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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589548

RESUMEN

Influenza vaccination coverage in pregnant women in China remains low. In this review, we first provide an overview of the evidence for the use of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Second, we discuss influenza vaccination policy and barriers to increased seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in pregnant women in China. Third, we provide case studies of successes and challenges of programs for increasing seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women from other parts of Asia with lessons learned for China. Finally, we assess opportunities and challenges for increasing influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women in China.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 770, 2019 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481020

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We sought to assess reporting in China's Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology (PUE) passive surveillance system for emerging respiratory infections and to identify ways to improve the PUE surveillance system's detection of respiratory infections of public health significance. METHODS: From February 29-May 29, 2016, we actively identified and enrolled patients in two hospitals with acute respiratory infections (ARI) that met all PUE case criteria. We reviewed medical records for documented exposure history associated with respiratory infectious diseases, collected throat samples that were tested for seasonal and avian influenza, and interviewed clinicians regarding reasons for reporting or not reporting PUE cases. We described and analyzed the proportion of PUE cases reported and clinician awareness of and practices related to the PUE system. RESULTS: Of 2619 ARI admissions in two hospitals, 335(13%) met the PUE case definition; none were reported. Of 311 specimens tested, 18(6%) were seasonal influenza virus-positive; none were avian influenza-positive. < 10% PUE case medical records documented whether or not there were exposures to animals or others with respiratory illness. Most commonly cited reasons for not reporting cases were no awareness of the PUE system (76%) and not understanding the case definition (53%). CONCLUSIONS: Most clinicians have limited awareness of and are not reporting to the PUE system. Exposures related to respiratory infections are rarely documented in medical records. Increasing clinicians' awareness of the PUE system and including relevant exposure items in standard medical records may increase reporting.


Asunto(s)
Notificación de Enfermedades , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Neumonía/epidemiología , Neumonía/etiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Notificación de Enfermedades/métodos , Notificación de Enfermedades/normas , Femenino , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/normas , Hospitalización , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Masculino , Notificación Obligatoria , Exámenes Obligatorios/normas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Neumonía/diagnóstico , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/organización & administración , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/normas , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/etiología , Compromiso Laboral
3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486333

RESUMEN

Background We conducted a matched case-control study in China during the 2013/14-2015/16 influenza seasons to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) by dose among children aged 6 months to 8 years. Methods Cases were laboratory-confirmed influenza infections identified through the influenza-like illness sentinel surveillance network in Guangzhou. Age- and sex-matched community controls were randomly selected through the expanded immunization program database. We defined priming as receipt of ≥1 dose of influenza vaccine during the immediate prior season. Results In total, 4,185 case-control pairs were analyzed. Among children 6-35 months, VE for current season dose(s) across the three seasons during 2013/14-2015/16 were 59% (95% Confidence Interval: 44-71%), 12% (-11%,30%), 54% (32-69%); among unprimed children 6-35 months, VE for 1 vs 2 current season doses were 45% (8-67%) vs 65% (46-78%), -2% (-53%,32%) vs 19% (-11%,40%), and 37% (-24%,68%) vs 61% (32-78%). Among children aged 3-8 years, VE for current season dose(s) across study seasons were 62% (36-78%), 43% (22-58%), 32% (1-53%). VE for unprimed children receiving 1 dose only in current season was insignificant or lower than among all children. Conclusion Findings support utility of providing second dose ("booster dose") of seasonal influenza vaccine to unprimed children aged 6-35 months, and the need to study further dose effect of a booster dose among unprimed children aged 3-8 years in China.

4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 10(1): 1646965, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489135

RESUMEN

Background: Young children may be adversely impacted by separation from and loss of caregivers and other loved ones. Such experiences often co-occur with interpersonal violence, unpredictability and other traumas. Whether separation/loss has unique effects independent of those other adversities is not known. Objective: This study aimed to establish whether separation/loss is associated with trauma-related symptoms, psychiatric disorders, and functional impairment in 18- to 48-month-old children independent of other adversities. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional community and clinical cohort were analyzed. Recruitment occurred in pediatric primary care, mental health, and developmental services sites. Children (33% female) were heterogeneous in ethnic background (55% minority) and family socioeconomic status (40% living in poverty). Results: Separation/loss was common (30.9% single type, 15.0% multiple types) and frequent amongst violence-exposed children (84.4% of violence-exposed children had experienced separation/loss from a loved one). However, violence exposure was uncommon amongst children with separation/loss experiences (only 23.9% were violence-exposed). Separation/loss was significantly associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress and reactive attachment, as well as impairment and psychiatric disorders in models that controlled for sociodemographic and contextual risks, including other traumas. Psychiatric disorders were approximately 2.5 times more likely in children who had experienced multiple separations/losses, after accounting for interpersonal violence which was also significant. Conclusion: Professionals working with young children, policy-makers and caregivers should be aware that an accumulation of caregiver separations/losses, irrespective of violence and other traumatic exposure, may have detrimental effects on young children especially in the context of prior separations/losses or disruptions in their lives.

5.
Psychol Trauma ; 11(8): 927-935, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135171

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the current study was to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener for Adults (STRESS-A), a novel self-report instrument that inventories childhood and adulthood trauma-related experiences and assesses symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (5th ed.; [DSM-5] American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Designed for efficient administration and interpretation by nonclinically trained professionals, the STRESS-A is a promising tool for use in settings where mental health professionals are lacking. METHOD: A sample of 170 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and receiving services at an urban prenatal health care clinic completed the STRESS-A and a battery of instruments measuring mental health functioning, perceived stress, and emotion dysregulation. Tests of reliability and validity were conducted, including confirmatory factor analysis to examine the fit of STRESS-A symptom criteria relative to PTSD symptom structures supported in the literature. RESULTS: Results provide initial support for internal consistency, reliability, and convergent and construct validity in a largely Hispanic pregnancy sample. The STRESS-A symptom structure fit well with several that have been supported in the literature, including the 4-factor model of the DSM-5. CONCLUSION: The STRESS-A is a promising tool for assessing risk associated with trauma exposure and probable DSM-5-based PTSD. Findings support its utility in a high-risk pregnancy cohort, a population that is underserved, yet shows high rates of trauma exposure and associated symptoms. Addressing maternal trauma-related impairment may have important implications for healthy fetal and child development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 46(3): 311-320, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600402

RESUMEN

Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are online programs or mobile applications that deliver behavioral health interventions for self-care. The dissemination and implementation of such programs in U.S. healthcare systems has not been widely undertaken. To better understand these phenomena, we explored perspectives on BIT deployment in the Veterans Health Administration. Interviews from 20 providers, administrators, and policy makers were analyzed using qualitative methods. Eight themes were identified including the use of traditional healthcare delivery models, strategies for technology dissemination and implementation, internet infrastructure, leadership, health system structure, regulations, and strategic priorities. This research suggests policy, funding, and strategy development initiatives to promote the implementation and dissemination of BITs.

7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(5): 445-452, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153228

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studying the burden and risk factors associated with severe illness from influenza infection in young children in eastern China will contribute to future cost-effectiveness analyses of local influenza vaccine programs. METHODS: We conducted prospective, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance at Suzhou University-Affiliated Children's Hospital to estimate influenza-associated hospitalizations in Suzhou University-Affiliated Children's Hospital by month in children younger than 5 years of age from October 2011 to September 2016. SARI was defined as fever (measured axillary temperature ≥ 38°C) and cough or sore throat or inflamed/red pharynx in the 7 days preceding hospitalization. We combined SARI surveillance data with healthcare utilization survey data to estimate and characterize the burden of influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations in Suzhou within this age group in the 5-year period. RESULTS: Of the 36,313 SARI cases identified, 2,297 from respiratory wards were systematically sampled; of these, 259 (11%) were influenza positive. Estimated annual influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rates per 1,000 children younger than 5 years of age ranged from 4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2-5) in the 2012-2013 season to 16 (95% CI, 14-19) in the 2011-2012 season. The predominant viruses were A/H3N2 (59%) in 2011-12, both A/H1N1pdm09 (42%) and B (46%) in 2012-13, A/H3N2 (71%) in 2013-14, A/H3N2 (55%) in 2014-15 and both A/H1N1pdm09 (50%) and B (50%) in 2015-16. The age-specific influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rates for the 5-year period were 11 (95% CI, 8-15) per 1,000 children 0-5 months of age; 8 (95% CI, 7-10) per 1,000 children 6-23 months of age and 5 (95% CI, 4-5) per 1,000 children 24-59 months of age, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: From 2011 to 2016, influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rates in children aged younger than 5 years of age in Suzhou, China, were high, particularly among children 0-5 months of age. Higher hospitalization rates were observed in years where the predominant circulating virus was influenza A/H3N2. Immunization for children > 6 months, and maternal and caregiver immunization for those < 6 months, could reduce influenza-associated hospitalizations in young children in Suzhou.

8.
JMIR Ment Health ; 5(3): e10277, 2018 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135051

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A national priority at the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is to increase the availability and accessibility of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) across all VA medical facilities. Yet many veterans, particularly those who use remote outpatient VA clinics, still do not receive much needed evidence-based treatment. Strategies are needed for supporting mental health providers at rural VA community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) as they translate their clinical training to routine practice. The Coordinated Anxiety Learning Management (CALM) program is a computer-delivered program that supports the delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) by providers in outpatient settings to patients with depression and anxiety, including posttraumatic stress disorder. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of our study were to (1) adapt an existing computer-based program to rural VA CBOCs through feedback from key stakeholder focus groups; (2) develop a prototype of the adapted program; and (3) determine the adapted program's acceptability and feasibility. Mental health stakeholders included VA leaders (n=4) in the implementation of EBPs, VA experts (n=4) in CBT, VA CBOC mental health providers (n=8), and veterans (n=8) diagnosed with a mental health condition treated using the CALM program and receiving treatment in a VA CBOC. METHODS: An iterative approach comprising 3 waves of focus group discussions was used to develop a modified prototype of CALM. Following each wave of focus group discussions, template analysis was used to rapidly communicate stakeholder recommendations and feedback to the design team. The original program was first adapted through a process of data collection, design modification, and product development. Next, a prototype was developed. Finally, the redesigned program was tested for acceptability and feasibility through a live demonstration. RESULTS: Key stakeholders suggested modifications to the original CALM program that altered its modules' appearance by incorporating veteran-centric content. These modifications likely have no impact on the integrity of the original CALM program, but have altered its content to reflect better the demographic characteristics and experiences of rural veterans. Feedback from stakeholder groups indicates that changes will help VA patients identify with the program content, potentially enhancing their treatment engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The development model was effective for economically gathering actionable recommendations from stakeholders to adapt a computer-based program, and it can result in the development of an acceptable and feasible computer-delivered intervention. Results have implications for developing computer-based programs targeting behavior change more broadly and enhancing engagement in EBP.

10.
Vaccine ; 36(23): 3315-3322, 2018 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706294

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are at higher risk for complications from influenza infection. Nevertheless, seasonal influenza vaccination among pregnant women in China is low. A better understanding of perceptions of pregnant women and their physicians, and factors influencing decisions about receiving seasonal influenza vaccine could be used to develop effective strategies for improving seasonal influenza vaccine uptake during pregnancy. METHODS: We recruited pregnant women from 9 hospitals located in 5 cities across China to participate in focus group interviews. Obstetricians from the same hospitals were recruited for one on one in-depth interviews. We collected information about perceptions of barriers and motivating factors for utilizing seasonal influenza vaccine during pregnancy. We systematically analyzed the information using qualitative methods. RESULTS: We conducted 18 focus groups with 108 pregnant women and interviewed 18 obstetricians. Awareness about the use of influenza vaccine during pregnancy was minimal in both subject groups. None of the pregnant women had received influenza vaccine during pregnancy and none of the obstetricians had recommended influenza vaccine for their patients. Both groups noted insufficient knowledge about influenza infection and benefits of the vaccine, concerns about vaccine safety, and lack of local data related to vaccine use in Chinese pregnant women. Obstetricians cited the lack of a national policy as a major barrier to recommending seasonal influenza vaccine to pregnant women. Pregnant women cited not receiving a recommendation for vaccination from healthcare workers as an additional barrier. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the immediate need to increase awareness and knowledge about the risks of influenza infection and the benefits and safety of seasonal influenza vaccination among both pregnant women and obstetricians in China. Obstetricians interviewed stated that the development and implementation of a national policy prioritizing pregnant women for seasonal influenza vaccination would facilitate their willingness to recommend seasonal influenza vaccine to pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Adulto , China , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/economía , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Médicos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estaciones del Año , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e019709, 2018 04 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705756

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We established the China Respiratory Illness Surveillance among Pregnant women (CRISP) to conduct active surveillance for influenza-associated respiratory illness during pregnancy in China from 2015 to 2018. Among annual cohorts of pregnant women, we assess the incidence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection and the seroconversion proportion during the winter influenza season. We also plan to examine the effect of influenza virus infection on adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant health outcomes with cumulative data from the three annual cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: Cohort nurses enrol pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy from prenatal care facilities in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Pregnant women who plan to deliver in the study facilities are eligible. Pregnant women who are seeking care for anything other than routine prenatal care, such as confirmation of low progesterone and threatened miscarriage, are excluded. At enrolment, study nurses collect baseline information on demographics, education-level attained, underlying medical conditions, seasonal influenza vaccination receipt, risk factors for influenza infection, gravidity and parity and contact information. For each participant, cohort nurses conduct twice weekly follow-up contacts, one phone call and one WeChat message (free instant messaging), from the time of enrolment until delivery or termination of pregnancy. During follow-up, study nurses ask about symptoms, timing and characteristics of ARI, healthcare-seeking behaviour and medications taken for participants reporting respiratory illness since the last contact. In addition, we collect combined nasal and throat swabs for identified ARI to test for influenza viruses. We collect paired sera before and after the influenza season. Active respiratory illness surveillance and seroinfection data during pregnancy of participants are linked to their medical record and the Suzhou Maternal Child Information System for detailed information on clinical treatment for respiratory illness, pregnancy, delivery and infant health outcomes. FINDINGS TO DATE: In 2015-2016, of 4915 pregnant women approached, 192 (4%) refused to participate, 91 (2%) were ineligible because they did not plan to deliver in one of the study hospitals or because their visit was for anything other than routine prenatal care and 4632 (94%) were enrolled, 46% during their first trimester of pregnancy (range 5-12 weeks), 48% during the second trimester (range 13-27 weeks) and 6% during the third trimester (range 28-37 weeks). The median age of the enrollees was 27 years (range 16-45) and two (0.04%, 95% CI 0.01% to 0.17%) reported influenza vaccination in the previous 12 months before pregnancy, while zero reported influenza vaccination in the previous 12 months during pregnancy. During the observation time of 648 518 person-days, 1355 ARI episodes were identified. Among 1127 swabs collected (for 83% of all ARIs), 68 (6%) tested positive for influenza virus, for a laboratory-confirmed influenza incidence of 0.31 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.40) per 100 person-months during pregnancy in the study cohort. FUTURE PLANS: Results will be used to describe influenza disease burden in this population to model potential numbers of influenza illnesses averted if influenza vaccination coverage were increased and to support enhanced influenza prevention and control strategies among pregnant women in China. We also plan to enrol and follow three cohorts of pregnant women over three influenza seasons during 2015-2018 which will allow an analysis of the effect of influenza virus infection during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Enfermedades Respiratorias , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Enfermedades Respiratorias/prevención & control , Vacunación
12.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 25(5): 641-649, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687524

RESUMEN

A randomized controlled trial pilot study (www.ClinicalTrials.org; NCT01228539) with N = 31 U.S. male military recent combat veterans with PTSD and severe anger problems was conducted comparing 10-session individual therapy versions of Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET) versus prolonged exposure (PE). TARGET had fewer drop-outs than PE (i.e., 29% vs. 64%). At post-test, improvements were found for both interventions in increased emotion regulation and hope, and reduced PTSD symptoms, hostility, experiential avoidance, and mental health problems. At a four-month follow-up, comparable proportions (approximately 40%) of recipients in each therapy maintained clinically significant gains. Self-rated expectancy of therapeutic outcome and working alliance was comparable for both PE and TARGET early in therapy, at mid-treatment, and at the end of treatment. While preliminary, these results suggest that TARGET may be a viable therapeutic option for male military veterans with PTSD and anger problems.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Ira , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Veteranos/psicología , Adulto , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Psicoterapia/métodos , Factores de Tiempo , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(4): 947-951, 2018 04 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300683

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a community-based intervention that leveraged the non-communicable disease management system to increase seasonal influenza vaccination coverage among older adults in Ningbo, China. METHODS: From October 2014 - March 2015, we piloted the following on one street in Ningbo, China: educating community healthcare workers (C-HCWs) about influenza and vaccination; requiring C-HCWs to recommend influenza vaccination to older adults during routine chronic disease follow-up; and opening 14 additional temporary vaccination clinics. We selected a non-intervention street for comparison pre- and post-intervention vaccine coverage. In April 2016, we interviewed a random sample of unvaccinated older adults on the intervention street to ask why they remained unvaccinated. RESULTS: Pre-intervention influenza vaccine coverage among adults aged 60 years and older on both streets was 0.3%. Post-intervention, coverage among adults 60 years and older was 19% (1338/7013) on the intervention street and 0.4% (20/5500) on the non-intervention street (p<0.01). Among vaccinated older adults, 98% reported their main reason for vaccination was receiving a C-HCW's recommendation, 90% were vaccinated at temporary vaccination clinics, and 53% paid for vaccine (10 USD) out-of-pocket. Reasons for not getting vaccinated among 150 unvaccinated adults (response rate = 75%) included: good health (39%); not trusting C-HCWs' recommendations (24%); not knowing where to get vaccinated (17%); and not wanting to pay (9%). CONCLUSIONS: Recommending influenza vaccination within a non-communicable disease management system, combined with adding vaccination sites, increased vaccine coverage among older adults in Ningbo, China.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Gripe Humana/inmunología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Actitud del Personal de Salud , China , Enfermedad Crónica , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/métodos
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 77: 168-179, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358121

RESUMEN

Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers' IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3-6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children's symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children's symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological and physical IPV experiences and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers' restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological IPV and children's externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health symptoms and parenting behaviors may have a significant impact on their children's emotional health.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Exposición a la Violencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Examen Físico
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(2)2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165238

RESUMEN

To detect changes in human-to-human transmission of influenza A(H7N9) virus, we analyzed characteristics of 40 clusters of case-patients during 5 epidemics in China in 2013-2017. Similarities in number and size of clusters and proportion of clusters with probable human-to-human transmission across all epidemics suggest no change in human-to-human transmission risk.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Subtipo H7N9 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Análisis por Conglomerados , Humanos , Gripe Humana/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(1): 88-97, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29054110

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data about influenza mortality burden in northern China are limited. This study estimated mortality burden in Beijing associated with seasonal influenza from 2007 to 2013 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. METHODS: We estimated influenza-associated excess mortality by fitting a negative binomial model using weekly mortality data as the outcome of interest with the percent of influenza-positive samples by type/subtype as predictor variables. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2013, an average of 2375 (CI 1002-8688) deaths was attributed to influenza per season, accounting for 3% of all deaths. Overall, 81% of the deaths attributed to influenza occurred in adults aged ≥65 years, and the influenza-associated mortality rate in this age group was higher than the rate among those aged <65 years (113.6 [CI 49.5-397.4] versus 4.4 [CI 1.7-18.6] per 100 000, P < .05). The mortality rate associated with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in 2009/2010 was comparable to that of seasonal influenza during the seasonal years (19.9 [CI 10.4-33.1] vs 17.2 [CI 7.2-67.5] per 100 000). People aged <65 years represented a greater proportion of all deaths during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic period than during the seasonal epidemics (27.0% vs 17.7%, P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza is an important contributor to mortality in Beijing, especially among those aged ≥65 years. These results support current policies to give priority to older adults for seasonal influenza vaccination and help to define the populations at highest risk for death that could be targeted for pandemic influenza vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/mortalidad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Beijing/epidemiología , Humanos , Gripe Humana/virología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estaciones del Año
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(3): 630-636, 2018 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090968

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We actively followed a cohort of nursery school children in Suzhou, China to assess the impact of vaccination with trivalent influenza vaccine on the prevention of influenza like illness (ILI). METHODS: We enrolled children aged 36 to 72 months from 13 nursery schools in Suzhou starting two weeks after vaccination during October 2015-February 2016. Every school-day, teachers reported the names of students with ILI to study clinicians, who collected the student's nasopharyngeal swab or throat swab, either at a study clinic or the child's home. Swabs were sent to the Suzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention's laboratory for influenza testing by RT-PCR. RESULTS: In total, 3278 children were enrolled; 83 (3%) were lost to follow-up, while 3195 (vaccinated: 1492, unvaccinated: 1703) were followed for 24 weeks. During the study, 40 samples tested positive; 17 in the vaccinated (B Victoria: 12; A(H1N1)pdm09: 5) and 23 in the unvaccinated group (B Victoria: 10; B Yamagata: 2; A(H1N1)pdm09: 11). The VE estimates were: 16% overall (95%CI:-58%,56%), 48% (-47%,84%) for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 43% (-650%,98%) for influenza B Yamagata, and -37% (-227%,42%) for influenza B Victoria. Data were analyzed by vaccinated and unvaccinated groups based on enrollees' vaccination records. CONCLUSIONS: The VE for A(H1N1)pdm09 was moderate but not significant. Mismatching of B lineage may have compromised trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2015-2016 influenza season among nursery school children in Suzhou, China. Additional larger studies are warranted to inform policy related to quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensure in China in the future.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Gripe Humana/inmunología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Niño , Preescolar , China , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Masculino , Escuelas de Párvulos , Estaciones del Año , Estados Unidos , Vacunación/métodos
19.
BMJ Open ; 7(10): e017503, 2017 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092901

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study was established to provide direct evidence on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in older adults in two cities in Jiangsu Province, China, and the potential impact of acute respiratory infections on frailty. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort was enrolled in Suzhou and Yancheng, two cities in Jiangsu Province in Eastern China. Between November 2015 and March 2016, we enrolled 1532 adults who were 60-89 years of age, and collected blood samples along with baseline data on demographics, general health, chronic diseases, functional status and cognitive function through face-to-face interviews using a standardised questionnaire. Participants are being followed weekly throughout the year to identify acute respiratory illnesses. We schedule home visits to ill participants to collect mid-turbinate nasal and oropharyngeal swabs for laboratory testing and detailed symptom information for the acute illness. Regular follow-up including face-to-face interviews and further blood draws will take place every 6-12 months. FINDINGS TO DATE: As of 3 September 2016, we had identified 339 qualifying acute respiratory illness events and 1463 (95%) participants remained in the study. Laboratory testing is ongoing. FUTURE PLANS: We plan to conduct laboratory testing to estimate the incidence of influenza virus and RSV infections in older adults. We plan to investigate the impact of these infections on frailty and functional status to determine the association of pre-existing immune status with protection against influenza and RSV infection in unvaccinated older adults, and to assess the exposure to avian influenza viruses in this population.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Orthomyxoviridae , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Animales , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Fragilidad , Humanos , Incidencia , Gripe Humana/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nariz/virología , Orofaringe/virología , Orthomyxoviridae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(35): 928-932, 2017 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880856

RESUMEN

Among all influenza viruses assessed using CDC's Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT), the Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (Asian H7N9), first reported in China in March 2013,* is ranked as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk (1). During October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; CDC, Taiwan; the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection; and the Macao CDC reported 759 human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses, including 281 deaths, to the World Health Organization (WHO), making this the largest of the five epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections that have occurred since 2013 (Figure 1). This report summarizes new viral and epidemiologic features identified during the fifth epidemic of Asian H7N9 in China and summarizes ongoing measures to enhance pandemic preparedness. Infections in humans and poultry were reported from most areas of China, including provinces bordering other countries, indicating extensive, ongoing geographic spread. The risk to the general public is very low and most human infections were, and continue to be, associated with poultry exposure, especially at live bird markets in mainland China. Throughout the first four epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections, only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses were detected among human, poultry, and environmental specimens and samples. During the fifth epidemic, mutations were detected among some Asian H7N9 viruses, identifying the emergence of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses as well as viruses with reduced susceptibility to influenza antiviral medications recommended for treatment. Furthermore, the fifth-epidemic viruses diverged genetically into two separate lineages (Pearl River Delta lineage and Yangtze River Delta lineage), with Yangtze River Delta lineage viruses emerging as antigenically different compared with those from earlier epidemics. Because of its pandemic potential, candidate vaccine viruses (CVV) were produced in 2013 that have been used to make vaccines against Asian H7N9 viruses circulating at that time. CDC is working with partners to enhance surveillance for Asian H7N9 viruses in humans and poultry, to improve laboratory capability to detect and characterize H7N9 viruses, and to develop, test and distribute new CVV that could be used for vaccine production if a vaccine is needed.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Subtipo H7N9 del Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Vigilancia de la Población , Animales , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Gripe Aviar/virología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aves de Corral
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