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1.
Implement Sci ; 16(1): 20, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632274

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Decreasing ineffective or harmful healthcare practices (de-implementation) may require different approaches than those used to promote uptake of effective practices (implementation). Few psychological theories differentiate between processes involved in decreasing, versus increasing, behaviour. However, it is unknown whether implementation and de-implementation interventions already use different approaches. We used the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy (version 1) (which includes 93 BCTs organised into 12 groupings) to investigate whether implementation and de-implementation interventions for clinician behaviour change use different BCTs. METHODS: Intervention descriptions in 181 articles from three systematic reviews in the Cochrane Library were coded for (a) implementation versus de-implementation and (b) intervention content (BCTs) using the BCT taxonomy (v1). BCT frequencies were calculated and compared using Pearson's chi-squared (χ2), Yates' continuity correction and Fisher's exact test, where appropriate. Identified BCTs were ranked according to frequency and rankings for de-implementation versus implementation interventions were compared and described. RESULTS: Twenty-nine and 25 BCTs were identified in implementation and de-implementation interventions respectively. Feedback on behaviour was identified more frequently in implementation than de-implementation (Χ2(2, n=178) = 15.693, p = .000057). Three BCTs were identified more frequently in de-implementation than implementation: Behaviour substitution (Χ2(2, n=178) = 14.561, p = .0001; Yates' continuity correction); Monitoring of behaviour by others without feedback (Χ2(2, n=178) = 16.187, p = .000057; Yates' continuity correction); and Restructuring social environment (p = .000273; Fisher's 2-sided exact test). CONCLUSIONS: There were some significant differences between BCTs reported in implementation and de-implementation interventions suggesting that researchers may have implicit theories about different BCTs required for de-implementation and implementation. These findings do not imply that the BCTs identified as targeting implementation or de-implementation are effective, rather simply that they were more frequently used. These findings require replication for a wider range of clinical behaviours. The continued accumulation of additional knowledge and evidence into whether implementation and de-implementation is different will serve to better inform researchers and, subsequently, improve methods for intervention design.

2.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A&F) interventions are one of the most common approaches for implementing evidence-based practices. A key barrier to more effective A&F interventions is the lack of a theory-guided approach to the accumulation of evidence. Recent interviews with theory experts identified 313 theory-informed hypotheses, spread across 30 themes, about how to create more effective A&F interventions. In the current survey, we sought to elicit from stakeholders which hypotheses were most likely to advance the field if studied further. METHODS: From the list of 313, three members of the research team identified 216 that were clear and distinguishable enough for prioritization. A web-based survey was then sent to 211 A&F intervention stakeholders asking them to choose up to 50 'priority' hypotheses following the header "A&F interventions will be more effective if…". Analyses included frequencies of endorsement of the individual hypotheses and themes into which they were grouped. RESULTS: 68 of the 211 invited participants responded to the survey. Seven hypotheses were chosen by > 50% of respondents, including A&F interventions will be more effective… "if feedback is provided by a trusted source"; "if recipients are involved in the design/development of the feedback intervention"; "if recommendations related to the feedback are based on good quality evidence"; "if the behaviour is under the control of the recipient"; "if it addresses barriers and facilitators (drivers) to behaviour change"; "if it suggests clear action plans"; and "if target/goal/optimal rates are clear and explicit". The most endorsed theme was Recipient Priorities (four hypotheses were chosen 92 times as a 'priority' hypotheses). CONCLUSIONS: This work determined a set of hypotheses thought by respondents to be to be most likely to advance the field through future A&F intervention research. This work can inform a coordinated research agenda that may more efficiently lead to more effective A&F interventions.

4.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 40(4): 268-273, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284178

RESUMEN

Continuing professional development (CPD) is a widely used and evolving set of complex interventions that seeks to update and improve the knowledge, skills, and performance of health care professionals to ultimately improve patient care and outcomes. While synthesized evidence shows CPD in general to be effective, effects vary, in part due to variation in CPD interventions and limited understanding of CPD mechanisms of action. We introduce two behavioral science tools-the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 and the Theoretical Domains Framework-that can be used to characterize the content of CPD interventions and the determinants of behaviour potentially targeted by the interventions, respectively. We provide a worked example of the use of these tools in coding the educational content of 43 diabetes quality improvement trials containing clinician education as part of their multicomponent intervention. Fourteen (of a possible 93; 15%) behavior change techniques were identified in the clinician education content of the quality improvement trials, suggesting a focus of addressing the behavioral determinants beliefs about consequences, knowledge, skills, and social influences, of diabetes care providers' behavior. We believe that the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 and Theoretical Domains Framework offer a novel lens to analyze the CPD content of existing evidence and inform the design and evaluation of future CPD interventions.

5.
J Contin Educ Health Prof ; 40(4 Suppl 4): 268-273, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284190

RESUMEN

Continuing professional development (CPD) is a widely used and evolving set of complex interventions that seeks to update and improve the knowledge, skills, and performance of health care professionals to ultimately improve patient care and outcomes. While synthesized evidence shows CPD in general to be effective, effects vary, in part due to variation in CPD interventions and limited understanding of CPD mechanisms of action. We introduce two behavioral science tools-the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 and the Theoretical Domains Framework-that can be used to characterize the content of CPD interventions and the determinants of behaviour potentially targeted by the interventions, respectively. We provide a worked example of the use of these tools in coding the educational content of 43 diabetes quality improvement trials containing clinician education as part of their multicomponent intervention. Fourteen (of a possible 93; 15%) behavior change techniques were identified in the clinician education content of the quality improvement trials, suggesting a focus of addressing the behavioral determinants beliefs about consequences, knowledge, skills, and social influences, of diabetes care providers' behavior. We believe that the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 and Theoretical Domains Framework offer a novel lens to analyze the CPD content of existing evidence and inform the design and evaluation of future CPD interventions.

6.
F1000Res ; 9: 110, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163155

RESUMEN

Background: Systematic reviews are used to inform healthcare decision making. In reviews that aim to examine the effects of organisational, policy change or public health interventions, or exposures, evidence from interrupted time series (ITS) studies may be included. A core component of many systematic reviews is meta-analysis, which is the statistical synthesis of results across studies. There is currently a lack of guidance informing the choice of meta-analysis methods for combining results from ITS studies, and there have been no studies examining the meta-analysis methods used in practice. This study therefore aims to describe current meta-analysis methods used in a cohort of reviews of ITS studies. Methods: We will identify the 100 most recent reviews (published between 1 January 2000 and 11 October 2019) that include meta-analyses of ITS studies from a search of eight electronic databases covering several disciplines (public health, psychology, education, economics). Study selection will be undertaken independently by two authors. Data extraction will be undertaken by one author, and for a random sample of the reviews, two authors. From eligible reviews we will extract details at the review level including discipline, type of interruption and any tools used to assess the risk of bias / methodological quality of included ITS studies; at the meta-analytic level we will extract type of outcome, effect measure(s), meta-analytic methods, and any methods used to re-analyse the individual ITS studies. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarise the data. Conclusions: This review will describe the methods used to meta-analyse results from ITS studies. Results from this review will inform future methods research examining how different meta-analysis methods perform, and ultimately, the development of guidance.

7.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 7: 2054358120964119, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194212

RESUMEN

Background: Pragmatic cluster randomized trials (CRTs) offer an opportunity to improve health care by answering important questions about the comparative effectiveness of treatments using a trial design that can be embedded in routine care. There is a lack of empirical research that addresses ethical issues generated by pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis. Objective: To identify stakeholder perceptions of ethical issues in pragmatic CRTs conducted in hemodialysis. Design: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Setting: In-person or telephone interviews with an international group of stakeholders. Participants: Stakeholders (clinical investigators, methodologists, ethicists and research ethics committee members, and other knowledge users) who had been involved in the design or conduct of a pragmatic individual patient or cluster randomized trial in hemodialysis, or their role would require them to review and evaluate pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis. Methods: Interviews were conducted in-person or over the telephone and were audio-recorded with consent. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim prior to analysis. Transcripts and field notes were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Sixteen interviews were conducted with 19 individuals. Interviewees were largely drawn from North America (84%) and were predominantly clinical investigators (42%). Six themes were identified in which pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis raise ethical issues: (1) patients treated with hemodialysis as a vulnerable population, (2) appropriate approaches to informed consent, (3) research burdens, (4) roles and responsibilities of gatekeepers, (5) inequities in access to research, and (6) advocacy for patient-centered research and outcomes. Limitations: Participants were largely from North America and did not include research staff, who may have differing perspectives. Conclusions: The six themes reflect concerns relating to individual rights, but also the need to consider population-level issues. To date, concerns regarding inequity of access to research and the need for patient-centered research have received less coverage than other, well-known, issues such as consent. Pragmatic CRTs offer a potential approach to address equity concerns and we suggest future ethical analyses and guidance for pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis embed equity considerations within them. We further note the potential for the co-creation of health data infrastructure with patients which would aid care but also facilitate patient-centered research. These present results will inform planned future guidance in relation to the ethical design and conduct of pragmatic CRTs in hemodialysis. Trial Registration: Registration is not applicable as this is a qualitative study.

8.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 99, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148343

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The implementation of evidence-based protocols for stroke management in the emergency department (ED) for the appropriate triage, administration of tissue plasminogen activator to eligible patients, management of fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing, and prompt transfer to a stroke unit were evaluated in an Australian cluster-randomised trial (T3 trial) conducted at 26 emergency departments. There was no reduction in 90-day death or dependency nor improved processes of ED care. We conducted an a priori planned process influential factors that impacted upon protocol uptake. METHODS: Qualitative face-to-face interviews were conducted with purposively selected ED and stroke clinicians from two high- and two low-performing intervention sites about their views on factors that influenced protocol uptake. All Trial State Co-ordinators (n = 3) who supported the implementation at the 13 intervention sites were also interviewed. Data were analysed thematically using normalisation process theory as a sensitising framework to understand key findings, and compared and contrasted between interviewee groups. RESULTS: Twenty-five ED and stroke clinicians, and three Trial State Co-ordinators were interviewed. Three major themes represented key influences on evidence uptake: (i) Readiness to change: reflected strategies to mobilise and engage clinical teams to foster cognitive participation and collective action; (ii) Fidelity to the protocols: reflected that beliefs about the evidence underpinning the protocols impeded the development of a shared understanding about the applicability of the protocols in the ED context (coherence); and (iii) Boundaries of care: reflected that appraisal (reflexive monitoring) by ED and stroke teams about their respective boundaries of clinical practice impeded uptake of the protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Despite initial high 'buy-in' from clinicians, a theoretically informed and comprehensive implementation strategy was unable to overcome system and clinician level barriers. Initiatives to drive change and integrate protocols rested largely with senior nurses who had to overcome contextual factors that fell outside their control, including low medical engagement, beliefs about the supporting evidence and perceptions of professional boundaries. To maximise uptake of evidence and adherence to intervention fidelity in complex clinical settings such as ED cost-effective strategies are needed to overcome these barriers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12614000939695 ).

9.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e18981, 2020 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Based on high-quality evidence, guidelines recommend the long-term use of secondary prevention medications post-myocardial infarction (MI) to avoid recurrent cardiovascular events and death. Unfortunately, discontinuation of recommended medications post-MI is common. Observational evidence suggests that prescriptions covering a longer duration at discharge from hospital are associated with greater long-term medication adherence. The following is a proposal for the first interventional study to evaluate the impact of longer prescription duration at discharge post-MI on long-term medication adherence. OBJECTIVE: The overarching goal of this study is to reduce morbidity and mortality among post-MI patients through improved long-term cardiac medication adherence. The specific objectives include the following. First, we will assess whether long-term cardiac medication adherence improves among elderly, post-MI patients following the implementation of (1) standardized discharge prescription forms with 90-day prescriptions and 3 repeats for recommended cardiac medication classes, in combination with education and (2) education alone compared to (3) usual care. Second, we will assess the cost implications of prolonged initial discharge prescriptions compared with usual care. Third, we will compare clinical outcomes between longer (>60 days) versus shorter prescription durations. Fourth, we will collect baseline information to inform a multicenter interventional study. METHODS: We will conduct a quasiexperimental, interrupted time series design to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention to implement longer duration prescriptions versus usual care on long-term cardiac medication adherence among post-MI patients. Intervention groups and their corresponding settings include: (1) intervention group 1: 1 cardiac center and 1 noncardiac hospital allocated to receive standardized discharge prescription forms supporting the dispensation of 90 days' worth of cardiac medications with 3 repeats, coupled with education; (2) intervention group 2: 4 sites (including 1 cardiac center) allocated to receive education only; and (3) control group: all remaining hospitals within the province that did not receive an intervention (ie, usual care). Administrative databases will be used to measure all outcomes. Adherence to 4 classes of cardiac medications - statins, beta blockers, angiotensin system inhibitors, and secondary antiplatelets (ie, prasugrel, clopidogrel, or ticagrelor) - will be assessed. RESULTS: Enrollment began in September 2017, and results are expected to be analyzed in late 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The results have the potential to redefine best practices regarding discharge prescribing policies for patients post-MI. A policy of standardized maximum-duration prescriptions at the time of discharge post-MI is a simple intervention that has the potential to significantly improve long-term medication adherence, thus decreasing cardiac morbidity and mortality. If effective, this low-cost intervention to implement longer duration prescriptions post-MI could be easily scaled. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03257579; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03257579. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/18981.

10.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 129: 21-30, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007459

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to review the literature on barriers to conducting replication research and strategies to increase its use and promotion by researchers, editors, and funders. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This review was part of a larger meta-narrative review aimed at conducting a concept analysis of replication and developing a replication research framework. A combination of systematic and snowball search strategies was used to identify relevant literature in multiple research fields. Data were coded and analyzed using the Theoretical Domains Framework for barriers to replication and the behavior change wheel for solutions. RESULTS: In total, 153 papers were included in this narrative review. Multiple barriers limit the use of replication research by researchers, editors, and funders. Many of the barriers were related to knowledge and skills of all these actors. Social influences and the research environmental context were also described as not supportive. Multiple strategies were proposed to create positive outcomes expectations, reinforcement, and structural changes in the physical and social context of research. CONCLUSION: A social change involving advisory groups, research organizations, and institutions is required to establish new norms that will value, promote, support, and reward replication research.

11.
Diabet Med ; : e14429, 2020 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068305

RESUMEN

AIM: To identify barriers to/enablers of attendance at eye screening among three groups of immigrantsto Canada from cultural/linguistic minority groups living with diabetes. METHODS: Using a patient-oriented research approach leveraging Diabetes Action Canada's patient engagement platform, we interviewed a purposeful sample of people with type 2 diabetes who had immigrated to Canada from: Pakistan (interviews in Urdu), China (interviews in Mandarin) and French-speaking African and Caribbean nations (interviews in French). We collected and analysed data based on the Theoretical Domains Framework covering key modifiable factors that may operate as barriers to or enablers of attending eye screening. We used directed content analysis to code barrier/enabler domains. Barriers/enablers were mapped to behaviour change techniques to inform future intervention development. RESULTS: We interviewed 39 people (13 per group). Many barriers/enablers were consistent across groups, including views about harms caused by screening itself, practical appointment issues including forgetting, screening costs, wait times and making/getting to an appointment, lack of awareness about retinopathy screening, language barriers, and family and clinical support. Group-specific barriers/enablers included a preference to return to one's country of birth for screening, the impact of winter, and preferences for alternative medicine. CONCLUSION: Our results can inform linguistic and culturally competent interventions to support immigrants living with diabetes in attending eye screening to prevent avoidable blindness.

12.
Nurs Outlook ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (ED) are challenging environments but critical for early management of patients with stroke. PURPOSE: To identify how context affects the provision of stroke care in 26 Australian EDs. METHOD: Nurses perceptions of ED context was assessed with the Alberta Context Tool. Medical records were audited for quality of stroke care and patient outcomes. FINDINGS: Collectively, emergency nurses (n = 558) rated context positively with several nurse and hospital characteristics impacting these ratings. Despite these positive ratings, regression analysis showed no significant differences in the quality of stroke care (n = 1591 patients) and death or dependency (n = 1165 patients) for patients in EDs with high or low rated context. DISCUSSION: Future assessments of ED context may need to examine contextual factors beyond the scope of the Alberta Context Tool which may play an important role for the understanding of stroke care and patient outcomes in EDs.

14.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 79, 2020 09 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948216

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of recommendations from 161 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) using AGREE-REX-D (Appraisal of Guidelines REsearch and Evaluation-Recommendations Excellence Draft). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: International CPG community. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twenty-two international CPG developers, users, and researchers. INTERVENTION: Participants were assigned to appraise one of 161 CPGs selected for the study using the AGREE-REX-D tool MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: AGREE-REX-D scores of 161 CPGs (7-point scale, maximum 7). RESULTS: Recommendations from 161 CPGs were appraised by 322 participants using the AGREE-REX-D. CPGs were developed by 67 different organizations. The total overall average score of the CPG recommendations was 4.23 (standard deviation (SD) = 1.14). AGREE-REX-D items that scored the highest were (mean; SD): evidence (5.51; 1.14), clinical relevance (5.95; SD 0.8), and patients/population relevance (4.87; SD 1.33), while the lowest scores were observed for the policy values (3.44; SD 1.53), local applicability (3,56; SD 1.47), and resources, tools, and capacity (3.49; SD 1.44) items. CPGs developed by government-supported organizations and developed in the UK and Canada had significantly higher recommendation quality scores with the AGREE-REX-D tool (p < 0.05) than their comparators. CONCLUSIONS: We found that there is significant room for improvement of some CPGs such as the considerations of patient/population values, policy values, local applicability and resources, tools, and capacity. These findings may be considered a baseline upon which to measure future improvements in the quality of CPGs.

15.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1: 33, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885191

RESUMEN

Background: As part of their professional role, healthcare providers enact multiple competing goal-directed behaviours in time-constrained environments. Better understanding healthcare providers' motivation to engage in the pursuit of particular goals may help inform the development of implementation interventions. We investigated healthcare providers' pursuit of multiple goals as part of a trial evaluating the effectiveness of an audit and feedback intervention in supporting appropriate adjustment of high-risk medication prescribing by physicians working in nursing homes. Our objectives were to determine whether goal priority and constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and descriptive norms) predicted intention to adjust prescribing of multiple high-risk medications and to investigate how physicians in nursing homes prioritise their goals related to high-risk medication prescribing. Methods: Physicians in Ontario, Canada, who signed up for and accessed the audit and feedback report were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing goal priority, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, descriptive norms, and intention in relation to the three targeted behaviours (adjusting prescribing of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants) and a control behaviour (adjusting statin prescribing). We conducted multiple linear regression analyses to identify predictors of intention. We also conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews to investigate how physicians in nursing homes prioritise their goals in relation to appropriately adjusting prescribing of the medications included in the report: analysis was informed by the framework analysis method. Results: Thirty-three of 89 (37%) physicians completed the questionnaire. Goal priority was the only significant predictor of intention for each medication type; the greater a priority it was for physicians to appropriately adjust their prescribing, the stronger was their intention to do so. Across five interviews, physicians reported prioritising adjustment of antipsychotic prescribing specifically. This was influenced by negative media coverage of antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes, the provincial government's mandate to address antipsychotic prescribing, and by the deprescribing initiatives or best practice routines in place in their nursing homes. Conclusions: Goal priority predicted nursing home physicians' intention to adjust prescribing. Targeting goal priority through implementation interventions therefore has the potential to influence behaviour via increased motivation. Implementation intervention developers should consider the external factors that may drive physicians' prioritization.

16.
BMJ ; 370: m3216, 2020 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943437

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To report the improvements achieved with clinical decision support systems and examine the heterogeneity from pooling effects across diverse clinical settings and intervention targets. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline up to August 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES AND METHODS: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials reporting absolute improvements in the percentage of patients receiving care recommended by clinical decision support systems. Multilevel meta-analysis accounted for within study clustering. Meta-regression was used to assess the degree to which the features of clinical decision support systems and study characteristics reduced heterogeneity in effect sizes. Where reported, clinical endpoints were also captured. RESULTS: In 108 studies (94 randomised, 14 quasi-randomised), reporting 122 trials that provided analysable data from 1 203 053 patients and 10 790 providers, clinical decision support systems increased the proportion of patients receiving desired care by 5.8% (95% confidence interval 4.0% to 7.6%). This pooled effect exhibited substantial heterogeneity (I2=76%), with the top quartile of reported improvements ranging from 10% to 62%. In 30 trials reporting clinical endpoints, clinical decision support systems increased the proportion of patients achieving guideline based targets (eg, blood pressure or lipid control) by a median of 0.3% (interquartile range -0.7% to 1.9%). Two study characteristics (low baseline adherence and paediatric settings) were associated with significantly larger effects. Inclusion of these covariates in the multivariable meta-regression, however, did not reduce heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Most interventions with clinical decision support systems appear to achieve small to moderate improvements in targeted processes of care, a finding confirmed by the small changes in clinical endpoints found in studies that reported them. A minority of studies achieved substantial increases in the delivery of recommended care, but predictors of these more meaningful improvements remain undefined.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Humanos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966890

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A mainstay therapy for pain relief from uncomplicated bone metastases is external beam radiation therapy. Single fraction radiation therapy (SFRT) is more convenient and cost-effective, causes fewer acute side effects, and is equivalent to multiple fraction radiation therapy for pain relief. Despite these advantages, radiation oncologists seldom prescribe SFRT. PURPOSE: To identify the behavioral determinants to Canadian radiation oncologists' use of SFRT for uncomplicated bone metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 38 radiation oncologists from all 10 Canadian provinces. The interview guide and analysis were guided by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Transcripts were analyzed using a 5-phase thematic content analysis process: coding, generation of belief statements, generation of themes within TDF domains, generation of overarching themes, and classification of themes as barriers or facilitators to SFRT use, or as divergent (a barrier or facilitator depending on the participant). RESULTS: Thirteen overarching themes were identified of which 2 were barriers, 7 were facilitators, and 4 were divergent. The most commonly identified theme was the facilitator "most radiation oncologists are aware of evidence and guidelines on the use SFRT" (n = 38, 100%). The 3 next most reported themes (n = 37, 97.4% ) were (1) "radiation oncologists' use of SFRT can influence their colleagues" use of it (divergent), (2) experience with SFRT can increase its use (facilitator), and (3) SFRT is convenient for patients (facilitator). The most commonly identified barrier (n = 31, 81.6%) was "SFRT is associated with a higher risk of retreatment." CONCLUSIONS: Our use of the TDF to explore the behavioral determinants of Canadian radiation oncologists' use of SFRT for uncomplicated bone metastases identified a range of factors that are perceived to encourage and discourage its use. Our results will inform the design of future interventions to increase the use of SFRT.

18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD004398, 2020 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Printed educational materials are widely used dissemination strategies to improve the quality of healthcare professionals' practice and patient health outcomes. Traditionally they are presented in paper formats such as monographs, publication in peer-reviewed journals and clinical guidelines. This is the fourth update of the review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of printed educational materials (PEMs) on the practice of healthcare professionals and patient health outcomes. To explore the influence of some of the characteristics of the printed educational materials (e.g. source, content, format) on their effect on healthcare professionals' practice and patient health outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), HealthStar, CINAHL, ERIC, CAB Abstracts, Global Health, and EPOC Register from their inception to 6 February 2019. We checked the reference lists of all included studies and relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials (RTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series studies (ITSs) that evaluated the impact of PEMs on healthcare professionals' practice or patient health outcomes. We included three types of comparisons: (1) PEM versus no intervention, (2) PEM versus single intervention, (3) multifaceted intervention where PEM is included versus multifaceted intervention without PEM. Any objective measure of professional practice (e.g. prescriptions for a particular drug), or patient health outcomes (e.g. blood pressure) were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers undertook data extraction independently. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. For analyses, we grouped the included studies according to study design, type of outcome and type of comparison. For controlled trials, we reported the median effect size for each outcome within each study, the median effect size across outcomes for each study and the median of these effect sizes across studies. Where data were available, we re-analysed the ITS studies by converting all data to a monthly basis and estimating the effect size from the change in the slope of the regression line between before and after implementation of the PEM. We reported median changes in slope for each outcome, for each study, and then across studies. We standardised all changes in slopes by their standard error, allowing comparisons and combination of different outcomes. We categorised each PEM according to potential effects modifiers related to the source of the PEMs, the channel used for their delivery, their content, and their format. We assessed the risks of bias of all the included studies. MAIN RESULTS: We included 84 studies: 32 RTs, two CBAs and 50 ITS studies. Of the 32 RTs, 19 were cluster RTs that used various units of randomisation, such as practices, health centres, towns, or areas. The majority of the included studies (82/84) compared the effectiveness of PEMs to no intervention. Based on the RTs that provided moderate-certainty evidence, we found that PEMs distributed to healthcare professionals probably improve their practice, as measured with dichotomous variables, compared to no intervention (median absolute risk difference (ARD): 0.04; interquartile range (IQR): 0.01 to 0.09; 3,963 healthcare professionals randomised within 3073 units). We could not confirm this finding using the evidence gathered from continuous variables (standardised mean difference (SMD): 0.11; IQR: -0.16 to 0.52; 1631 healthcare professionals randomised within 1373 units ), from the ITS studies (standardised median change in slope = 0.69; 35 studies), or from the CBA study because the certainty of this evidence was very low. We also found, based on RTs that provided moderate-certainty evidence, that PEMs distributed to healthcare professionals probably make little or no difference to patient health as measured using dichotomous variables, compared to no intervention (ARD: 0.02; IQR: -0.005 to 0.09; 935,015 patients randomised within 959 units). The evidence gathered from continuous variables (SMD: 0.05; IQR: -0.12 to 0.09; 6,737 patients randomised within 594 units) or from ITS study results (standardised median change in slope = 1.12; 8 studies) do not strengthen these findings because the certainty of this evidence was very low. Two studies (a randomised trial and a CBA) compared a paper-based version to a computerised version of the same PEM. From the RT that provided evidence of low certainty, we found that PEM in computerised versions may make little or no difference to professionals' practice compared to PEM in printed versions (ARD: -0.02; IQR: -0.03 to 0.00; 139 healthcare professionals randomised individually). This finding was not strengthened by the CBA study that provided very low certainty evidence (SMD: 0.44; 32 healthcare professionals). The data gathered did not allow us to conclude which PEM characteristics influenced their effectiveness. The methodological quality of the included studies was variable. Half of the included RTs were at risk of selection bias. Most of the ITS studies were conducted retrospectively, without prespecifying the expected effect of the intervention, or acknowledging the presence of a secular trend. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review suggest that, when used alone and compared to no intervention, PEMs may slightly improve healthcare professionals' practice outcomes and patient health outcomes. The effectiveness of PEMs compared to other interventions, or of PEMs as part of a multifaceted intervention, is uncertain.


Asunto(s)
Difusión de la Información/métodos , Manuales como Asunto , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Práctica Profesional , Análisis de Varianza , Estudios Controlados Antes y Después , Difusión de Innovaciones , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD002845, 2020 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845024

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anti-fungals are available for oral and intra-vaginal treatment of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review is to assess the relative effectiveness (clinical cure) of oral versus intra-vaginal anti-fungals for the treatment of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis. Secondary objectives include the assessment of the relative effectiveness in terms of mycological cure, in addition to safety, side effects, treatment preference, time to first relief of symptoms, and costs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trials registers on 29 August 2019 together with reference checking and citation searching. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials published in any language comparing at least one oral anti-fungal with one intra-vaginal anti-fungal in women (aged 16 years or over) with a mycological diagnosis (positive culture, microscopy for yeast, or both) of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis. We excluded trials if they solely involved participants who were HIV positive, immunocompromised, pregnant, breast feeding or diabetic. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures as recommended by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 26 trials (5007 participants). Eight anti-fungals are represented. All but three trials included participants with acute vulvovaginal candidiasis. Trials were conducted in Europe: UK (3), Croatia (2). Finland (2), the Netherlands (2), Germany (1), Italy (1), Sweden (1) and one trial across multiple European countries, USA (7) Thailand (2), Iran (2), Japan (1) and Africa (Nigeria) (1). The duration of follow-up varied between trials. The overall risk of bias of the included trials was high. There was probably little or no difference shown between oral and intra-vaginal anti-fungal treatment for clinical cure at short-term follow-up (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.43; 13 trials; 1859 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and long-term follow-up (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.50; 9 trials; 1042 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence suggests that if the rate of clinical cure at short-term follow-up with intra-vaginal treatment is 77%, the rate with oral treatment would be between 75% and 83%; if the rate of clinical cure at long term follow-up with intra-vaginal treatment is 84%, the rate with oral treatment would be between 80% and 89%. Oral treatment probably improves mycological cure over intra-vaginal treatment at short term (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.50: 19 trials; 3057 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and long-term follow-up (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.60; 13 trials; 1661 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence suggests that if the rate of mycological cure at short-term follow-up with intra-vaginal treatment is 80%, the rate with oral treatment would be between 80% and 85%; if the rate of mycological cure at long-term follow-up with intra-vaginal treatment is 66%, the rate with oral treatment would be between 67% and 76%. In terms of patient safety, there is a low risk of participants withdrawing from the studies due to adverse drug effects for either treatment (23 trials; 4637 participants; high-certainty evidence). Due to the low certainty of evidence, it is undetermined whether oral treatments reduced the number of side effects compared with intra-vaginal treatments (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29; 16 trials; 3155 participants; low-certainty evidence). The evidence suggests that if the rate of side effects with intra-vaginal treatment is 12%, the rate with oral treatment would be between 10% and 15%. We noted that the type of side effects differed, with intra-vaginal treatments being more often associated with local reactions, and oral treatments being more often associated with systemic effects including gastro-intestinal symptoms and headaches. Oral treatment appeared to be the favoured treatment preference over intra-vaginal treatment or no preference (12 trials; 2206 participants), however the data were poorly reported and the certainty of the evidence was low. There was little or no difference in time to first relief of symptoms between oral and intra-vaginal treatments: four trials favoured the oral treatment, four favoured intra-vaginal, one study reported no difference and one was unclear. The measurements varied between the 10 trials (1910 participants) and the certainty of the evidence was low. Costs were not reported in any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Oral anti-fungal treatment probably improves short- and long-term mycological cure over intra-vaginal treatment for uncomplicated vaginal candidiasis. Oral treatment was the favoured treatment preference by participants, though the certainty of this evidence is low. The decision to prescribe or recommend an anti-fungal for oral or intra-vaginal administration should take into consideration safety in terms of withdrawals and side effects, as well as cost and treatment preference. Unless there is a previous history of adverse reaction to one route of administration or contraindications, women who are purchasing their own treatment should be given full information about the characteristics and costs of treatment to make their own decision. If health services are paying the treatment cost, decision-makers should consider whether the higher cost of some oral anti-fungals is worth the gain in convenience, if this is the patient's preference.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/administración & dosificación , Azoles/administración & dosificación , Candidiasis Vulvovaginal/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Aguda , Administración Intravaginal , Administración Oral , Antifúngicos/economía , Azoles/economía , Sesgo , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
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