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1.
Addiction ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The lack of an agreed international minimum approach to measuring cannabis use hinders the integration of multidisciplinary evidence on the psychosocial, neurocognitive, clinical and public health consequences of cannabis use. METHODS: A group of 25 international expert cannabis researchers convened to discuss a multidisciplinary framework for minimum standards to measure cannabis use globally in diverse settings. RESULTS: The expert-based consensus agreed upon a three-layered hierarchical framework. Each layer - universal measures, detailed self-report and biological measures - reflected different research priorities and minimum standards, costs and ease of implementation. Additional work is needed to develop valid and precise assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent use of the proposed framework across research, public health, clinical practice and medical settings would facilitate harmonisation of international evidence on cannabis consumption, related harms and approaches to their mitigation.

2.
Internet Interv ; 26: 100446, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522625

RESUMEN

Background: Brief interventions (BI) for risky drinkers in primary healthcare have been demonstrated to be cost-effective but they are still poorly implemented. Digital BI seems to be a complementary strategy to overcome some barriers to implementation but there is a scarcity of studies in clinical environments. We present the results of a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial which tests the non-inferiority of facilitated access to a digital intervention (experimental condition) for risky drinkers against a face-to-face BI (control condition) provided by primary healthcare professionals. Method: In a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial, unselected primary healthcare patients (≥ 18 years old) were given a brief introduction and asked to log on to the study website to fill in the 3-item version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Positively screened patients (4+ for women and 5+ for men) received further online assessment (AUDIT, socio-demographic characteristics and EQ-5D-5L) and were automatically randomized to either face-to-face or digital BI (1:1). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients classified as risky drinkers by the digitally administered AUDIT at month 3. A multiple imputation approach for the missing data was performed. Results: Of the 4499 patients approached by 115 healthcare professionals, 1521 completed the AUDIT-C. Of the 368 positively screened patients, 320 agreed to participate and were randomized to either intervention. At month 3, there were more risky drinkers in the experimental group (59.8%) than in the control group (52%), which was similar to the distribution at baseline and less than the pre-specified margin of 10%. The difference was not significant when accounting for possible confounders. Conclusion: Digital BI was not inferior to face-to-face BI, in line with previous findings and the a priori hypothesis. However, the low power of the final sample, due to the low recruitment and loss to follow-up, limits the interpretation of the findings. New approaches in this field are required to ensure the effective implementation of digital interventions in actual practice.

3.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(9): 1722-1734, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418121

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is considerable unexplained variability in alcohol abstinence rates (AR) in the placebo groups of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for alcohol dependence (AD). This is of particular interest because placebo responses correlate negatively with treatment effect size. Recent evidence suggests that the placebo response is lower in very heavy drinkers who show no "spontaneous improvement" prior to treatment initiation (high-severity population) than in a mild-severity population and in studies with longer treatment duration. We systematically investigated the relationship between population severity, treatment duration, and the placebo response in AR to inform a strategy aimed at reducing the placebo response and thereby increasing assay sensitivity in RCTs for AD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review on placebo-controlled RCTs for AD.We assigned retained RCTs to high- or mild-severity groups of studies based on baseline drinking risk levels and abstinence duration before treatment initiation. We tested the effects of population severity and treatment duration on the placebo response in AR using meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 19 retained RCTs (comprising 1996 placebo-treated patients), 11 trials were high-severity and 8 were mild-severity RCTs. The between-study variability in AR was lower in the high-severity than in the mild-severity studies (interquartile range: 7.4% vs. 20.9%). The AR in placebo groups was dependent on population severity (p = 0.004) and treatment duration (p = 0.017) and was lower in the high-severity studies (16.8% at 3 months) than the mild-severity studies (36.7% at 3 months). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological RCTs for AD should select high-severity patients to decrease the magnitude and variability in the placebo effect and and improve the efficiency of drug development efforts for AD.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcohólicos/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Colombia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Derivación y Consulta , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos
5.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 643556, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434125

RESUMEN

Background: Cannabis is the third most consumed drug worldwide. Thus, healthcare providers should be able to identify users who are in need for an intervention. This study aims to explore the relationship of acute, chronic, and early exposure (AE, CE, and EE) to cannabis with cognitive and behavioral harms (CBH), as a first step toward defining risky cannabis use criteria. Methods: Adults living in Spain who used cannabis at least once during the last year answered an online survey about cannabis use and health-related harms. Cannabis use was assessed in five dimensions: quantity on use days during the last 30 days (AE), frequency of use in the last month (AE), years of regular use (YRCU) (CE), age of first use (AOf) (EE), and age of onset of regular use (AOr) (EE). CBH indicators included validated instruments and custom-made items. Pearson correlations were calculated for continuous variables, and Student's t-tests for independent samples were calculated for categorical variables. Effect sizes were calculated for each of the five dimensions of use (Cohen's d or r Pearson correlation) and harm outcome. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analyses were performed for those dependent variables (harms) significantly associated with at least two dimensions of cannabis use patterns. Lastly, logistic binary analyses were conducted for each harm outcome. Results: The mean age of participants was 26.2 years old [standard deviation (SD) 8.5]. Out of 2,124 respondents, 1,606 (75.6%) reported at least one harm outcome (mean 1.8 and SD 1.5). In our sample, using cannabis on 3 out of 4 days was associated with an 8-fold probability of scoring 4+ on the Severity Dependence Scale (OR 8.33, 95% CI 4.91-14.16, p <0.001), which is indicative of a cannabis use disorder. Also, a start of regular cannabis use before the age of 25 combined with using cannabis at least once per month was associated with a higher probability of risky alcohol use (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.57, p = 0.001). Besides, a start of regular cannabis use before the age of 18 combined with a period of regular use of at least 7.5 years was associated with a higher probability of reporting a motor vehicle accident (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41-2.32, p < 0.0001). Results were ambiguous regarding the role that age of first use and milligrams of THC per day of use might play regarding cannabis-related harms. Conclusions: The relationship among AE, CE, and EE with CBH indicators is a complex phenomenon that deserves further studies. The pattern of cannabis use should be carefully and widely evaluated-(not just including frequency but also other dimensions of pattern of use)-in research (preferably in longitudinal studies) to assess cannabis-related harms.

7.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212185

RESUMEN

AIMS: Cognitive impairment in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly prevalent, and it negatively impacts treatment outcome. However, this condition is neither systematically assessed nor treated. Thus, we aimed to explore the usability of a virtual reality-based protocol ('Rehabilitation Gaming System', RGS) for patients with AUD. METHODS: Twenty AUD patients (50% also cognitive impairment) underwent a single session of the RGS protocol (four cognitive training tasks, 10 minutes each). System Usability Scale (SUS) and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) were applied to assess the RGS usability and patients' satisfaction with it. Also, the Perceived Competence Scale was administered to assess the patients' feelings of competence when using the training protocol. Comparisons of the responses to these questionnaires were performed between AUD patients with cognitive impairment and those without cognitive impairment. RESULTS: RGS usability was very positively rated (median SUS score = 80, Interquartile Range, IQR = 68.13-86-88). No significant differences were found in the median SUS scores for any of the sociodemographic or clinical variables, excepting for gender (women median score = 85; IQR = 80-94.38 vs. men median score = 71.25; IQR = 61.25-89.25; P-value = 0.035). The quality of the information provided by the RGS training scenarios and the usability were positively rated (PSSUQ), and patients experienced high feelings of competence. CONCLUSIONS: The RGS has been found to be usable in the short term and patients with AUD stated to be satisfied with it. Future larger, randomized trials are needed to explore the effectiveness of this tool to help overcome the cognitive deficits in AUD patients.

8.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 52: 18-30, 2021 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237655

RESUMEN

Sodium oxybate (SMO) has been approved in Italy and Austria for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependent (AD) patients. Although SMO is well tolerated in AD patients, cases of abuse and misuse have been reported outside the therapeutic setting. Here we report on a phase IIb double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial for the maintenance of abstinence in AD patients with a new abuse and misuse deterrent formulation of SMO. A total of 509 AD patients were randomized to 12 weeks of placebo or one of four SMO doses (0.75, 1.25, 1.75 or 2.25 g t.i.d.) followed by a one-week medication-free period. The primary endpoint was the percentage of days abstinent (PDA) at end of treatment. An unexpectedly high placebo response (mean 73%, median 92%) was observed. This probably compromised the demonstration of efficacy in the PDA, but several secondary endpoints showed statistically significant improvements. A post-hoc subgroup analysis based on baseline severity showed no improvements in the mild group, but statistically significant improvements in the severe group: PDA: mean difference +15%, Cohen's d = 0.42; abstinence: risk difference +18%, risk ratio = 2.22. No safety concerns were reported. Although the primary endpoint was not significant in the overall population, several secondary endpoints were significant in the intent-to-treat population and post-hoc results showed that treatment with SMO was associated with a significant improvement in severe AD patients which is consistent with previous findings. New trials are warranted that take baseline severity into consideration.

9.
Fam Pract ; 2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089055

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary care (PC) is crucial in the care of substance use disorder (SUD) patients. However, the relationship between PC and addiction settings is complex and collaboration issues stand out. Available evidence suggests that integration of SUD and PC services can improve physical and mental health of SUD patients and reduce health expenses. OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences, views and attitudes of PC professionals towards the interaction between PC and SUD services. METHODS: Twenty-seven GPs took part in three focus groups. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Recurrent themes were identified. RESULTS: Four main themes were devised: (1) Differences and specificities of SUD patients, (2) Interaction between providers of PC and addiction services, (3) Patient management (4) Addiction stigma. These main themes reflect the consideration that SUD patients are a specific group with specific care needs that yield specific challenges to GPs themselves. Improved training, availability of a shared medical record system, increased feedback between GP and addiction specialists and the efficiency of the circuit are to be considered the main priority for the majority of the participants. CONCLUSIONS: An efficient and effective referral circuit, with increased feedback and shared medical records is considered key to GPs. Its implementation should keep in mind the specific features of both SUD patients and GPs.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 675033, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093282

RESUMEN

The standardization of cannabis doses is a priority for research, policy-making, clinical and harm-reduction interventions and consumer security. Scientists have called for standard units of dosing for cannabis, similar to those used for alcohol. A Standard Joint Unit (SJU) would facilitate preventive and intervention models in ways similar to the Standard Drink (SD). Learning from the SD experiences allows researchers to tackle emerging barriers to the SJU by applying modern forecasting methods. During a workshop at the Lisbon Addictions Conference 2019, a back-casting foresight method was used to address challenges and achieve consensus in developing an SJU. Thirty-two professionals from 13 countries and 10 disciplines participated. Descriptive analysis of the workshop was carried out by the organizers and shared with the participants in order to suggest amendments. Several characteristics of the SJU were defined: (1) core values: easy-to use, universal, focused on THC, accurate, and accessible; (2) key challenges: sudden changes in patterns of use, heterogeneity of cannabis compounds as well as in administration routes, variations over time in THC concentrations, and of laws that regulate the legal status of recreational and medical cannabis use); and (3) facilitators: previous experience with standardized measurements, funding opportunities, multi-stakeholder support, high prevalence of cannabis users, and widespread changes in legislation. Participants also identified three initial steps for the implementation of a SJU by 2030: (1) Building a task-force to develop a consensus-based SJU; (2) Expanded available national-level data; (3) Linking SJU consumption to the concept of "risky use," based on evidence of harms.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064120

RESUMEN

The identification of variables that can modulate the efficacy of cue exposure using virtual reality (VR) is crucial. This study aimed to explore determinant variables of cue-elicited alcohol craving and perceived realism (PR) of environments and alcoholic beverages during a VR cue-exposure session among alcohol use disorder (AUD) outpatients. A prospective cohort study was conducted amongst 72 outpatients with AUD from a clinical setting. Alcohol craving experienced during VR exposure and PR of virtual environments and alcoholic drinks were evaluated after a VR session of exposure to alcohol-related contexts and cues. Sociodemographic, psychological and consumption characteristics were examined as possible predicting variables. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the AUD severity and PR of beverages were predictors of cue-elicited alcohol craving. Educational level, PR of beverages and age were predictors of the PR of VR environments. In relation to the PR of VR beverages, cue-elicited alcohol craving and the PR of environments were predictors. A simple mediational model was also performed to analyze the influence of the PR of beverages on the relationship between the AUD severity and alcohol craving experienced during VR exposure: an indirect or mediational effect was found. PR of alcoholic beverages was (1) a key predictor of the PR of VR environments (and vice versa) and the alcohol craving (and vice versa) experienced during VR cue-exposure sessions using ALCO-VR software among AUD patients and (2) a mediator between AUD severity and cue-elicited alcohol craving.

12.
Addiction ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109685

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe as well as its associations with income and experiences of distress related to the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional on-line survey conducted between 24 April and 22 July 2020. SETTING: Twenty-one European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 964 adults reporting past-year drinking. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in alcohol consumption were measured by asking respondents about changes over the previous month in their drinking frequency, the quantity they consumed and incidence of heavy episodic drinking events. Individual indicators were combined into an aggregated consumption-change score and scaled to a possible range of -1 to +1. Using this score as the outcome, multi-level linear regressions tested changes in overall drinking, taking into account sampling weights and baseline alcohol consumption [Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C)] and country of residence serving as random intercept. Similar models were conducted for each single consumption-change indicator. FINDINGS: The aggregated consumption-change score indicated an average decrease in alcohol consumption of -0.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.18, -0.10]. Statistically significant decreases in consumption were found in all countries, except Ireland (-0.08, 95% CI = -0.17, 0.01) and the United Kingdom (+0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.17). Decreases in drinking were mainly driven by a reduced frequency of heavy episodic drinking events (-0.17, 95% CI = -0.20, -0.14). Declines in consumption were less marked among those with low- or average incomes and those experiencing distress. CONCLUSIONS: On average, alcohol consumption appears to have declined during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. Both reduced availability of alcohol and increased distress may have affected consumption, although the former seems to have had a greater impact in terms of immediate effects.

13.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(3): e1875, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951258

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This contribution provides insights into the methodology of a pan-European population-based online survey, performed without external funding during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present the impact of different dissemination strategies to collect data from a non-probabilistic convenience sample and outline post-stratification weighting schemes, to provide guidance for future multi-country survey studies. METHODS: Description and comparison of dissemination strategies for five exemplary countries (Czechia, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Spain) participating in the Alcohol Use and COVID-19 Survey. Comparison of the sample distribution with the country's actual population distribution according to sociodemographics, and development of weighting schemes. RESULTS: The dissemination of online surveys through national newspapers, paid social media adverts and dissemination with the support of national health ministries turned out to be the most effective strategies. Monitoring the responses and adapting dissemination strategies to reach under-represented groups, and the application of sample weights were helpful to achieve an analytic sample matching the respective general population profiles. CONCLUSION: Reaching a large pan-European convenience sample, including most European countries, in a short time was feasible, with the support of a broad scientific network.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , República Checa/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Lituania/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
Eur Addict Res ; : 1-15, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965941

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is one of the most used drugs worldwide. There is no gold standard treatment for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Motivational interviewing (MI) has shown efficacy in some substance use disorders. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of MI in CUD. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials or open-label studies published until September 2019 from 3 different databases (Pubmed, Scopus, and PsycINFO) were included, following the PRISMA guidelines and a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Meta-analyses were conducted. The end point was determined as month 3, and 4 outcomes were analysed (abstinence rates, reduction in frequency of use, reduction in quantity of use, and reduction in cannabis use disorder symptoms) in 2 populations (adolescents and adults). RESULTS: Forty studies were identified, of which 24 were performed in adults and 16 in adolescents. MI showed efficacy in achieving abstinence in both adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.40-6.16, p < 0.0001) and adolescents (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.42-2.89, p < 0.0001). MI showed efficacy in reducing frequency and quantity of use in adults but not in adolescents. Those adults who were in the MI group consumed less joints per day than those in the control group (mean difference = -0.69 joints per day, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.53, p < 0.001), and they consumed on less days per month (mean difference = -3.9 days per month, 95% CI -7.47 to -0.34, p = 0.0317) than those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: MI is an effective intervention to reduce cannabis use and achieve abstinence, especially among adults and patients with no prior history of psychotic disorder. Further investigation is needed to assess the effect on CUD symptoms. MI should be included in guidelines for treating cannabis use disorder as one of the essential psychological interventions.

15.
Subst Abus ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849396

RESUMEN

Background: Screening for unhealthy alcohol use in routine consultations can aid primary health care (PHC) providers in detecting patients with hazardous or harmful consumption and providing them with appropriate care. As part of larger trial testing strategies to improve implementation of alcohol screening in PHC, this study investigated the motivational (role security, therapeutic commitment, self-efficacy) and organizational context (leadership, work culture, resources, monitoring, community engagement) factors that were associated with the proportion of adult patients screened with AUDIT-C by PHC providers in Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Additionally, the study investigated whether the effect of the factors interacted with implementation strategies and the country. Methods: Pen-and-paper questionnaires were completed by 386 providers at the start of their study participation (79% female, Mage = 39.5, 37.6% doctors, 15.0% nurses, 9.6% psychologists, 37.8% other professional roles). They were allocated to one of four intervention arms: control group; short training only; short training in presence of municipal support; and standard (long) training in presence of municipal support. Providers documented their screening practice during the five-month implementation period. Data were collected between April 2019 and March 2020. Results: Negative binomial regression analysis found an inverse relationship of role security with the proportion of screened patients. Self-efficacy was associated with an increase in the proportion of screened patients only amongst Mexican providers. Support from leadership (formal leader in organization) was the only significant organizational context factor, but only in non-control arms. Conclusion: Higher self-efficacy is a relevant factor in settings where screening practice is already ongoing. Leadership support can enhance effects of implementation strategies.

16.
BJPsych Open ; 7(3): e81, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858559

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Scandinavia, people with a severe mental disorder have a reduced life expectancy of 15-20 years compared with the general public. Smoking is a major contributor, and smoke-free policies are increasingly adopted in psychiatric clinics around the world. We compared potential facilitators and barriers among staff and management, for the implementation of smoke-free psychiatric clinics. AIMS: To investigate the attitudes and experiences regarding smoke-free policies among managers and staff involved in the implementation processes of smoke-free psychiatric clinics at hospitals in Malmö (Sweden) and Barcelona (Spain). METHOD: We used a qualitative methodology, with 15 semi-structured interviews. The interviews were conducted with each participant individually, and were subsequently transcribed. The data were analysed with systematic text condensation. RESULTS: There were notable differences in how the smoke-free policies were carried out and experienced, and attitudes regarding the policy changes differed in the two settings. Key differences were the views on the right to smoke in compulsory care and to stay in smoke-free surroundings supported by smoking cessation intervention; the prioritisation of staff facilitation of smoking breaks; and views on smoking and smoke-free psychiatry. In contrast, participants agreed on the importance of staff education and management support. A smoking ban by law and belonging to a network of smoke-free hospitals were also relevant. CONCLUSIONS: Staff education, and support from staff and management for the patients' right to stay in smoke-free surroundings, facilitated successful implementation of smoke-free policies in the psychiatric clinics, whereas supporting the right to smoke was a barrier.

17.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 36, 2021 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 reached Europe in early 2020 and disrupted the private and public life of its citizens, with potential implications for substance use. The objective of this study was to describe possible changes in substance use in the first months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional online survey of 36,538 adult substance users from 21 European countries conducted between April 24 and July 22 of 2020. Self-perceived changes in substance use were measured by asking respondents whether their use had decreased (slightly or substantially), increased (slightly or substantially), or not changed during the past month. The survey covered alcohol (frequency, quantity, and heavy episodic drinking occasions), tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use. Sample weighted data were descriptively analysed and compared across substances. RESULTS: Across all countries, use of all substances remained unchanged for around half of the respondents, while the remainder reported either a decrease or increase in their substance use. For alcohol use, overall, a larger proportion of respondents indicated a decrease than those reporting an increase. In contrast, more respondents reported increases in their tobacco and cannabis use during the previous month compared to those reporting decreased use. No distinct direction of change was reported for other substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest changes in use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during the initial months of the pandemic in several European countries. This study offers initial insights into changes in substance use. Other data sources, such as sales statistics, should be used to corroborate these preliminary findings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
18.
Front Psychol ; 12: 543586, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692713

RESUMEN

Aims: Attentional bias (AB), alcohol craving, and anxiety have important implications in the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). The current study aims to test the effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Cue-Exposure Therapy (VR-CET) to reduce levels of alcohol craving and anxiety and prompt changes in AB toward alcohol content. Method: A 49-year-old male participated in this study, diagnosed with severe AUD, who also used tobacco and illicit substances on an occasional basis and who made several failed attempts to cease substance misuse. The protocol consisted of six VR-CET booster sessions and two assessment sessions (pre- and post-VR-CET) over the course of 5 weeks. The VR-CET program consisted of booster therapy sessions based on virtual reality (VR) exposure to preferred alcohol-related cues and contexts. The initial and final assessment sessions were focused on exploring AB, alcohol craving, and anxiety using paper-and-pencil instruments and the eye-tracking (ET) and VR technologies at different time points. Results: Pre and post assessment sessions indicated falls on the scores of all instruments assessing alcohol craving, anxiety, and AB. Conclusions: This case report, part of a larger project, demonstrates the effectiveness of the VR-CET booster sessions in AUD. In the post-treatment measurements, a variety of instruments showed a change in the AB pattern and an improvement in craving and anxiety responses. As a result of the systematic desensitization, virtual exposure gradually reduced the responses to significant alcohol-related cues and contexts. The implications for AB, anxiety and craving are discussed.

19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 802-807, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667019

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are likely to suffer disproportionate harms related to the COVID-19 pandemic and related policy measures. While many surveys have been conducted, most are focused on drinking changes in the general population and validation with biological markers is lacking. METHOD: We performed a retrospective cohort study among patients with AUD attending a urine drug screening program. With mixed-effects logistic regression models, we assessed the probability of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide according to patients' main clinical characteristics and time of analysis (either prior to or after a lockdown was implemented in Spain). RESULTS: A total of 362 patients provided 2,040 urine samples (1,295 prior to lockdown, 745 during lockdown). The mean age of participants was 52.0 years (SD 12.6), and 69.2% were men. Of the 43% of patients tested for other drugs 22% screened positive. After adjusting for all covariates, the odds of screening positive for ethyl glucuronide during lockdown almost doubled (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.33, p = 0.008). Other significant covariates included testing positive for other drugs (OR = 10.79, 95% CI 4.60 to 26.97) and length of treatment (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an association between the lockdown due to COVID-19 and increased alcohol use in patients with AUD. Thus, addiction healthcare systems could face significant challenges ahead. In light of these findings, it is essential to evaluate prospectively how patients with AUD are affected by the pandemic and how health systems respond to their needs.


Asunto(s)
Abstinencia de Alcohol/tendencias , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Cuarentena/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Abstinencia de Alcohol/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , COVID-19/psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Cuarentena/psicología , Estudios Retrospectivos , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(5): 373-379, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709997

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: SBIRT programs (Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment) for at-risk drinkers in emergency departments (ED) have shown to be effective, particularly at short term. In this article, we report mid and long-term follow-up results of a specialized SBIRT program. A short-term follow-up after 1.5 months showed encouraging results, with more than a 20% greater reduction of at-risk drinking in the intervention group and more than double of successful referrals to specialized treatment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the mid and long-term efficacy of an SBIRT program conducted by psychiatrist specialists in addictive disorders and motivational interviewing in the ED of a tertiary hospital. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a previously published randomized controlled trial of an SBIRT program conducted by alcohol specialists for at-risk drinkers presenting to the ED, measured with the AUDIT-C scale. INTERVENTION OR EXPOSURE: Patients were randomized into two groups, with the control group receiving two leaflets: one regarding alcohol use and the other giving information about the study protocol. The intervention group received the same leaflets as well as a brief motivational intervention on alcohol use and, where appropriate, a referral to specialized treatment. OUTCOMES MEASURE AND ANALYSIS: Long-term assessment primary outcome was the proportion of at-risk alcohol use measured by AUDIT-C scale. The main effectiveness analysis at 18 weeks and 12 months' follow-up was conducted with multilevel logistic regression analyses. Missing values were imputed with the last observation carried forward. MAIN RESULTS: Of 200 patients included in the study, 133 (66.5%) and 131 (65.5%) completed 18 weeks and 1-year follow-up respectively. Although the proportion of risky drinkers was substantially lower in the intervention group (38.5 vs. 57.4% at 4.5 months and 58.5 vs 68.2% at 1 year), these results did not reach statistical significance (OR = 2.15; CI, 0.87-5.33). CONCLUSIONS: In this secondary analysis for mid- and long-term effects of a specialized SBIRT program, there was no significant difference in the reduction of risky drinkers at 18 weeks and 1 year. The small size of the studied sample and the low retention rate precluded any significant conclusion, although point estimates suggest a positive effect. Overall, SBIRT programs are an effective tool to reduce alcohol use at short time and to refer patients to specialized treatment; however, its effects seem to decay over time.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Alcoholismo/terapia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Derivación y Consulta
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