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1.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789819

RESUMEN

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update to the guideline. The PRISMA 2020 statement replaces the 2009 statement and includes new reporting guidance that reflects advances in methods to identify, select, appraise, and synthesise studies. The structure and presentation of the items have been modified to facilitate implementation. In this article, we present the PRISMA 2020 27-item checklist, an expanded checklist that details reporting recommendations for each item, the PRISMA 2020 abstract checklist, and the revised flow diagrams for original and updated reviews.

2.
Int J Surg ; 88: 105906, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789826

RESUMEN

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, published in 2009, was designed to help systematic reviewers transparently report why the review was done, what the authors did, and what they found. Over the past decade, advances in systematic review methodology and terminology have necessitated an update to the guideline. The PRISMA 2020 statement replaces the 2009 statement and includes new reporting guidance that reflects advances in methods to identify, select, appraise, and synthesise studies. The structure and presentation of the items have been modified to facilitate implementation. In this article, we present the PRISMA 2020 27-item checklist, an expanded checklist that details reporting recommendations for each item, the PRISMA 2020 abstract checklist, and the revised flow diagrams for original and updated reviews.

7.
Implement Sci ; 16(1): 20, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632274

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Decreasing ineffective or harmful healthcare practices (de-implementation) may require different approaches than those used to promote uptake of effective practices (implementation). Few psychological theories differentiate between processes involved in decreasing, versus increasing, behaviour. However, it is unknown whether implementation and de-implementation interventions already use different approaches. We used the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy (version 1) (which includes 93 BCTs organised into 12 groupings) to investigate whether implementation and de-implementation interventions for clinician behaviour change use different BCTs. METHODS: Intervention descriptions in 181 articles from three systematic reviews in the Cochrane Library were coded for (a) implementation versus de-implementation and (b) intervention content (BCTs) using the BCT taxonomy (v1). BCT frequencies were calculated and compared using Pearson's chi-squared (χ2), Yates' continuity correction and Fisher's exact test, where appropriate. Identified BCTs were ranked according to frequency and rankings for de-implementation versus implementation interventions were compared and described. RESULTS: Twenty-nine and 25 BCTs were identified in implementation and de-implementation interventions respectively. Feedback on behaviour was identified more frequently in implementation than de-implementation (Χ2(2, n=178) = 15.693, p = .000057). Three BCTs were identified more frequently in de-implementation than implementation: Behaviour substitution (Χ2(2, n=178) = 14.561, p = .0001; Yates' continuity correction); Monitoring of behaviour by others without feedback (Χ2(2, n=178) = 16.187, p = .000057; Yates' continuity correction); and Restructuring social environment (p = .000273; Fisher's 2-sided exact test). CONCLUSIONS: There were some significant differences between BCTs reported in implementation and de-implementation interventions suggesting that researchers may have implicit theories about different BCTs required for de-implementation and implementation. These findings do not imply that the BCTs identified as targeting implementation or de-implementation are effective, rather simply that they were more frequently used. These findings require replication for a wider range of clinical behaviours. The continued accumulation of additional knowledge and evidence into whether implementation and de-implementation is different will serve to better inform researchers and, subsequently, improve methods for intervention design.

8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A&F) interventions are one of the most common approaches for implementing evidence-based practices. A key barrier to more effective A&F interventions is the lack of a theory-guided approach to the accumulation of evidence. Recent interviews with theory experts identified 313 theory-informed hypotheses, spread across 30 themes, about how to create more effective A&F interventions. In the current survey, we sought to elicit from stakeholders which hypotheses were most likely to advance the field if studied further. METHODS: From the list of 313, three members of the research team identified 216 that were clear and distinguishable enough for prioritization. A web-based survey was then sent to 211 A&F intervention stakeholders asking them to choose up to 50 'priority' hypotheses following the header "A&F interventions will be more effective if…". Analyses included frequencies of endorsement of the individual hypotheses and themes into which they were grouped. RESULTS: 68 of the 211 invited participants responded to the survey. Seven hypotheses were chosen by > 50% of respondents, including A&F interventions will be more effective… "if feedback is provided by a trusted source"; "if recipients are involved in the design/development of the feedback intervention"; "if recommendations related to the feedback are based on good quality evidence"; "if the behaviour is under the control of the recipient"; "if it addresses barriers and facilitators (drivers) to behaviour change"; "if it suggests clear action plans"; and "if target/goal/optimal rates are clear and explicit". The most endorsed theme was Recipient Priorities (four hypotheses were chosen 92 times as a 'priority' hypotheses). CONCLUSIONS: This work determined a set of hypotheses thought by respondents to be to be most likely to advance the field through future A&F intervention research. This work can inform a coordinated research agenda that may more efficiently lead to more effective A&F interventions.

10.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 40(4): 268-273, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284178

RESUMEN

Continuing professional development (CPD) is a widely used and evolving set of complex interventions that seeks to update and improve the knowledge, skills, and performance of health care professionals to ultimately improve patient care and outcomes. While synthesized evidence shows CPD in general to be effective, effects vary, in part due to variation in CPD interventions and limited understanding of CPD mechanisms of action. We introduce two behavioral science tools-the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 and the Theoretical Domains Framework-that can be used to characterize the content of CPD interventions and the determinants of behaviour potentially targeted by the interventions, respectively. We provide a worked example of the use of these tools in coding the educational content of 43 diabetes quality improvement trials containing clinician education as part of their multicomponent intervention. Fourteen (of a possible 93; 15%) behavior change techniques were identified in the clinician education content of the quality improvement trials, suggesting a focus of addressing the behavioral determinants beliefs about consequences, knowledge, skills, and social influences, of diabetes care providers' behavior. We believe that the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 and Theoretical Domains Framework offer a novel lens to analyze the CPD content of existing evidence and inform the design and evaluation of future CPD interventions.

11.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 40(4 Suppl 4): 268-273, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284190

RESUMEN

Continuing professional development (CPD) is a widely used and evolving set of complex interventions that seeks to update and improve the knowledge, skills, and performance of health care professionals to ultimately improve patient care and outcomes. While synthesized evidence shows CPD in general to be effective, effects vary, in part due to variation in CPD interventions and limited understanding of CPD mechanisms of action. We introduce two behavioral science tools-the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 and the Theoretical Domains Framework-that can be used to characterize the content of CPD interventions and the determinants of behaviour potentially targeted by the interventions, respectively. We provide a worked example of the use of these tools in coding the educational content of 43 diabetes quality improvement trials containing clinician education as part of their multicomponent intervention. Fourteen (of a possible 93; 15%) behavior change techniques were identified in the clinician education content of the quality improvement trials, suggesting a focus of addressing the behavioral determinants beliefs about consequences, knowledge, skills, and social influences, of diabetes care providers' behavior. We believe that the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 and Theoretical Domains Framework offer a novel lens to analyze the CPD content of existing evidence and inform the design and evaluation of future CPD interventions.

12.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 7: 2054358120964119, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194212

RESUMEN

Background: Pragmatic cluster randomized trials (CRTs) offer an opportunity to improve health care by answering important questions about the comparative effectiveness of treatments using a trial design that can be embedded in routine care. There is a lack of empirical research that addresses ethical issues generated by pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis. Objective: To identify stakeholder perceptions of ethical issues in pragmatic CRTs conducted in hemodialysis. Design: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Setting: In-person or telephone interviews with an international group of stakeholders. Participants: Stakeholders (clinical investigators, methodologists, ethicists and research ethics committee members, and other knowledge users) who had been involved in the design or conduct of a pragmatic individual patient or cluster randomized trial in hemodialysis, or their role would require them to review and evaluate pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis. Methods: Interviews were conducted in-person or over the telephone and were audio-recorded with consent. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim prior to analysis. Transcripts and field notes were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Sixteen interviews were conducted with 19 individuals. Interviewees were largely drawn from North America (84%) and were predominantly clinical investigators (42%). Six themes were identified in which pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis raise ethical issues: (1) patients treated with hemodialysis as a vulnerable population, (2) appropriate approaches to informed consent, (3) research burdens, (4) roles and responsibilities of gatekeepers, (5) inequities in access to research, and (6) advocacy for patient-centered research and outcomes. Limitations: Participants were largely from North America and did not include research staff, who may have differing perspectives. Conclusions: The six themes reflect concerns relating to individual rights, but also the need to consider population-level issues. To date, concerns regarding inequity of access to research and the need for patient-centered research have received less coverage than other, well-known, issues such as consent. Pragmatic CRTs offer a potential approach to address equity concerns and we suggest future ethical analyses and guidance for pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis embed equity considerations within them. We further note the potential for the co-creation of health data infrastructure with patients which would aid care but also facilitate patient-centered research. These present results will inform planned future guidance in relation to the ethical design and conduct of pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis. Trial Registration: Registration is not applicable as this is a qualitative study.

13.
F1000Res ; 9: 110, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163155

RESUMEN

Background: Systematic reviews are used to inform healthcare decision making. In reviews that aim to examine the effects of organisational, policy change or public health interventions, or exposures, evidence from interrupted time series (ITS) studies may be included. A core component of many systematic reviews is meta-analysis, which is the statistical synthesis of results across studies. There is currently a lack of guidance informing the choice of meta-analysis methods for combining results from ITS studies, and there have been no studies examining the meta-analysis methods used in practice. This study therefore aims to describe current meta-analysis methods used in a cohort of reviews of ITS studies. Methods: We will identify the 100 most recent reviews (published between 1 January 2000 and 11 October 2019) that include meta-analyses of ITS studies from a search of eight electronic databases covering several disciplines (public health, psychology, education, economics). Study selection will be undertaken independently by two authors. Data extraction will be undertaken by one author, and for a random sample of the reviews, two authors. From eligible reviews we will extract details at the review level including discipline, type of interruption and any tools used to assess the risk of bias / methodological quality of included ITS studies; at the meta-analytic level we will extract type of outcome, effect measure(s), meta-analytic methods, and any methods used to re-analyse the individual ITS studies. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarise the data. Conclusions: This review will describe the methods used to meta-analyse results from ITS studies. Results from this review will inform future methods research examining how different meta-analysis methods perform, and ultimately, the development of guidance.

14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e18981, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Based on high-quality evidence, guidelines recommend the long-term use of secondary prevention medications post-myocardial infarction (MI) to avoid recurrent cardiovascular events and death. Unfortunately, discontinuation of recommended medications post-MI is common. Observational evidence suggests that prescriptions covering a longer duration at discharge from hospital are associated with greater long-term medication adherence. The following is a proposal for the first interventional study to evaluate the impact of longer prescription duration at discharge post-MI on long-term medication adherence. OBJECTIVE: The overarching goal of this study is to reduce morbidity and mortality among post-MI patients through improved long-term cardiac medication adherence. The specific objectives include the following. First, we will assess whether long-term cardiac medication adherence improves among elderly, post-MI patients following the implementation of (1) standardized discharge prescription forms with 90-day prescriptions and 3 repeats for recommended cardiac medication classes, in combination with education and (2) education alone compared to (3) usual care. Second, we will assess the cost implications of prolonged initial discharge prescriptions compared with usual care. Third, we will compare clinical outcomes between longer (>60 days) versus shorter prescription durations. Fourth, we will collect baseline information to inform a multicenter interventional study. METHODS: We will conduct a quasiexperimental, interrupted time series design to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention to implement longer duration prescriptions versus usual care on long-term cardiac medication adherence among post-MI patients. Intervention groups and their corresponding settings include: (1) intervention group 1: 1 cardiac center and 1 noncardiac hospital allocated to receive standardized discharge prescription forms supporting the dispensation of 90 days' worth of cardiac medications with 3 repeats, coupled with education; (2) intervention group 2: 4 sites (including 1 cardiac center) allocated to receive education only; and (3) control group: all remaining hospitals within the province that did not receive an intervention (ie, usual care). Administrative databases will be used to measure all outcomes. Adherence to 4 classes of cardiac medications - statins, beta blockers, angiotensin system inhibitors, and secondary antiplatelets (ie, prasugrel, clopidogrel, or ticagrelor) - will be assessed. RESULTS: Enrollment began in September 2017, and results are expected to be analyzed in late 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The results have the potential to redefine best practices regarding discharge prescribing policies for patients post-MI. A policy of standardized maximum-duration prescriptions at the time of discharge post-MI is a simple intervention that has the potential to significantly improve long-term medication adherence, thus decreasing cardiac morbidity and mortality. If effective, this low-cost intervention to implement longer duration prescriptions post-MI could be easily scaled. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03257579; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03257579. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/18981.

15.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 99, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148343

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The implementation of evidence-based protocols for stroke management in the emergency department (ED) for the appropriate triage, administration of tissue plasminogen activator to eligible patients, management of fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing, and prompt transfer to a stroke unit were evaluated in an Australian cluster-randomised trial (T3 trial) conducted at 26 emergency departments. There was no reduction in 90-day death or dependency nor improved processes of ED care. We conducted an a priori planned process influential factors that impacted upon protocol uptake. METHODS: Qualitative face-to-face interviews were conducted with purposively selected ED and stroke clinicians from two high- and two low-performing intervention sites about their views on factors that influenced protocol uptake. All Trial State Co-ordinators (n = 3) who supported the implementation at the 13 intervention sites were also interviewed. Data were analysed thematically using normalisation process theory as a sensitising framework to understand key findings, and compared and contrasted between interviewee groups. RESULTS: Twenty-five ED and stroke clinicians, and three Trial State Co-ordinators were interviewed. Three major themes represented key influences on evidence uptake: (i) Readiness to change: reflected strategies to mobilise and engage clinical teams to foster cognitive participation and collective action; (ii) Fidelity to the protocols: reflected that beliefs about the evidence underpinning the protocols impeded the development of a shared understanding about the applicability of the protocols in the ED context (coherence); and (iii) Boundaries of care: reflected that appraisal (reflexive monitoring) by ED and stroke teams about their respective boundaries of clinical practice impeded uptake of the protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Despite initial high 'buy-in' from clinicians, a theoretically informed and comprehensive implementation strategy was unable to overcome system and clinician level barriers. Initiatives to drive change and integrate protocols rested largely with senior nurses who had to overcome contextual factors that fell outside their control, including low medical engagement, beliefs about the supporting evidence and perceptions of professional boundaries. To maximise uptake of evidence and adherence to intervention fidelity in complex clinical settings such as ED cost-effective strategies are needed to overcome these barriers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12614000939695 ).

16.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 129: 21-30, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007459

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to review the literature on barriers to conducting replication research and strategies to increase its use and promotion by researchers, editors, and funders. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This review was part of a larger meta-narrative review aimed at conducting a concept analysis of replication and developing a replication research framework. A combination of systematic and snowball search strategies was used to identify relevant literature in multiple research fields. Data were coded and analyzed using the Theoretical Domains Framework for barriers to replication and the behavior change wheel for solutions. RESULTS: In total, 153 papers were included in this narrative review. Multiple barriers limit the use of replication research by researchers, editors, and funders. Many of the barriers were related to knowledge and skills of all these actors. Social influences and the research environmental context were also described as not supportive. Multiple strategies were proposed to create positive outcomes expectations, reinforcement, and structural changes in the physical and social context of research. CONCLUSION: A social change involving advisory groups, research organizations, and institutions is required to establish new norms that will value, promote, support, and reward replication research.

17.
Diabet Med ; : e14429, 2020 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068305

RESUMEN

AIM: To identify barriers to/enablers of attendance at eye screening among three groups of immigrantsto Canada from cultural/linguistic minority groups living with diabetes. METHODS: Using a patient-oriented research approach leveraging Diabetes Action Canada's patient engagement platform, we interviewed a purposeful sample of people with type 2 diabetes who had immigrated to Canada from: Pakistan (interviews in Urdu), China (interviews in Mandarin) and French-speaking African and Caribbean nations (interviews in French). We collected and analysed data based on the Theoretical Domains Framework covering key modifiable factors that may operate as barriers to or enablers of attending eye screening. We used directed content analysis to code barrier/enabler domains. Barriers/enablers were mapped to behaviour change techniques to inform future intervention development. RESULTS: We interviewed 39 people (13 per group). Many barriers/enablers were consistent across groups, including views about harms caused by screening itself, practical appointment issues including forgetting, screening costs, wait times and making/getting to an appointment, lack of awareness about retinopathy screening, language barriers, and family and clinical support. Group-specific barriers/enablers included a preference to return to one's country of birth for screening, the impact of winter, and preferences for alternative medicine. CONCLUSION: Our results can inform linguistic and culturally competent interventions to support immigrants living with diabetes in attending eye screening to prevent avoidable blindness.

18.
BMJ ; 370: m3216, 2020 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943437

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To report the improvements achieved with clinical decision support systems and examine the heterogeneity from pooling effects across diverse clinical settings and intervention targets. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline up to August 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES AND METHODS: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials reporting absolute improvements in the percentage of patients receiving care recommended by clinical decision support systems. Multilevel meta-analysis accounted for within study clustering. Meta-regression was used to assess the degree to which the features of clinical decision support systems and study characteristics reduced heterogeneity in effect sizes. Where reported, clinical endpoints were also captured. RESULTS: In 108 studies (94 randomised, 14 quasi-randomised), reporting 122 trials that provided analysable data from 1 203 053 patients and 10 790 providers, clinical decision support systems increased the proportion of patients receiving desired care by 5.8% (95% confidence interval 4.0% to 7.6%). This pooled effect exhibited substantial heterogeneity (I2=76%), with the top quartile of reported improvements ranging from 10% to 62%. In 30 trials reporting clinical endpoints, clinical decision support systems increased the proportion of patients achieving guideline based targets (eg, blood pressure or lipid control) by a median of 0.3% (interquartile range -0.7% to 1.9%). Two study characteristics (low baseline adherence and paediatric settings) were associated with significantly larger effects. Inclusion of these covariates in the multivariable meta-regression, however, did not reduce heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Most interventions with clinical decision support systems appear to achieve small to moderate improvements in targeted processes of care, a finding confirmed by the small changes in clinical endpoints found in studies that reported them. A minority of studies achieved substantial increases in the delivery of recommended care, but predictors of these more meaningful improvements remain undefined.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Humanos
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966890

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A mainstay therapy for pain relief from uncomplicated bone metastases is external beam radiation therapy. Single fraction radiation therapy (SFRT) is more convenient and cost-effective, causes fewer acute side effects, and is equivalent to multiple fraction radiation therapy for pain relief. Despite these advantages, radiation oncologists seldom prescribe SFRT. PURPOSE: To identify the behavioral determinants to Canadian radiation oncologists' use of SFRT for uncomplicated bone metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 38 radiation oncologists from all 10 Canadian provinces. The interview guide and analysis were guided by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Transcripts were analyzed using a 5-phase thematic content analysis process: coding, generation of belief statements, generation of themes within TDF domains, generation of overarching themes, and classification of themes as barriers or facilitators to SFRT use, or as divergent (a barrier or facilitator depending on the participant). RESULTS: Thirteen overarching themes were identified of which 2 were barriers, 7 were facilitators, and 4 were divergent. The most commonly identified theme was the facilitator "most radiation oncologists are aware of evidence and guidelines on the use SFRT" (n = 38, 100%). The 3 next most reported themes (n = 37, 97.4% ) were (1) "radiation oncologists' use of SFRT can influence their colleagues" use of it (divergent), (2) experience with SFRT can increase its use (facilitator), and (3) SFRT is convenient for patients (facilitator). The most commonly identified barrier (n = 31, 81.6%) was "SFRT is associated with a higher risk of retreatment." CONCLUSIONS: Our use of the TDF to explore the behavioral determinants of Canadian radiation oncologists' use of SFRT for uncomplicated bone metastases identified a range of factors that are perceived to encourage and discourage its use. Our results will inform the design of future interventions to increase the use of SFRT.

20.
Nurs Outlook ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (ED) are challenging environments but critical for early management of patients with stroke. PURPOSE: To identify how context affects the provision of stroke care in 26 Australian EDs. METHOD: Nurses perceptions of ED context was assessed with the Alberta Context Tool. Medical records were audited for quality of stroke care and patient outcomes. FINDINGS: Collectively, emergency nurses (n = 558) rated context positively with several nurse and hospital characteristics impacting these ratings. Despite these positive ratings, regression analysis showed no significant differences in the quality of stroke care (n = 1591 patients) and death or dependency (n = 1165 patients) for patients in EDs with high or low rated context. DISCUSSION: Future assessments of ED context may need to examine contextual factors beyond the scope of the Alberta Context Tool which may play an important role for the understanding of stroke care and patient outcomes in EDs.

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