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1.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 95: 107179, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569314

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Herbal medicine plays a significant role in modern medicine. The difficulty in integrating the two, lies in the unknown quantities of active ingredients in herbal remedies. This proved true in this clinical scenario. The quantity of coumarin, in the form of cinnamon ingested by this patient over ten months is unknown. The only quantifiable measure was the derangement in his extrinsic coagulation pathway. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 49-year-old male with a history of celiac disease presented with haematochezia secondary to a malignant adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. The patient underwent a laparoscopic subtotal colectomy and on the second post-operative day, he was noted to have peritonitis and a positive Fox sign. Diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed intraabdominal bleeding. Over the next four days, the patient's haemoglobin plummeted from 17.4 g/dL to 8.0 g/dL. Investigations revealed an INR of 1.59, which led to further questioning into dietary practices. The patient admitted he had been taking Ceylon cinnamon one tablespoon daily for ten months in the period leading up to surgery. DISCUSSION: Coumarin is a chemical compound readily available in food items such as cinnamon. Coumarin possesses the ability to inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 which is responsible for the recycling of vitamin K. This impedes the gamma-carboxylation of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X. Vitamin K antagonism can manifest as a prolonged INR and normal activated partial thromboplastin time. CONCLUSION: Bleeding diathesis secondary to dietary coumarin is a rare but dangerous phenomenon that emphasizes the need for a thorough interrogation into a patient's dietary history.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55891

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To establish whether there was any difference in disease stage in patients with screening-detected colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Caribbean country. Methods. The mode of presentation (elective vs. emergent), method of diagnosis (screening vs. symptomatic), and disease stage were retrospectively compared in all consecutive patients who had resections for CRC over a five-year period. Early CRC was defined as disease that could be completely resected with no involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes, or distant sites. Locally advanced CRC was disease that involved contiguous organs without distant metastases that was still amenable to curative resection. Results. There were 97 patients at a mean age of 64.9 ± 12.2 years treated for CRC, and only 21 (21.6%) had their diagnoses made through screening. Significantly more screening-detected lesions were early-stage CRCs (21.7% vs. 9.3%; p < 0.001). At the time of diagnosis, patients who did not have screening-detected lesions had a greater proportion of locally advanced (42.3% vs. 0) and metastatic (26.8% vs. 0) CRC. Those who did not have screening-detected lesions had a greater incidence of emergency presentations at diagnosis (26.8% vs. 0). Conclusions. The incidence of screening-detected CRC in this Caribbean nation was low. Consequently, most patients presented with locally advanced or metastatic CRC, for which there is less opportunity to achieve a cure. Significantly more screening-detected lesions were early-stage CRCs. It is time for policymakers to develop a national CRC screening program.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar las diferencias en el estadio de la enfermedad en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal diagnosticado mediante un programa de detección sistemática en un país del Caribe. Métodos. Se realizó una comparación en retrospectiva de la modalidad de presentación (programada o de urgencia), el método de diagnóstico (por detección sistemática o por síntomas) y el estadio de la enfermedad en todos los pacientes consecutivos con resecciones por cáncer colorrectal en un período de cinco años. Se definió el cáncer colorrectal en fase inicial o incipiente como una enfermedad que puede extirparse completamente sin la afectación de los órganos adyacentes, los ganglios linfáticos o focos distantes. Se consideró el cáncer colorrectal localmente avanzado como una enfermedad que afecta a los órganos contiguos sin metástasis a distancia y aún susceptible de resección curativa. Resultados. Hubo 97 pacientes de una media de edad de 64,9 ± 12,2 años en tratamiento por cáncer colorrectal y únicamente 21 (21,6%) habían recibido un diagnóstico mediante un programa de detección sistemática. Un número significativamente mayor de los diagnósticos dados por detección sistemática se trató de cáncer colorrectal de fase inicial (21,7 % frente a 9,3 %; p < 0,001). En el momento del diagnóstico, se registró una mayor proporción de cáncer colorrectal localmente avanzado (42,3 % frente a 0) y metastásico (26,8 % frente a 0) en los pacientes sin lesiones diagnosticadas en un programa de detección sistemática. Los pacientes cuyas lesiones no fueron diagnosticadas mediante la detección sistemática registraron una mayor incidencia de presentaciones de urgencia en el momento del diagnóstico (26,8 % frente a 0). Conclusiones. La incidencia de cáncer colorrectal diagnosticado mediante detección sistemática en este país del Caribe fue baja. En consecuencia, la mayoría de los pacientes presentó cáncer colorrectal localmente avanzado o metastásico, cuya oportunidad de cura es menor. Un número significativamente mayor de lesiones diagnosticadas mediante detección sistemática se trató de cáncer colorrectal de fase inicial. Ha llegado el momento de que las personas responsables de las políticas elaboren un programa nacional de detección sistemática de cáncer colorrectal.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar se houve diferença no estágio da doença detectada no exame de prevenção de câncer colorretal em um país do Caribe. Métodos. Fatores como tipo de apresentação (eletiva vs. de emergência), método de diagnóstico (prevenção vs. detecção sintomática) e estágio da doença foram comparados retrospectivamente em todos os pacientes consecutivos submetidos a cirurgia de ressecção de câncer colorretal em um período de cinco anos. Definiu-se doença em estágio inicial como o tumor passível de ressecção total sem o envolvimento de órgãos adjacentes, gânglios linfáticos ou sítios a distância, e doença localmente avançada como o tumor envolvendo órgãos contíguos, sem metástase a distância, mas passível de resseção curativa. Resultados. Noventa e sete pacientes com média de idade de 64,9 ± 12,2 anos foram tratados devido ao câncer colorretal e apenas 21 (21,6%) tiveram a doença diagnosticada no exame de prevenção. Um percentual significativamente maior de lesões detectadas no exame de prevenção estava em estágio inicial (21,7% vs. 9,3%; p < 0.001). No momento do diagnóstico, os pacientes cujas lesões de câncer colorretal não foram detectadas com o exame de prevenção apresentaram um maior percentual de doença localmente avançada (42,3% vs. 0) ou metastática (26,8% vs. 0). Houve também, entre esses pacientes, uma maior incidência de apresentação em caráter de emergência (26,8% vs. 0). Conclusões. Observou-se uma baixa incidência de câncer colorretal na população deste país do Caribe. Porém, a maioria dos pacientes apresentou doença localmente avançada ou metastática no diagnóstico – uma situação associada a uma menor chance de cura. O percentual de lesões detectadas em estágio inicial com o exame de prevenção foi significativamente maior. As autoridades de saúde devem aproveitar a oportunidade e instituir um programa nacional de prevenção do câncer colorretal.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Barbados , Región del Caribe , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Región del Caribe , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Región del Caribe
3.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e18, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432501

RESUMEN

Objective: To establish whether there was any difference in disease stage in patients with screening-detected colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Caribbean country. Methods: The mode of presentation (elective vs. emergent), method of diagnosis (screening vs. symptomatic), and disease stage were retrospectively compared in all consecutive patients who had resections for CRC over a five-year period. Early CRC was defined as disease that could be completely resected with no involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes, or distant sites. Locally advanced CRC was disease that involved contiguous organs without distant metastases that was still amenable to curative resection. Results: There were 97 patients at a mean age of 64.9 ± 12.2 years treated for CRC, and only 21 (21.6%) had their diagnoses made through screening. Significantly more screening-detected lesions were early-stage CRCs (21.7% vs. 9.3%; p < 0.001). At the time of diagnosis, patients who did not have screening-detected lesions had a greater proportion of locally advanced (42.3% vs. 0) and metastatic (26.8% vs. 0) CRC. Those who did not have screening-detected lesions had a greater incidence of emergency presentations at diagnosis (26.8% vs. 0). Conclusions: The incidence of screening-detected CRC in this Caribbean nation was low. Consequently, most patients presented with locally advanced or metastatic CRC, for which there is less opportunity to achieve a cure. Significantly more screening-detected lesions were early-stage CRCs. It is time for policymakers to develop a national CRC screening program.

4.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 90: 106741, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995896

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Altemeier rectosigmoidectomy has been cited in the literature as a suitable approach for incarcerated rectal prolapse when a large segment of bowel is involved. However, the literature is devoid of cases that employed the technique as an oncological procedure for rectal carcinoma. For this reason, this case report heralds a new perspective on an old technique. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a male in his 6th decade who presented with stage four rectal cancer. Computed tomography imaging showed a rectal mass at the rectosigmoid junction with pelvic lymphadenopathy and a solitary hepatic lesion in segment two of the liver. While admitted to the hospital a 16 cm segment of bowel containing the mass prolapsed and became incarcerated, eventually becoming necrotic. A modification of the Altemeier procedure was performed along with a diverting ileostomy and hepatic wedge resection of the solitary metastases. Histological assessment of the surgical specimens confirmed that adequate resection margins were obtained with one of twenty-one lymph nodes positive for malignancy. He is currently being followed up in the outpatient oncology clinic and has commenced adjuvant chemotherapy. CLINICAL DISCUSSION: Synchronous excision of rectal carcinoma with hepatic metastasectomy is a feasible surgery even in the emergency setting and can offer improved patient survival. CONCLUSION: The combination of both an abdominal and perineal approach was suitable for this patient given his improved quality of life and negative pathological margins.

5.
Trop Doct ; 51(4): 539-541, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162285

RESUMEN

Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard treatment for acute cholecystitis, many Caribbean surgeons are reluctant to operate during the acute attack. We collected data for all consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis from January 1 to 31 December 2018. Delayed cholecystectomy was done >6 weeks after acute cholecystitis settled. We compared data between early and delayed groups. Delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 54 patients, and 42 had early laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Delayed surgery resulted in significantly more complications requiring readmission (39% vs 0), longer operations (2.27 vs 0.94 h) and lengthier post-operative hospitalisation (1.84 vs 1.1 days). Caribbean hospitals should abandon the practice of delayed surgery after cholecystitis has settled. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy would be financially advantageous for our institutions, and it would save patients recurrent attacks of gallstone disease.


Asunto(s)
Colecistectomía Laparoscópica , Colecistitis Aguda , Región del Caribe , Colecistectomía , Colecistectomía Laparoscópica/efectos adversos , Colecistitis Aguda/cirugía , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Trop Doct ; 51(4): 532-534, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080910

RESUMEN

Barbados is a Caribbean island with a high incidence of colorectal cancer. This study collected epidemiologic data from Barbadian patients with colorectal cancer. There was an opportunity for targeted screening in patients actively enrolled in clinics for management of chronic diseases, accounting for 72% of cases. We also identified areas of high incidence where resources should be directed in a screening programme.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Tamizaje Masivo , Barbados/epidemiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia
7.
Cureus ; 11(9): e5796, 2019 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728243

RESUMEN

Laparoscopic liver resections require advanced laparoscopic skill sets. In the Caribbean, a unique situation exists where centers of excellence for liver resections exist, but surgeons who are trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery are not available throughout the region. Therefore, many patients who are candidates for liver resection in the Caribbean do not have the opportunity to receive laparoscopic operations.  We report a case of distance mentoring using readily available, inexpensive equipment to complete a laparoscopic liver resection, mentored by an expert hepatobiliary surgeon. It may be considered, in special cases, as a way to increase the availability of laparoscopic operations. We acknowledge that there are many limitations to the use of this technology and we discuss the pros and cons of distance mentoring for this purpose.

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