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1.
Quintessence Int ; 51(5): 406-414, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253392

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technique fully based on the use of a piezoelectric device for third molar root extraction versus the conventional technique based on the use of manual and rotary instruments. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Patients referred to the hospital of Bolzano for third molar extraction were randomly divided into two groups and treated by two experienced oral surgeons. In the test group all the procedures were performed using piezoelectric instruments and a specially designed piezoelectric lever, whereas in the control group conventional manual and rotary instruments were used. The main outcome measure was patient's pain perception, and the secondary outcome measures were complications, duration of the surgical treatment, and soft tissue healing. The study had a 1-week follow-up. RESULTS: Fifty patients (23 females and 27 males) out of 90 were included in the study, and 100 third molars (50 maxillary and 50 mandibular) were extracted. All patients completed the expected follow-up. No differences were found between the two groups regarding patient's pain perception, complications, and soft tissue healing. However, the new piezoelectric extraction technique took less than half the time when compared to the conventional technique (4.6 ± 4.5 minutes versus 10.2 ± 13.1 minutes; P = .049). CONCLUSIONS: The new piezoelectric third molar root extraction technique allowed third molar extraction in less than one half the surgical time required by the traditional technique. The advantages seem to be more pronounced in difficult cases. However, both surgeons who performed the procedures were very experienced and all the patients were young. Therefore, caution should be given to the generalization of the results. Multicenter studies with a larger variety of patients are needed to confirm the promising results of this study.


Asunto(s)
Tercer Molar , Piezocirugía , Diente Impactado , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula , Osteotomía , Dolor Postoperatorio , Extracción Dental , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231082

RESUMEN

Peri-implant soft tissues play a role of paramount importance, not only on the esthetic appearance, but also on the maintenance and long-term stability of implants. The present report presents the conclusions from the Consensus Conference of the South European North African Middle Eastern Implantology & Modern Dentistry Association (SENAME) (4-6 November 2016, Cairo, Egypt). The conference focused on the topic of the soft tissue around dental implants, and in particular, on the influence of implant configurations on the marginal soft tissues, soft tissue alterations after immediate, early or delayed implant placement and immediate loading, the long-term outcomes of soft tissue stability around dental implants, and soft tissue augmentation around dental implants. Thirty world experts in this field were invited to take part in this two-day event; however, only 29 experts were in the final consensus voting process.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Mucosa Bucal , Consenso , Egipto , Humanos
3.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(6): 2015-2024, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620939

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this 12-month mono-centre double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Lactobacillus reuteri-containing lozenges during the supportive therapy of generalized periodontitis stage III and IV, grade C (GPIII-IVC) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty treated GPIII-IVC patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The test group received two 3-month-long administrations of L. reuteri (2 lozenges/day after brushing) with a 3-month washout period, while the control one received a placebo. Outcome measures were tooth survival, complications and adverse events, change in probing pockets depth (PPD), change in probing attachment level (PAL), presence of bleeding on probing (BOP) and patient's evaluation of treatment. Measurements were collected at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. RESULTS: At 1 year, no dropout, tooth loss, complications or adverse event were recorded. Mean PPD and mean PAL and percentages of sites with BOP were statistically improved (p < 0.05) compared with baseline in both groups, while more PPD reduction at all time points (p < 0.05) and more PAL gain at 6 months and more BOP reduction at 6 and 9 months were found in the probiotic group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitation of the study, the use of L. reuteri probiotics lozenges improved some clinical outcomes in treated GPIII-IVC patients during maintenance therapy. Studies with a larger number of patients are needed to confirm these data. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of L. reuteri probiotic lozenges could be considered as an adjunct in the maintenance therapy of GPIII-IVC patients.


Asunto(s)
Lactobacillus reuteri , Periodontitis , Probióticos , Método Doble Ciego , Humanos , Bolsa Periodontal , Periodontitis/terapia , Proyectos Piloto , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD006698, 2018 05 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791009

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Implants may be placed penetrating the oral mucosa (1-stage procedure) or can be completely buried under the oral mucosa (2-stage procedure) during the healing phase of the bone at the implant surface. With a 2-stage procedure the risk of having unwanted loading onto the implants is minimized, but a second minor surgical intervention is needed to connect the healing abutments and more time is needed prior to start the prosthetic phase because of the wound-healing period required in relation to the second surgical intervention. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a 1-stage implant placement procedure is as effective as a 2-stage procedure. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched. Handsearching included several dental journals. Authors of all identified trials, an Internet discussion group and 55 dental implant manufacturers were contacted to find unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The last electronic search was conducted on 21 January 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: All RCTs of osseointegrated dental implants comparing the same dental implants placed according to 1- versus 2-stage procedures with a minimum follow up of 6 months after loading. Outcome measures were: prosthesis failures, implant failures, marginal bone level changes on intraoral radiographs, patient preference including aesthetics, aesthetics evaluated by dentists, and complications. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Authors were contacted for missing information. Results were expressed as random-effects models using mean differences for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. MAIN RESULTS: Five RCTs were identified and included reporting data on 239 patients in total. On a patient, rather than per implant basis, the meta-analyses showed no statistically significant differences for prosthesis and implant failures, though trends, especially in fully edentulous patients, favoured 2-stage (submerged) implants. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients included in the trials was too small to draw definitive conclusions. The 1-stage approach might be preferable in partially edentulous patients since it avoids one surgical intervention and shortens treatment times, while a 2-stage submerged approach could be indicated when an implant has not obtained an optimal primary stability or when barriers are used for guided tissue regeneration, or when it is expected that removable temporary prostheses could transmit excessive forces on the penetrating abutments especially in fully edentulous patients.


Asunto(s)
Implantación Dental/métodos , Implantes Dentales , Encía/cirugía , Arcada Edéntula/rehabilitación , Mucosa Bucal/cirugía , Humanos , Mandíbula , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
5.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 10(4): 373-390, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234745

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of at least three abutment disconnections in conventional loaded implants against placement of a definitive abutment in immediately non-occlusal loaded implants on hard and soft tissue changes. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the presence of less than 2 mm of keratinised mucosa is associated with increased peri-implant marginal bone loss and soft tissue recessions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients requiring one single crown or one fixed partial prosthesis supported by a maximum of three implants were randomised, after implants were placed with more than 35 Ncm, according to a parallel group design to receive definitive abutments that were loaded immediately (definitive abutment or immediate loading group) or transmucosal abutments, which were delayed loaded after 3 months and removed at least three times: 1. At impression taking (3 months after implant placement); 2. When checking the zirconium core on titanium abutments at single crowns or the fitting the metal structure at prostheses supported by multiple implants; 3. At delivery of the definitive prostheses (repeated disconnection or conventional loading group). Patients were treated at four centres and each patient contributed to the study, with only one prosthesis followed for 3 years after initial loading. Outcome measures were: prosthesis failures, implant failures, complications, pink aesthetic score (PES), buccal recessions, patient satisfaction, peri-implant marginal bone level changes and height of the keratinised mucosa. RESULTS: Forty patients were randomly allocated to each group according to a parallel group design. Six patients from the definitive abutment group dropped out or died, and one left from the repeated disconnection group. One implant, from the repeated disconnection group, fractured (difference = 3%; CI 95%: -2%, 8%; P = 1). Four provisional crowns and one definitive single crown had to be remade because of poor fitting, and one definitive crown and one definitive prosthesis because of ceramic and implant fracture, respectively, in the repeated disconnection group vs one provisional prosthesis from the definitive abutment group due to frequent debondings (difference = 15%; CI 95%: 2%, 28%; P = 0.060). Five patients from the definitive abutment group and four patients from the repeated disconnection group were affected by complications (difference = 4%; CI 95%: -11%, 20%; P = 0.725). PES scores assessed at 3 years post-loading were 11.7 (standard deviation = 1.8) mm for the definitive abutment group and 11.3 (1.5) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (difference = 0.4; CI 95%: -0.4, 1.2; P = 0.315). However, there was a difference of 0.26 out of a maximum score of 2 in favour of the definitive abutment group for soft tissue contour only. Buccal recessions at 3 years post-loading amounted to -0.1 (0.8) mm for the definitive abutment group and -0.1 (1.2) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (it was actually a soft tissue gain; difference = 0.01 mm CI 95%: -0.48, 0.50; P = 0.965). All patients declared being very satisfied or satisfied with the function and aesthetics of the prostheses and said they would undergo the same procedure again, with the exception of one patient from the repeated disconnection group who was uncertain regarding function. Mean peri-implant marginal bone loss 3 years after loading was 0.07 (0.18) mm for the definitive abutment group and 0.50 (0.93) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (difference = 0.43 mm; CI 95%: 0.13, 0.74; P = 0.007). The height of keratinised mucosa at 3 years post-loading was 2.8 (1.3) mm for the definitive abutment group and 2.8 (1.6) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (difference = 0.03; CI 95%: -0.67, 0.73; P = .926). Up to 3 years after initial loading there were no statistically significant differences between the two procedures, with the exception of 0.4 mm more marginal bone loss at implants subjected to three abutment disconnections. There were no significantly increased marginal bone loss (difference = 0.1 mm, CI 95%: -0.3, 0.5, P = 0.590) or buccal recessions (difference = 0.1 mm, CI 95%: -0.4, 0.7, P = 0.674) at implants with less than 2 mm of keratinised mucosa at loading. CONCLUSIONS: Three-year post-loading data showed that repeated abutment disconnections significantly increased bone loss of 0.43 mm, but this difference may not be considered clinically relevant; therefore clinicians can use the procedure they find more convenient for each specific patient. Immediately non-occlusally loaded dental implants are a viable alternative to conventional loading and no increased bone loss or buccal recessions were noticed at implants with less than 2 mm of keratinised mucosa. Conflict of interest statement: This trial was partially funded by Dentsply Sirona Implants, the manufacturer of the implants and other products evaluated in this investigation. However, data belonged to the authors and by no means did the manufacturer interfere with the conduct of the trial or the publication of the results, with the exception of rejecting a proposal to change the protocol, after the trial was started, allowing the use of indexed abutments.


Asunto(s)
Pilares Dentales , Carga Inmediata del Implante Dental , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 10(4): 415-424, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234748

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical safety and effectiveness of a novel calcium-incorporated titanium implant (Xpeed, MegaGen Implant Co. Limited, Gyeongbuk, South Korea). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 60 patients were randomised to receive one to six titanium implants in the maxilla with either calcium-incorporated (Xpeed) or control resorbable blasted media (RBM) surfaces, according to a parallel group design at two centres. Implants were submerged and exposed at three different endpoints in equal groups of 20 patients at 12, 10 and 8 weeks, respectively. Within 2 weeks, implants were functionally loaded with provisional or definitive prostheses. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, any complications and peri-implant marginal bone level changes. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients received 45 calcium-incorporated implants and 30 patients were given 42 control titanium implants. Five years after loading, eight patients dropped-out from the Xpeed group and nine left the RBM group. No prosthesis or implant failures occurred. Two patients were affected by three complications in the Xpeed group vs five patients from the RBM group, who experienced eight complications; the difference between groups being not statistically significant different (P = 0.187; difference in proportions = 14.7%; 95% CI: -10.7% to 39.4%). Five years after loading patients with Xpeed implants lost on average 1.19 ± 0.48 mm of peri-implant marginal bone vs 1.43 ± 0.98 mm of patients with RBM implants, the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.35; mean difference: -0.23 mm; 95% CI: -0.73 to 0.27 mm). CONCLUSIONS: Both implant surfaces provided good clinical results and no significant difference was found when comparing titanium implants with a nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface with implants with an RBM surface. Conflict-of-interest statement: MegaGen partially supported this trial and donated the implants and prosthetic components. The study design was negotiated with MegaGen Implant Co, Gyeongbuk, South Korea, however, data property belonged to the authors and by no means did MegaGen interfere with the conduct of the trial or the publication of its results.


Asunto(s)
Calcio , Carga Inmediata del Implante Dental , Maxilar/cirugía , Nanoestructuras , Titanio , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método Simple Ciego , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 10(1): 57-72, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327695

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of at least three abutment changes in conventionally loaded implants against placement of a definitive abutment in immediately non-occlusal loaded implants on hard and soft tissue changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients requiring one single crown or one fixed partial prosthesis supported by a maximum of three implants were randomised, after implants were placed with more than 35 Ncm, according to a parallel group design to receive definitive abutments which were loaded immediately (definitive abutment or immediate loading group) or transmucosal abutments. These were delayed loaded after 3 months and were removed at least three times: 1) at impression taking (3 months after implant placement); 2) when checking the zirconium core on titanium abutments at single crowns or the fitting the metal structure at prostheses supported by multiple implants; 3) at delivery of the definitive prostheses (repeated disconnection or conventional loading group). Patients were treated in four centres and each patient contributed to the study with only one prosthesis followed for 1 year after initial loading. Outcome measures were: prosthesis failures, implant failures, complications, pink esthetic score (PES), buccal recessions, patient satisfaction, peri-implant marginal bone level changes and height of the keratinised mucosa. RESULTS: Forty patients were randomly allocated to each group according to a parallel group design. Two patients dropped out from the definitive abutment group but no implant failed. Four provisional and one definitive single crowns had to be remade (due of misfitting) and one definitive crown (due to ceramic fracture) in the repeated disconnection group versus one provisional prosthesis of the immediate loading group due to frequent debondings (difference = 12%; CI95%: 0%, 25%; P = 0.109). Eight patients were affected by complications: four patients from each group (difference = 1%; CI95%: -13%, 14%; P = 1). PES scores assessed at 1 year post-loading were 11.4 (1.5) mm for the definitive abutment group and 11.0 (2.0) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (difference = 0.4; CI95%: -0.4, 1.2; P = 0.289). Buccal recessions at 1 year post-loading amounted to 0.07 (0.35) mm for the definitive abutment group and 0.12 (0.65) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (actually it was a soft tissue gain; difference = 0.05 CI 95%: -0.19, 0.29; P = 0.659). All patients declared to be very satisfied or satisfied with the function and aesthetics of the prostheses and would undergo the same procedure again. Mean peri-implant marginal bone loss at 1 year after loading was 0.06 (0.12) mm for the definitive abutment group and 0.23 (0.49) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (difference = -0.16; CI95%: -0.33,-0.00; P = 0.046). The height of the keratinised mucosa at 1 year post-loading was 2.8 (1.5) mm for the definitive abutment group and 2.8 (1.7) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (difference = -0.0; CI 95%: -0.8, 0.7); P = 0.966. Up to 1 year after initial loading, there were no statistically significant differences between the two procedures, with the exception of 0.16 mm more marginal bone loss at implants subjected to three abutment removals. CONCLUSIONS: One-year post-loading data showed that repeated abutment changes significantly increased bone loss of 0.16, but this difference cannot be considered clinically relevant, therefore clinicians can use the procedure they find more convenient for their specific patient. In addition, immediately non-occlusally loaded dental implants are a viable alternative to conventional loading. Conflict-of-interest statement: This trial was partially funded by Dentsply Sirona Implants, the manufacturer of the implants and other products evaluated in this investigation. However, data belonged to the authors and by no means did the manufacturer interfere with the conduct of the trial or the publication of the results with exception of rejecting the proposal of changing the protocol, after the trial was started, allowing the use of indexed abutments.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Implantación Dental Endoósea/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/etiología , Coronas , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Femenino , Humanos , Carga Inmediata del Implante Dental , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción del Paciente
8.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 9 Suppl 1(2): 129-41, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314118

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate advantages and disadvantages of identical implants with internal or external connections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with any type of edentulism (single tooth, partial and total edentulism), requiring one implant-supported prosthesis were randomly allocated in two equal groups to receive either implants with an external connection (EC) or implants of the same type with an internal connection (IC) (EZ Plus, MegaGen Implant, Gyeongbuk, South Korea), at four centres. Due to slight differences in implant design and components, IC implants were platformswitched while EC were not. Patients were followed for 5 years after initial loading. Outcome measures were prosthesis/implant failures, any complication, marginal bone level changes and clinician preference, assessed by blinded outcome assessors. RESULTS: Sixty patients received 96 EC implants and 60 patients received 107 IC implants. Three patients dropped out with four EC implants and five patients with ten IC implants, but all remaining patients were followed up to 5-year post-loading. One prosthesis supported by EC implants and two by IC implants failed (P = 0.615, difference = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.08 to 0.04). One EC implant failed versus three IC implants in two patients (P = 0.615, difference = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.08 to 0.04). Ten complications occurred in 10 EC patients versus nine complications in 9 IC patients (P = 1.000, difference = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.15). There were no statistically significant differences for prosthesis and implant failures and complications between the different connection types. Five years after loading, there were no statistically significant differences in marginal bone level estimates between the two groups (difference = 0.14 mm, 95% CI: -0.28 to 0.56, P (ancova) = 0.505) and both groups lost bone from implant placement in a statistically significant way: 1.13 mm for the EC implants and 1.21 mm for the IC implants. Two operators had no preference and two preferred IC implants. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations given by the difference in neck design and platform switching between EC and IC implants, 5-year post-loading data did not show any statistically significant differences between the two connection types, therefore clinicians could choose whichever they preferred.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Adulto , Anciano , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/clasificación , Proceso Alveolar/anatomía & histología , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Implantación Dental Endoósea/métodos , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Periimplantitis/etiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Radiografía de Mordida Lateral/métodos , Estomatitis/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
9.
New Microbiol ; 39(1): 49-56, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26922985

RESUMEN

The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate bacterial microleakage from inside to outside the implant-abutment assembly in a new design of internal conical connection compared to eight different internal connections. The design of this connection should prevent or limit microbiologic leakage into the surrounding implant tissue, that could contribute to infections without bone loss (mucositis) or with bone loss (peri-implantits). In order to investigate bacterial microleakage, the inner part of each system was inoculated with an Escherichia coli suspension. Eight different groups were considered; each group was composed of 10 dental implants, for a total of 80 implants. Groups 1-7 were considered controls, while group 8 was the test connection (an internal connection characterized by a double taper principle). Results showed that in control implants (Group 1 to 7), little microleakage was observed after the first 6 hours (500 CFU/ µl) and, after 24 hours of incubation, they showed a significant bacterial contamination in all samples (>100.000 CFU/ µl). In group 8 (test connection) no contamination was found in the first 6 hours, with 7 out of 10 implants showing no contamination even after 96 hours. Statistically significant differences were found between Group 8 and the other groups (p<0.05), whereas no significant differences were found among implants of the control groups (from group 1 to 7). Within the limits of the present study, the new connection studied presented significantly less microleakage at 96 h in comparison with the other control internal connections.


Asunto(s)
Pilares Dentales/microbiología , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar/instrumentación , Implantes Dentales/microbiología , Filtración Dental/microbiología , Retención de Prótesis Dentales/métodos , Contaminación de Equipos , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales
10.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 31(1): 111-8, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26800167

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To verify whether the diversity of systemic medical conditions and smoking act as biologic associated factors for peri-implantitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PICO question was: "In patients with osseointegrated dental implants, does the presence of smoking habits or a compromised medical status influence the occurrence of peri-implantitis compared with the presence of good general health?" Smoking and systemic conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, lung diseases, obesity, cancer, deep depression, and osteoporosis were screened. Selection criteria included at least 10 patients per condition, 1 year of follow-up after implant loading, and strict cutoff levels (probing pocket depth [PPD], bleeding on probing [BOP] and/or pus, marginal bone loss) to define peri-implantitis. RESULTS: From the 1,136 records initially retrieved, 57 were selected after title and abstract analyses. However, only six papers were considered for qualitative evaluation. No randomized controlled clinical trial was found. Smoking was associated with peri-implantitis in only one out of four studies. Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes accentuated only PPD and radiographic marginal bone level prevalence rates in peri-implant patients (one study). Cardiovascular disease was considered a risk (one out of two studies). The chance of peri-implant patients harboring the Epstein-Barr virus was threefold in one report. No associations were found for rheumatoid arthritis. CONCLUSION: Data from existing studies point to smoking and diabetes as biologic associated factors for peri-implantitis. However, the body of evidence is still immature, and the specific contribution of general health problems to peri-implantitis requires additional robust epidemiologic and clinical investigations.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Periimplantitis/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Implantes Dentales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 18(5): 955-964, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26238779

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A recent study showed that implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in well-controlled HIV patients gave slightly worse results than in an healthy population, and failures were all linked to infection. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the success of implant-prosthetic treatment and systemic CD4+ level, smoking habits, and oral hygiene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This mono-centric study included HIV patients with a stable disease and good oral hygiene requiring implant rehabilitation. Each patient received at least one dental implant. Prosthesis were delivered after 90 days in the upper jaw and 60 days in the lower jaw. Primary outcome measures were prosthetic failures, implant failures, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, and biological complications (peri-implantitis, pus, pain, paresthesia). The possible association with CD4 count, smoking habits, and oral hygiene was analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients received 194 implants, and 66 patients (190 implants) were followed for 1 year. No significant associations were found between CD4+ count, oral hygiene-associated variables, and any of the outcome measures. If compared with nonsmoking/light smoking patients, patients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day suffered a statistically significant greater number of implant failures (p ≤ .005), presented a comparatively higher number of peri-implantitis (p < .001), as well as a higher frequency of pus (p ≤ .007), and reported pain (p ≤ .009). CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of the present study, placement of dental implants in HIV-positive patients with stable disease seems a reasonable treatment option, regardless of CD4+ cell count, provided that they are in a normal range. Oral hygiene variables were not influent in this group of patient following recall appointments, while HIV-positive heavy smokers (>10 cigarettes/day) demonstrated an increased risk of early implant failure, peri-implantitis, episodes of pus, and self-reported pain.


Asunto(s)
Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Implantes Dentales , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Higiene Bucal , Fumar , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
12.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 18(4): 725-34, 2016 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25955953

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The clinical trial aimed to evaluate the survival of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in controlled HIV-positive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This mono-centric study included HIV patients with a stable disease, requiring implant rehabilitation, with good oral hygiene. Each patient received at least one dental implant. After 90 days in the upper jaw and 60 days in the lower jaw, the appropriate prosthesis was delivered.Primary outcome measures were prosthetic failures, implant failures, peri-implant marginal bone level changes (MBLCs), and biological complications (peri-implantitis, pus, pain, paresthesia). Data were recorded before the intervention (T0), and 6 (T1) and 12 months (T2) after. RESULTS: Implants were positioned in 68 patients (22 females and 46 males; 194 implants). Two dropouts occurred for exacerbation of the disease before the sixth month of follow-up, and 66 patients (with 190 implants) completed the study. Forty-eight patients (70.6%) received total removable dentures; 11 patients (16.2%) received partial prosthesis, and nine patients (13.2%) received single elements.Implant failure occurred in nine patients (15 fixtures out of 190). These were early implant failures due to primary infection (five fixtures out of 190: 2.6%) and to peri-implantitis (10 fixtures out of 190: 5.2%). Prosthetic failure was registered in two patients (3% of patients) due to the loss of all the fixtures. Pus and pain were observed in 4/7 and 3/7 patients with peri-implantitis, respectively. No fractures of fixtures or paresthesia were registered. At T2, the mean peri-implant MBLC was -1.19 ± 0.87 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Within its limitations, the study showed that in a well-controlled population of HIV patients implant rehabilitation can be a suitable options with results slightly worse to those obtained in normal population. A higher incidence of peri implant infections in the first six months was present pointing to the need of a proper protocol for infection control.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Anciano , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Arcada Edéntula/complicaciones , Arcada Edéntula/rehabilitación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Periimplantitis/etiología
13.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 31(2): 359-68, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26478978

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To qualitatively investigate the microbiologic profile in peri-implantitis by systematically reviewing the published literature on peri-implant infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Searches of the US National Institutes of Health free digital archives of the biomedical and life sciences journal literature (PubMed) and The Cochrane Library of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL), as well as a hand search of other literature, were conducted to identify articles potentially relevant for the review. Randomized clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, longitudinal studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies in humans reporting microbiologic findings in patients with diagnosed peri-implantitis were considered eligible for this review. Screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. Early studies focused on the identification of target periopathogens, whereas more recent studies used advanced molecular techniques for comprehensive overview of the peri-implantitis-associated microbiome. In summary, the microbiologic profile in peri-implantitis (1) is complex and variable, (2) consists of gram-negative anaerobic periopathogens and opportunistic microorganisms in almost the same ratio, (3) is frequently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus and nonsaccharolytic anaerobic gram-positive rods, (4) is not so strictly associated with Staphylococcus aureus, and (5) is different from that of periodontitis. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of the reviewed studies. CONCLUSION: Although a comparison of the published results was limited because of the inhomogeneity of the studies, it is clear that the microbiologic profile of peri-implantitis consists of aggressive and resistant microorganisms and is distinct from that of periodontitis. It seems that the quantitative characteristics of the microflora cohabitants represent the key determinant of disease, rather than the qualitative composition, which is very similar in healthy and peri-implantitis states.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Periimplantitis/microbiología , Implantes Dentales/microbiología , Bacterias Anaerobias Gramnegativas/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias Grampositivas/aislamiento & purificación , Herpesvirus Humano 4/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Consorcios Microbianos/fisiología , Periodontitis/microbiología
14.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 8(4): 331-44, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669544

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate advantages and disadvantages of identical implants with internal or external connections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred patients with any type of edentulism (single tooth, partial and total edentulism) requiring one implant-supported prosthesis were randomly allocated in two equal groups to receive either implants with an external connection (EC) or implants of the same type but with an internal connection (IC) (EZ Plus, MegaGen Implant, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) at seven centres. Due to slight differences in implant design/components, IC implants were platform switched while EC were not. Patients were followed for 1 year after initial loading. Outcome measures were prosthesis/implant failures, any complication, marginal bone level changes and clinician preference assessed by blinded outcome assessors. RESULTS: One hundred and two patients received 173 EC implants and 98 patients received 154 IC implants. Six patients dropped out with 11 EC implants and 3 patients with four IC implants, but all remaining patients were followed up to 1-year post-loading. Two centres did not provide any periapical radiographs. Two prostheses supported by EC implants and one supported by IC implants failed (P = 1.000, difference = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.04). Three EC implants failed in 3 patients versus two IC implants in 1 patient (P = 0.6227, difference = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.03). EC implants were affected by nine complications in 9 patients versus six complications of IC implants in 6 patients (P = 0.5988, difference = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.10 to 0.06). There were no statistically significant differences for prosthesis/implant failures and complications between the implant systems. One year after loading, there were no statistically significant differences in marginal bone level changes between the two groups (difference = 0.24, 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.50, P = 0.0629) and both groups lost bone from implant placement in a statistically significant manner: 0.98 mm for the EC implants and 0.85 mm for the IC implants. Five operators had no preference and two preferred IC implants. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations given by the difference in neck design and platform switching between EC and IC implants, preliminary short-term data (1-year post-loading) did not show any statistically significant differences between the two connection types, therefore clinicians could choose whichever one they preferred.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Implantes Dentales , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Adulto , Anciano , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/etiología , Proceso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar/métodos , Coronas/efectos adversos , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar/efectos adversos , Implantación Dental Endoósea/métodos , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Implantes Dentales de Diente Único/efectos adversos , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado/efectos adversos , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Dentadura Parcial Fija/efectos adversos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Carga Inmediata del Implante Dental/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Radiografía de Mordida Lateral , Fumar , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
15.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 8(3): 233-44, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26355168

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a bone substitute covered with a resorbable membrane versus open flap debridement for the treatment of periodontal infrabony defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven patients with one infrabony defect, which was 3 mm or deeper and at least 2 mm wide were randomly allocated either to grafting with a bone substitute covered with a resorbable barrier (BG group) or open flap debridement (OFD group) according to a parallel group design in five European centres. Blinded outcome measures assessed tooth loss, complications, patient's satisfaction with treatment and aesthetics, changes in probing attachment levels (PAL), probing pocket depths (PPD), gingival recessions (REC), radiographic bone levels (RAD) on standardised periapical radiographs, plaque index (PI) and marginal bleeding index (MBI). RESULTS: 49 patients were randomly allocated to the BG group and 48 to the OFD group. At baseline there were more mobile teeth in the BG group (29 versus 15). One year after treatment two patients dropped out from the BG group and no teeth were lost. Three complications (minor postoperative wound dehiscence) occurred in the BG group versus none in the OFD group, where the difference was not statistically significant. The BG group obtained significantly greater statistical PAL gain (mean difference = -0.8 mm, 95% CI [-1.51; -0.03], P = 0.0428), PPD reduction (mean difference = -1.1 mm, 95% CI [-1.84; -0.19], P = 0.0165) and RAD gain (mean difference = -1.2 mm, 95% CI [-2.0; -0.4], P = 0.0058) compared to the OFD group. No statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for gingival recession, or the patient's satisfaction with the treatment and aesthetics. There were some statistically significant differences between the centres for PAL and PPD with the Italian centres reporting better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a bone substitute covered with a resorbable membrane yielded significantly better statistical clinical outcomes than open flap debridement in the treatment of periodontal infrabony defects deeper than 3 mm, with regard to PAL gain, PPD reduction and RAD gain.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Absorbibles , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/cirugía , Sustitutos de Huesos/uso terapéutico , Regeneración Tisular Guiada Periodontal/métodos , Membranas Artificiales , Adulto , Anciano , Proceso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Desbridamiento/métodos , Estética Dental , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Recesión Gingival/clasificación , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción del Paciente , Pérdida de la Inserción Periodontal/clasificación , Bolsa Periodontal/clasificación , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Radiografía , Método Simple Ciego , Colgajos Quirúrgicos/cirugía , Dehiscencia de la Herida Operatoria/etiología , Pérdida de Diente/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
16.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 8(3): 245-54, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26355169

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical safety and effectiveness of a novel calcium-incorporated titanium implant surface (Xpeed, MegaGen Implant Co., Gyeongbuk, South Korea). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients were randomised to receive one to six implants in the maxilla with either calcium-incorporated (Xpeed) or control resorbable blasted media (RBM) surfaces, according to a parallel group design at two centres. Implants were submerged and exposed at three different endpoints in equal groups of 20 patients, each at 12, 10 and 8 weeks, respectively. Within 2 weeks, implants were functionally loaded with provisional or definitive prostheses. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, any complications and peri-implant marginal bone level changes. RESULTS: Thirty patients received 45 calcium-incorporated implants and 30 patients received 42 control titanium implants. Three years after loading four patients dropped-out from the Xpeed group and one from the RBM group. No prosthesis or implant failures occurred. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for complications (P = 0.91; difference in proportions = 0.79 %; 95% CI -0.71 to 2.29) and mean marginal bone level changes (P = 0.88; mean difference = -0.02 mm; 95% CI -0.26 to 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Both implant surfaces provided good clinical results and no significant difference was found when comparing titanium implants with a nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface versus implants with RBM surfaces.


Asunto(s)
Calcio/química , Materiales Biocompatibles Revestidos/química , Implantes Dentales , Materiales Dentales/química , Carga Inmediata del Implante Dental/métodos , Titanio/química , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/clasificación , Fosfatos de Calcio/química , Grabado Dental/métodos , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nanoestructuras/química , Proyectos Piloto , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Seguridad , Método Simple Ciego , Propiedades de Superficie , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
J Prosthet Dent ; 114(3): 346-50, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26050027

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The recent literature underlines a correlation between plaque and the development of periimplantitis but neglects the importance of the prosthetic factors. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to appraise the available literature to evaluate the role played by cement excess and misfitting components on the development of periimplantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search restricted to the English language was performed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Register up to September 1, 2014, based on a selected search algorithm. Only cohort studies and case-control studies were included without additional restrictions. The presence of periimplantitis and implant failure were considered primary and secondary outcome variables. RESULTS: The search produced 275 potentially relevant titles, of which only 2 were found eligible. They showed a correlation in cemented implant prostheses between cement excess and the presence of periimplant disease, especially in patients with a history of periodontal disease. After cement excess removal by means of debridement, disease symptoms disappeared around most of the implants. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific articles on prosthetic risk factors for periimplantitis are scarce. Although the studies found on cement remnants have a high risk for bias, cement excess seems to be associated with mucositis and possibly with periimplantitis, especially in patients with a history of periodontal disease.


Asunto(s)
Cementos Dentales , Implantes Dentales , Periimplantitis , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Cementos Dentales/efectos adversos , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Humanos , Periimplantitis/epidemiología , Periimplantitis/etiología , Ajuste de Prótesis/normas , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 8(2): 129-40, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26021224

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of at least three abutment changes against the placement of a definitive abutment, which was no longer removed, on hard and soft tissue changes, and to compare the clinical outcomes of immediate non-occlusal loading versus conventional loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients requiring one single crown or one fixed partial prosthesis supported by a maximum of three implants were randomised, after implants were placed with more than 35 Ncm, according to a parallel group design to receive definitive abutments which were loaded immediately (definitive abutment or immediate loading group) or transmucosal abutments which experienced delayed loading after 3 months and were removed at least three times: 1) during the making of the impression (3 months after implant placement); 2) when checking the zirconium core of titanium abutments at single crowns or the fitting of the metal structure at prostheses supported by multiple implants; 3) at delivery of the definitive prostheses (repeated disconnection or conventional loading group). Patients were treated in four centres and each patient contributed to the study with only one prosthesis followed for 4 months after initial loading. Outcome measures were: prosthesis/implant failures, any complication, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Forty patients were randomly allocated to each group according to a parallel group design. No patient dropped-out and no implants failed. However four provisional prostheses and one definitive prosthesis had to be remade because of misfitting (five single crowns) in the repeated disconnection group; and one provisional prosthesis had to be remade because of frequent debondings in the immediate loading group (difference=10%; 95% CI: -1%, 21%; P=0.109). Five complications (all debondings of the provisional prostheses) were reported in two patients of the immediate loading group, in comparison to three biological complications in three patients of the repeated disconnection group (difference=2%; 95% CI: -8%, 13%; P=1). All patients were very satisfied or satisfied with the function and aesthetics of the prostheses, and would undergo the same procedure again. Mean peri-implant marginal bone loss 4 months after loading was -0.08 (0.16) mm for the definitive abutment group and -0.09 (0.20) mm for the repeated abutment changes group (difference=0.01; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.09; P=0.97). There were no statistically significant differences for any of the outcome measures between the two procedures up to 4 months after initial loading. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary short-term data (4-month post-loading) showed that repeated abutment changes do not alter bone levels significantly. Immediate non-occlusal loading of dental implants are a viable alternative to conventional loading. Therefore clinicians can use the procedure they find more convenient for their specific patient.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/etiología , Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Coronas , Implantación Dental Endoósea/métodos , Implantes Dentales , Implantes Dentales de Diente Único , Técnica de Impresión Dental , Adaptación Marginal Dental , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Restauración Dental Provisional , Dentadura Parcial Fija , Dentadura Parcial Provisoria , Estética Dental , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Carga Inmediata del Implante Dental , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción del Paciente , Torque , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (7): CD004152, 2013 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23904048

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some dental implant failures may be due to bacterial contamination at implant insertion. Infections around biomaterials are difficult to treat, and almost all infected implants have to be removed. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery is only indicated for patients at risk of infectious endocarditis; with reduced host-response; when surgery is performed in infected sites; in cases of extensive and prolonged surgical interventions; and when large foreign materials are implanted. A variety of prophylactic systemic antibiotic regimens have been suggested to minimise infections after dental implant placement. More recent protocols recommended short-term prophylaxis, if antibiotics have to be used. Adverse events may occur with the administration of antibiotics, and can range from diarrhoea to life-threatening allergic reactions. Another major concern associated with the widespread use of antibiotics is the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in implant dentistry is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial or harmful effects of systemic prophylactic antibiotics at dental implant placement versus no antibiotic or placebo administration and, if antibiotics are beneficial, to determine which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 17 June 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 5), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 17 June 2013) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 17 June 2013). There were no language or date restrictions placed on the searches of the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least three months, that compared the administration of various prophylactic antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to people undergoing dental implant placement. Outcome measures included prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the risk of bias of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) using a random-effects model for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity, including both clinical and methodological factors, was to be investigated. MAIN RESULTS: Six RCTs with 1162 participants were included: three trials compared 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (927 participants), one compared 3 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (55 participants), one compared 1 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 500 mg four times a day for two days versus no antibiotics (80 participants), and one compared four groups: (1) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin; (2) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 1 g twice a day for seven days; (3) 1 g of postoperative amoxicillin twice a day for seven days, and (4) no antibiotics (100 participants). The overall body of evidence was considered to be of moderate quality. The meta-analyses of the six trials showed a statistically significant higher number of participants experiencing implant failures in the group not receiving antibiotics (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.67, P value 0.002, heterogeneity: Tau(2) 0.00; Chi(2) 2.87, df = 5 (P value 0.57); I(2) 0%). The number needed to treat for one additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) to prevent one person having an implant failure is 25 (95% CI 14 to 100), based on an implant failure rate of 6% in participants not receiving antibiotics. There was borderline statistical significance for prosthesis failures (RR 0.44; 95% CI 0.19 to 1.00), with no statistically significant differences for infections (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.36 to 1.35), or adverse events (RR 1; 95% CI 0.06 to 15.85) (only two minor adverse events were recorded, one in the placebo group). No conclusive information can be derived from the only trial that compared three different durations of antibiotic prophylaxis since no event (implant/prosthesis failures, infections or adverse events) occurred in any of the 25 participants included in each study group. There were no trials that evaluated different antibiotics or different antibiotic dosages. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Scientific evidence suggests that, in general, antibiotics are beneficial for reducing failure of dental implants placed in ordinary conditions. Specifically 2 g or 3 g of amoxicillin given orally, as a single administration, one hour preoperatively significantly reduces failure of dental implants. No significant adverse events were reported. It might be sensible to suggest the use of a single dose of 2 g prophylactic amoxicillin prior to dental implant placement. It is still unknown whether postoperative antibiotics are beneficial, and which antibiotic is the most effective.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica/efectos adversos , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Arcada Parcialmente Edéntula/cirugía , Amoxicilina/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Esquema de Medicación , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
20.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 6(2): 109-19, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23926583

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate possible benefits of the adjunctive use of light-activated disinfection (LAD) in the treatment of peri-implantitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 80 patients with at least one implant affected by peri-implantitis defined as at least 3 mm of bone loss on baseline radiographs in the presence of signs of infection (pus exudation and/or soft tissue swelling and/or soft tissue redness) were non-surgically or surgically treated for peri-implantitis and 50% of them were randomly allocated to receive an additional LAD treatment (FotoSan) according to a parallel group design at four different centres. Only one implant per patient was considered. Outcome measures were implant failures, recurrence of peri-implantitis, complications, peri-implant marginal bone level (RAD) changes, probing pocket depth (PPD) changes and number of re-treatment sessions recorded by blinded assessors. Patients were followed up for 1 year after treatment. RESULTS: Five treated patients did not fit the original inclusion criteria: 4 because they were not affected by the present definition of peri-implantitis and 1 due to being treated with antibiotics. However, they were included according to an intention-to-treat-analysis concept. Nine patients of the LAD group were treated surgically versus 10 control patients. After 1 year, 3 patients dropped out, all from the LAD group. One implant treated with the LAD therapy failed versus none of the control group. Four complications occurred: 3 in 3 patients of the LAD group and 1 in the control group. Recurrence of peri-implantitis defined as 2 mm of peri-implant bone loss or more recorded on standardised periapical radiographs was observed in 6 patients, 3 from each group. In total, 29 implants were re-treated 1 to 4 times in the LAD group versus 33 implants 1 to 4 times in the control group; the difference was not statistically significant. Peri-implant marginal bone levels remained stable up to 1 year with no statistically significant differences between groups (0.13 mm favouring LAD therapy; 95% CI of difference -0.47 to 0.72; P = 0.68). PPD significantly reduced in both groups, and at 1 year there were no significant differences between groups (difference 0.19 mm favouring LAD therapy; 95% CI of difference -0.70 to 1.07; P = 0.68). There were significant differences between centres for the number of re-treatment sessions delivered, PPD changes, plaque and marginal bleeding 1 year after treatment, but not for implant failures, complications, RAD changes and recurrence of peri-implantitis. The results did not change when removing the 5 patients who did not match the original inclusion criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive use of LAD therapy (FotoSan) with mechanical cleaning of implants affected by peri-implantitis did not improve any clinical outcomes when compared to mechanical cleaning alone up to 1 year after treatment.


Asunto(s)
Desinfección/métodos , Periimplantitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/tratamiento farmacológico , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/cirugía , Terapia Combinada , Índice de Placa Dental , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Periimplantitis/terapia , Desbridamiento Periodontal , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal/tratamiento farmacológico , Bolsa Periodontal/terapia , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Recurrencia , Retratamiento , Curetaje Subgingival , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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