for five 14-day sampling bursts (i.e., 70 days total). Daily measurements included sleep duration, alcohol and cannabis craving, and alcohol and cannabis use (i.e., number of drinks, hours high). Multilevel models enabled examining associations between sleep duration and substance use/craving at three distinct levels: daily-level, burst-level, and person-level. RESULTS: At the day-level, sleep duration was inversely associated with craving for both alcohol and cannabis: Stronger craving was reported on mornings and afternoons after relatively shorter sleep duration. At the burst-level, sleep duration was inversely associated with morning and afternoon alcohol craving indicating stronger alcohol craving, but not cannabis craving, during two-week periods when young adults have accumulated shorter sleep duration. Pertaining to alcohol and cannabis use, no daily-level effects were found, but the burst-level effect showed that participants engaged in greater alcohol use during two-week bursts with shorter sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a non-clinical sample of young adults reporting substance use, results suggest shorter sleep duration may be a modifiable risk factor as it pertains to substance use and cravings. Results highlight day-level effects of shorter sleep duration on substance use cravings and adverse effects of cumulative sleep deficit on alcohol use.

2.
Vaccine ; 40(12): 1888-1895, 2022 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190209

RESUMEN

Among US adults, the highest rates of hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine are among young adults aged 18 to 25. Vaccine hesitancy is particularly concerning among young adults in college, where social interactions on densely populated campuses can lead to substantial community spread. Given that many colleges have opted not to mandate vaccines, identification of modifiable predictors of vaccine hesitancy - such as perceived social norms - is key to informing interventions to promote vaccine uptake. To address this need, we examined predictors of and explicit reasons for vaccine hesitancy among 989 students aged 18 to 25 recruited from four geographically diverse US universities in the spring of 2021. At the time of the survey, 57.3% had been vaccinated, 13.7% intended to be vaccinated as soon as possible, and 29.0% were vaccine hesitant. Common reasons for hesitancy were wanting to see how it affected others first (75.2%), not believing it was necessary (30.0%), and other reasons (17.4%), which were examined via content analysis and revealed prominent safety concerns. Despite these varied explicit reasons, logistic regressions revealed that, when controlling for demographics and pandemic-related experiences, perceived descriptive and injunctive social norms for vaccine uptake were each significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy (ORs = 0.35 and 0.78, respectively). When both norms were entered into the same model, only perceived descriptive norms uniquely predicted vaccine hesitancy (OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.46). Findings suggest perceived social norms are strongly associated with vaccine-related behavior among young adult college students. Correcting normative misperceptions may be a promising approach to increase vaccine uptake and slow the spread of COVID-19 among young adults.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Normas Sociales , Estudiantes , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
3.
Behav Sleep Med ; : 1-13, 2022 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156478

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Young adults may use alcohol and cannabis as sleep aids, a risky behavior that can worsen sleep health over time and lead to substance dependence. Perceived norms for such risky behaviors are often overestimated and related to one's own use. This cross-sectional study examined: (a) the extent to which college students overestimated the prevalence of alcohol and cannabis use as sleep aids (i.e., perceived descriptive norms), and (b) the extent to which perceived descriptive norms were associated with students' own use of alcohol and cannabis as sleep aids. METHODS: 2,642 undergraduate college students (Mage = 18.84 years) reported past 30-day use of alcohol and cannabis as sleep aids. Participants also estimated the percent of college students who use alcohol and cannabis as sleep aids (i.e., perceived descriptive norms). RESULTS: One-sample t-tests revealed participants, on average, overestimated the norms for using alcohol and cannabis as sleep aids. Participants who endorsed past 30-day use of these substances as sleep aids overestimated these norms to an even greater extent. Count regression models showed perceived descriptive norms were associated with students' use of alcohol and of cannabis as sleeps aids, in respective models, even when controlling for sleep difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: College students may overestimate the prevalence of using alcohol and cannabis as sleep aids, and students who believe these behaviors are more normative report more frequent use of these substances as sleep aids. Taken together, findings may highlight the potential for norm-correcting strategies as a prudent approach to reducing/preventing the use of alcohol and cannabis as sleep aids.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102692

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented young adults with novel challenges and disruptions to several life domains. The current study examined how COVID-19-related stressors (i.e., job-related, financial-related, social/relational, and illness-related stressors) relate to young adults' symptoms of depression and anxiety, and satisfaction with life (in the US). In Aim 1, we examined associations between COVID-19-related stressors and indices of mental health and well-being in the initial phase of the pandemic (April/May 2020) while accounting for participants' pre-pandemic levels of these outcomes in January of 2020 (N = 519; Mage = 25.4; 62.8% women). Social/relational stressors were most strongly associated with increased symptoms of anxiety/depression, and financial stressors were most strongly associated with decreased satisfaction with life. Extending this research longitudinally (Aim 2), we sampled young adults bi-monthly across a year-long period (September 2020 to August 2021). Multilevel models revealed within-person associations between each stressor domain and mental health/well-being; young adults reported more symptoms of depression/anxiety and lower satisfaction with life in months that stressors were relatively more salient. Interactions between stressors and time revealed associations were generally stronger in earlier months and decreased linearly across the pandemic. Taken together, longitudinal evidence indicates that COVID-19-related stressors, especially social/relational stressors, have direct and time-varying associations with mental health and well-being.

5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(3): 447-457, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076100

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Incapacitated rape (IR) is common in college and has been linked to heavier post-assault drinking and consequences, including blackouts. Following IR, college students may adjust their drinking in ways meant to increase perceived safety, such as enhancing situational control over one's drinks through prepartying, which is drinking before going out to a main social event. Although it is possible that prepartying could influence risk related to IR, it is unclear whether or how prepartying and IR are associated. METHODS: To address these gaps, we examined prepartying as both a risk factor and a consequence of IR, including the reasons for prepartying. Across two studies (Study 1 N = 1074; Study 2 N = 1753) of college women and men, we examined associations between IR and prepartying motives, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related blackouts. RESULTS: Within the cross-sectional Study 1, negative binomial regressions revealed that having a history of IR was associated with more alcohol consumption and blackouts when prepartying. In a multivariate model, past-year IR was associated with preparty motives related to interpersonal enhancement, intimate pursuit, and barriers to consumption, but not situational control. Within the prospective Study 2, a path model revealed that preparty drinking was a prospective predictor of IR in the following year, but past-year IR did not predict subsequent prepartying. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed a robust link between recent history of IR and prepartying regardless of gender. Prepartying was a prospective risk factor for subsequent IR. Although more research in this area is needed, addressing prepartying in alcohol interventions may contribute to the prevention of negative outcomes, including sexual assault.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Violación , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Universidades
6.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(8): 867-876, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881916

RESUMEN

Objective: Perceptions of friends' approval of drinking behaviors (i.e., injunctive drinking norms) play a central role in shaping college students' alcohol use behaviors. However, we know little about the extent that students' perceptions of friends' approval fluctuate over time and whether there are within-person associations between these injunctive norms and alcohol use. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated within-person variability in perceptions of friends' approval of alcohol use across a 12-month period and examined within-person associations between perceptions of friends' approval and 3 discrete drinking behaviors: number of weekly drinks, hazardous drinking behaviors, and peak estimated blood-alcohol content (peak-eBAC). Method: A sample of college students (N = 433, 54.82% female, Mage = 20.06) reported perceptions of friends' approval of alcohol use and indices of alcohol use behavior at 4 timepoints across a single year. Results: Descriptive estimates of within-person variability of perceived friends' approval revealed that these perceptions fluctuated considerably across the 4 timepoints. After accounting for between-person effects, longitudinal multilevel modeling revealed significant within-person associations between perceptions of friends' approval and (a) number of weekly drinks, (b) hazardous drinking behaviors, and (c) peak-eBAC levels. Students reported heavier alcohol use at timepoints when they perceived their friends as being more approving than usual. Conclusions: Alongside advancing theoretical understanding of social influences on students' alcohol use, the current findings hold important clinical implications for norms-based harm-reduction strategies. To optimize interventions, norms-based approaches may need to be adaptive over time (e.g., boosters) to map onto within-person fluctuations in perceived injunctive norms. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Universidades , Adulto , Femenino , Amigos , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Normas Sociales , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
7.
Emerg Adulthood ; 9(5): 531-540, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900403

RESUMEN

With widespread concern for increased alcohol use during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a pressing need to examine changes in young adults' alcohol use and to identify antecedents of increased use. We tested the hypothesis that self-reported changes in alcohol use during the pandemic (frequency, quantity, heavy episodic drinking) would relate to perceptions of peers' changes in alcohol use. In April of 2020, 507 college students self-reported changes in their alcohol use and perceived changes in use for typical students at their university (i.e., norms). Most students in our sample reported decreased alcohol use and perceived decreases in peers' alcohol use. Perceptions of peers' changes in alcohol use behavior strongly related to changes in students' own alcohol use. Findings provide strong support for norms-based strategies that can correct normative misperceptions by highlighting the fact that most college students are not in fact engaging in heavier alcohol use during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Emerg Adulthood ; 9(5): 541-549, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900404

RESUMEN

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the scientific and public health communities have become increasingly focused on understanding young adults' physical distancing behaviors and the role that young adults have on viral potentiation and community spread. In the present study, we surveyed a group of 560 young adults (ages 22-28) from the greater Seattle area in April 2020, during statewide "shelter-in-place" recommendations, to examine young adults' self-reported adherence to physical distancing guidelines. Self-report measures were used to identify strong adherers and poor adherers, which we then compared in terms of engagement in specific physical distancing behaviors and alcohol use behaviors pertaining to physical distancing adherence. We found that most young adults are classified as strong adherers, and that poor adherers reported more frequent violations of physical distancing guidelines including having friends over to their residence or going over to other residences. Poor adherers were also significantly more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol use behavior, such as heavy episodic drinking, compared to those young adults who were classified as strong adherers. Our results provide initial evidence that young adults who engage in high-risk drinking may be at greater risk for non-adherence to government recommended physical distancing guidelines. This deeper understanding of young adult behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic can better inform public health outreach to increase physical distancing adherence currently, as well as in preparation for future contagious health crises that may require societal-level adherence to behavioral guidelines.

9.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(11): 2370-2382, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846760

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Norm-correcting interventions are an effective alcohol harm-reduction approach, but innovation is needed to increase modest effect sizes. Recent social psychology research shows that individuals may be influenced by social norms that are increasing in prevalence. Contrary to static norms that reflect the current state of normative behavior, dynamic norms reflect behavioral norms that are shifting over time. This proof-of-concept study tested the utility of dynamic norms messages within norm-correcting interventions. METHOD: Undergraduate student drinkers (N = 461; Mage  = 19.97; 64.43% female) were randomly assigned to receive (a) dynamic norms messages highlighting a steady decrease over the past six years in heavy drinking among college students; (b) static norms messaging stating only the current norms; or (c) a control condition without normative information. Proximal outcomes assessed immediately following the experimental paradigm included intentions for total weekly drinks and heavy episodic drinking. Self-reported information on alcohol use behavior was collected at 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: Following the experimental paradigm, participants in the dynamic norms condition estimated that future drinking norms would decrease, while those in the static norms and control groups estimated that future drinking norms would increase. Participants in the dynamic norms condition reported lower intentions for weekly drinks and heavy episodic drinking than those in the static norms and control conditions. No significant differences between conditions were found on alcohol use indices reported at the 1-month follow-up. However, dynamic norms messaging had a favorable indirect effect on heavy episodic drinking intentions mediated through lower perceived future drinking norms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide proof-of-concept that dynamic norms messaging may be a prudent strategy for reducing alcohol use intentions, which can be integrated into or used alongside existing norm-correcting strategies.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Conformidad Social , Controles Informales de la Sociedad/métodos , Normas Sociales , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Retroalimentación Psicológica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Distribución Aleatoria , Percepción Social , Adulto Joven
10.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735171

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The present study examined daily associations between mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety symptoms) and simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use and use-related negative consequences among young adults. METHOD: Participants were a community sample of 409 young adults between the ages of 18-25 who drank alcohol at least three times in the past month and reported SAM use in the past month (Mage = 21.6, 50.9% female). A baseline assessment included a measure of SAM use motives, after which participants completed five 14-day bursts reporting daily mental health symptoms and alcohol/marijuana use. RESULTS: Daily mental health symptoms were not associated with SAM use likelihood. However, baseline SAM coping motives moderated the association between mental health symptoms and use such that young adults with stronger coping motives showed a stronger positive association between mental health symptoms and SAM use. Further, on SAM use days, reporting more mental health symptoms relative to one's average was associated with experiencing more use-related negative consequences, even after controlling for daily levels of alcohol and marijuana use (RR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05, p = .002). CONCLUSIONS: The association between daily mental health symptoms and SAM use depended on whether the young adults had coping motives for use. Daily fluctuations in mental health were associated with negative use-related consequences experienced on SAM use days regardless of motives. These findings highlight the potential importance of prevention and intervention strategies particularly on days when young adults are experiencing increased mental health symptoms. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

11.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 712-722, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591512

RESUMEN

Objective: The current study expands the literature on simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use by focusing on the distinction between unplanned and planned SAM use to identify potential intervention targets. This study explored whether unplanned or planned SAM use was associated with differences in alcohol and/or marijuana use and consequences. Method: A community sample of young adults (aged 18-25) with recent alcohol and SAM use was recruited [N = 409; mean (SD) = 21.61 (2.17) years; 50.9% female; 48.2% non-Hispanic/Latinx White]. Participants completed five 2-week bursts of online daily surveys (2 ×/day; 81.99% of morning and 82.23% of afternoon surveys completed) and reported on substance use intentions and behavior. Results: Descriptive findings showed that among days on which participants reported SAM use, 41.85% of the days were unplanned SAM use days. Based on daily-level results from multilevel models, on days with unplanned SAM use, young adults reported consuming fewer drinks, fewer hours high from marijuana, and lower subjective intoxication/high, compared to planned SAM use days, thus indicating that planned SAM use was riskier. Unplanned SAM use was not significantly associated with positive or negative consequences related to alcohol or marijuana, after accounting for the number of drinks or hours high from marijuana. Conclusions: Current findings suggest that interventions should target days on which young adults are planning to engage in SAM use. Future work is needed to identify factors that predict planned SAM use on specific occasions and also to disentangle the potential role of unplanned heavy use. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(9): 1888-1900, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533848

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol expectancies (AE; beliefs about the likelihood of outcomes) and valuations (beliefs about the desirability of outcomes) may help explain alcohol use by young adults. However, it remains unclear how variability in AE and valuations over time are related to alcohol-related outcomes, and whether these associations are moderated by sex. The current study addressed these gaps in knowledge by examining within-person variability among positive and negative AEs, valuations, and alcohol-related outcomes over a 12-month period. METHODS: Data were collected from 433 college students (Mage  = 20.06; 59.81% women) who completed surveys at 4 timepoints: at baseline and 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: We found substantial within-person variability in both AE and valuations (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 50% to 66%), and differences in variability by sex, with women showing more variability than men. Multilevel models revealed that weekly drinking was significantly higher at timepoints in which participants held relatively greater AE for sociability, sexuality, and risk/aggression, but lower when participants expected greater effects on self-perception. Weekly drinking was also higher when participants reported more favorable valuation of risk/aggression. Participants experienced significantly more negative consequences at timepoints in which they held relatively greater AE for sexuality and self-perception. No AEs were associated with a reduced likelihood of negative consequences. Participants experienced more negative consequences at timepoints in which they reported more favorable valuation of self-perception No valuations were associated with fewer consequences. Several between- and within-person associations were moderated by sex. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that AE and valuations are dynamic, that young adults' beliefs about the effects of alcohol varied over time, and that both negative and positive AE and valuations may be important correlates of alcohol use and consequences. These findings have implications for interventions designed to challenge expectancies and valuations with the goal of reducing alcohol use and associated consequences.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Adolescente , Agresión , Alcoholismo/psicología , Anticipación Psicológica , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Motivación , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Autoimagen , Caracteres Sexuales , Sexualidad , Conducta Social , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
13.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377106

RESUMEN

Alongside direct health concerns pertaining to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the stressors and life disruptions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may provoke secondary concerns for health and well-being. The implications of COVID-19-related stressors may be particularly salient for young adults, who are at higher-risk for mental health concerns and substance use behaviors. We developed a multifaceted scale that assessed distinct domains of COVID-19-related stressors and examined associations between these stressors and indices of mental health, well-being, and substance use (alcohol and marijuana use). In April-June of 2020, 1181 young adults were recruited from two- and four-year colleges to participate in this study (M age = 20.40; 59.95% women). Exploratory factor analysis identified five domains of COVID-19-related stressors: job insecurity, social/relational, financial, illness-related, and school-related. The overall pattern of results indicated that COVID-19-related stressors were related to poorer mental health and well-being. Social/relational stressors emerged as a primary concern most strongly associated with indices of mental health and alcohol use, relative to other stressors. However, illness-related stressors and school-related stressors were associated with less alcohol use. Stressors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic may impact young adults' health and well-being but disentangling various stressor domains informs more tailored intervention and prevention strategies. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11469-021-00604-0.

14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435831

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are effective at reducing hazardous drinking in college. However, little is known about who is most receptive to PNF. College women with a history of alcohol-related incapacitated rape (IR) are at elevated risk for hazardous drinking, but it is unclear what impact intervention messaging may have on this group and how their outcomes compare to those without past IR. To address this gap, this study involved secondary data analysis of a large web-based clinical trial. METHOD: Heavy drinking college women (N = 1,188) were randomized into PNF (n = 895) or control conditions (n = 293). Postintervention, women reported their reactions to intervention messaging. Hazardous drinking outcomes (typical drinking, heavy episodic drinking [HED], peak estimated blood alcohol content [eBAC], blackout frequency) were assessed at baseline and 12 months. RESULTS: Past IR was reported by 16.3% (n = 194) of women. Women with a history of IR reported more baseline hazardous drinking and greater readiness to change than women without IR. For those who received PNF, history of IR related to greater perceived impact of the intervention, but no difference in satisfaction with the message. After controlling for baseline drinking, regressions revealed the effect of PNF was moderated by IR for frequency of HED at 12 months. Simple main effects revealed PNF was associated with lower levels of hazardous drinking at follow-up among women with past IR. CONCLUSIONS: This initial investigation suggests PNF is a low resource and easily disseminated intervention that can have a positive impact on college women with past IR. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

15.
Sleep ; 44(12)2021 12 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291803

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use is increasingly prevalent among young adults but has adverse health consequences. The current study examined daily-level associations between perceived sleep health and SAM use, relative to non-substance-use days and alcohol- or marijuana-only days. We also estimated linear associations between alcohol/marijuana use and perceived sleep health and explored whether effects were moderated by combined use of alcohol and marijuana. METHODS: A community sample of SAM-using young adults (N = 409; Mage = 21.61, SD = 2.17; 50.9% female; 48.2% White; 48.9% college students) completed twice-daily surveys for five 14-day sampling bursts. Daily measurements assessed substance use and perceived sleep health in terms of subjective sleep quality, negative impact of sleep on functioning, and symptoms of insomnia. RESULTS: Multilevel models indicated that, relative to non-substance-use days, participants reported poorer perceived sleep health on alcohol-only days, better perceived sleep health on marijuana-only days, and mixed evidence regarding SAM use (i.e. fewer perceived symptoms of insomnia, but poorer perceived next day functioning attributed to sleep). Daily-level estimates showed increased alcohol use was associated with poorer perceived sleep health, while stronger effects from marijuana were associated with better perceived sleep health. Across all indices of sleep health, only one linear association was moderated by combined use: The adverse association between alcohol and next day functioning was weaker on days alcohol was combined with marijuana. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide additional evidence for daily-level effects of alcohol and marijuana use on perceived sleep health and address an important literature gap regarding potential adverse effects of SAM use.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Etanol , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/efectos adversos , Uso de la Marihuana/efectos adversos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Sueño , Adulto Joven
16.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(3): 320-329, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100700

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Mass gathering events often involve high levels of substance use, yet the psychological predictors of substance use in these contexts have received minimal attention. This study examined the relationship between social norms and mass gathering attendees' anticipated substance use. We (a) tested this relationship while controlling for established predictors of substance use, (b) assessed longitudinally the impact of intraindividual changes in perceived substance use norms on intraindividual changes in participants' anticipated substance use, and (c) compared the relative impact of two normative referents (friends and typical mass gathering attendees). METHOD: Data were collected in situ at Schoolies (Australia's largest youth mass gathering). On Days 1, 3, and 5 of the 7-day festival, participants (N = 427; ages 16-19, 66% female) reported normative perceptions of drinking and drug taking among friends and other attendees, and indicated their own anticipated drinking and drug taking. RESULTS: Friend norms were associated with anticipated drinking and drug taking at each corresponding time point, with particularly strong relationships observed for anticipated drinking. Changes in friend norms also predicted changes in anticipated drinking and drug taking. Conversely, the effects of norms for typical attendees were weak. CONCLUSIONS: People's substance use at mass gatherings is particularly influenced by perceptions of friends' substance use. Friend norm perceptions change over time and dynamically influence young people's anticipated substance use in these high-risk settings. Interventions to reduce substance use at mass gatherings may be enhanced by correcting misperceptions of the normative behaviors of friends.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Vacaciones y Feriados , Humanos , Masculino , Normas Sociales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
J Prim Prev ; 42(3): 309-318, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932222

RESUMEN

To combat the rampant spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided Americans with empirically supported preventive behavioral guidelines (e.g., wearing a face mask). However, there is a need to develop behavioral strategies that can effectively increase adherence to these guidelines, especially for young adults, who report particularly poor adherence. Across several domains of prevention science, norms-based interventions have successfully motivated constructive health behavior by correcting normative misperceptions, but these strategies are only relevant when these misperceptions are widespread. We examined the accuracy of young adults' perceptions of peers' adherence to CDC-recommended behavioral guidelines (i.e., perceived social norms) to assess the rationale for employing norm-correcting strategies. Young adult college students (N = 539; Mage = 19.5 years) self-reported their level of adherence to a list of preventive behavioral guidelines and estimated the norms regarding the extent to which other young adults adhered to these guidelines. We measured adherence and perceived norms for each guideline in terms of adherence frequency, ranging from 0 to 100% of the time. We found that young adults, on average, underestimated the extent to which other young adults adhere to each of the recommended preventive behaviors. That is, young adults tended to think that other young adults are failing to adhere to CDC guidelines, whereas our self-reported data showed adherence frequency may be quite high. Moreover, we found positive associations between self-reported adherence and perceptions of others' adherence-that is, those who underestimated others' adherence also self-reported lower adherence to guidelines. Findings from this study establish proof-of-concept for the development of norms-based strategies designed to improve young adults' adherence to preventive behavioral guidelines that are both specific to the COVID-19 pandemic and that prepare for future contagious outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Grupo Paritario , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Normas Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108753, 2021 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058538

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Young adults who engage in simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use may be more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors including riding with impaired drivers and driving after alcohol and/or marijuana use. METHODS: Young adult SAM users (N = 408) self-reported their behavior for five 14-day bursts, yielding daily-level responses on a total of 14,675 substance use days. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) estimated the likelihood of riding with an impaired driver and of driving after use on SAM use days compared to alcohol- or marijuana-only use days. RESULTS: More frequent SAM users were more likely to ride with an impaired driver and to drive after use than less frequent SAM users (between-persons). On SAM use days, there were greater odds of riding with an impaired driver, compared to alcohol-only days (AOR = 1.28) and marijuana-only days (AOR = 2.22), and of driving after use, compared to marijuana-only days (AOR = 1.25). Driving after use was more likely on days with non-simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use compared to SAM use (AOR = 1.59). CONCLUSIONS: Riding with an impaired driver is common among young adult substance users, and more likely following simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana compared to other types of alcohol and marijuana use. Driving after use is more likely after SAM use than marijuana-only use days, but most likely on days when both alcohol and marijuana were used but not simultaneously. Future research on situation-level predictors of riding and driving-related risks among young adults is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Cannabis , Uso de la Marihuana , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Etanol , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(7): 1450-1463, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689103

RESUMEN

Youth sport offers physical and psychosocial components that may be beneficial for adolescents' mental health, but the prospective directionality between sport participation and mental health has not been clearly established. The current study examined longitudinal associations between sport participation (individual and team sport) and mental health indices (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems, and prosocial behavior) across adolescence (ages 12-17) in a nationally representative Australian sample of 3956 participants at T1 (Mage = 12.41 years, SD = 0.49; 49% female), 3537 at T2 (Mage = 14.41 years, SD = 0.49; 49% female), and 3089 at T3 (Mage = 16.46 years, SD = 0.51; 49% female). Using random intercept cross-lagged panel modeling, several significant within-person effects were found. Notably, greater participation in team sport prospectively predicted fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety at subsequent timepoints. This study increases the understanding of how sport participation may relate to mental health among adolescents and provides critical evidence to inform policy.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Ansiedad , Australia , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
20.
Vaccine ; 39(15): 2060-2067, 2021 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741191

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccination may be critical to curtailing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, but herd immunity can only be realized with high vaccination coverage. There is a need to identify empirically supported strategies to increase uptake, especially among young adults as this subpopulation has shown relatively poor adherence to physical distancing guidelines. Social norms - estimates of peers' behavior and attitudes - are robust predictors of health behaviors and norms-based intervention strategies may increase COVID vaccine uptake, once available. This study examined the extent that vaccination intentions and attitudes were associated with estimated social norms as an initial proof-of-concept test. METHOD: In November of 2020, 647 undergraduate students (46.21% response rate) completed online surveys in which they reported intentions to get COVID and influenza vaccines, perceived importance of these vaccines for young adults, and estimated social norms regarding peers' vaccination behaviors and attitudes. RESULTS: Students reported significantly greater intentions to get a COVID vaccine (91.64%) than an influenza vaccine (76.04%), and perceived COVID vaccination as significantly more important than influenza vaccination. The sample generally held strong intentions to receive a COVID vaccine and thought that doing so was of high importance, but participants, on average, perceived that other young adults would be less likely to be vaccinated and would not think vaccination was as important. Multiple regression models indicated that estimated social norms were positively associated with participants' own intentions and perceived importance of getting a COVID vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: These significant associations highlight the potential value in developing and testing norms-based intervention strategies, such as personalized normative feedback, to improve uptake of forthcoming COVID vaccines among young adults.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , COVID-19/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Intención , Normas Sociales , Femenino , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...