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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(27)2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193415

RESUMEN

Industrial emissions play a major role in the global methane budget. The Permian basin is thought to be responsible for almost half of the methane emissions from all U.S. oil- and gas-producing regions, but little is known about individual contributors, a prerequisite for mitigation. We use a new class of satellite measurements acquired during several days in 2019 and 2020 to perform the first regional-scale and high-resolution survey of methane sources in the Permian. We find an unexpectedly large number of extreme point sources (37 plumes with emission rates >500 kg hour-1), which account for a range between 31 and 53% of the estimated emissions in the sampled area. Our analysis reveals that new facilities are major emitters in the area, often due to inefficient flaring operations (20% of detections). These results put current practices into question and are relevant to guide emission reduction efforts.

2.
Sci Adv ; 7(9)2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637524

RESUMEN

Empirical vegetation indices derived from spectral reflectance data are widely used in remote sensing of the biosphere, as they represent robust proxies for canopy structure, leaf pigment content, and, subsequently, plant photosynthetic potential. Here, we generalize the broad family of commonly used vegetation indices by exploiting all higher-order relations between the spectral channels involved. This results in a higher sensitivity to vegetation biophysical and physiological parameters. The presented nonlinear generalization of the celebrated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) consistently improves accuracy in monitoring key parameters, such as leaf area index, gross primary productivity, and sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Results suggest that the statistical approach maximally exploits the spectral information and addresses long-standing problems in satellite Earth Observation of the terrestrial biosphere. The nonlinear NDVI will allow more accurate measures of terrestrial carbon source/sink dynamics and potentials for stabilizing atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global climate change.

3.
Remote Sens Environ ; 2312019 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414568

RESUMEN

Remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is a rapidly advancing front in terrestrial vegetation science, with emerging capability in space-based methodologies and diverse application prospects. Although remote sensing of SIF - especially from space - is seen as a contemporary new specialty for terrestrial plants, it is founded upon a multi-decadal history of research, applications, and sensor developments in active and passive sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence. Current technical capabilities allow SIF to be measured across a range of biological, spatial, and temporal scales. As an optical signal, SIF may be assessed remotely using highly-resolved spectral sensors and state-of-the-art algorithms to distinguish the emission from reflected and/or scattered ambient light. Because the red to far-red SIF emission is detectable non-invasively, it may be sampled repeatedly to acquire spatio-temporally explicit information about photosynthetic light responses and steady-state behaviour in vegetation. Progress in this field is accelerating with innovative sensor developments, retrieval methods, and modelling advances. This review distills the historical and current developments spanning the last several decades. It highlights SIF heritage and complementarity within the broader field of fluorescence science, the maturation of physiological and radiative transfer modelling, SIF signal retrieval strategies, techniques for field and airborne sensing, advances in satellite-based systems, and applications of these capabilities in evaluation of photosynthesis and stress effects. Progress, challenges, and future directions are considered for this unique avenue of remote sensing.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10420, 2018 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973703

RESUMEN

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(9): 4023-4037, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749021

RESUMEN

Extremely high temperatures represent one of the most severe abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity. However, understanding crop responses to heat stress is still limited considering the increases in both the frequency and severity of heat wave events under climate change. This limited understanding is partly due to the lack of studies or tools for the timely and accurate monitoring of crop responses to extreme heat over broad spatial scales. In this work, we use novel spaceborne data of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which is a new proxy for photosynthetic activity, along with traditional vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index EVI) to investigate the impacts of heat stress on winter wheat in northwestern India, one of the world's major wheat production areas. In 2010, an abrupt rise in temperature that began in March adversely affected the productivity of wheat and caused yield losses of 6% compared to previous year. The yield predicted by satellite observations of SIF decreased by approximately 13.9%, compared to the 1.2% and 0.4% changes in NDVI and EVI, respectively. During early stage of this heat wave event in early March 2010, the SIF observations showed a significant reduction and earlier response, while NDVI and EVI showed no changes and could not capture the heat stress until late March. The spatial patterns of SIF anomalies closely tracked the temporal evolution of the heat stress over the study area. Furthermore, our results show that SIF can provide large-scale, physiology-related wheat stress response as indicated by the larger reduction in fluorescence yield (SIFyield ) than fraction of photosynthetically active radiation during the grain-filling phase, which may have eventually led to the reduction in wheat yield in 2010. This study implies that satellite observations of SIF have great potential to detect heat stress conditions in wheat in a timely manner and assess their impacts on wheat yields at large scales.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/metabolismo , Calentamiento Global , Calor/efectos adversos , Triticum/fisiología , Fluorescencia , India , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Nave Espacial
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1973, 2018 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386626

RESUMEN

Accurate terrestrial biosphere model (TBM) simulations of gross carbon uptake (gross primary productivity - GPP) are essential for reliable future terrestrial carbon sink projections. However, uncertainties in TBM GPP estimates remain. Newly-available satellite-derived sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data offer a promising direction for addressing this issue by constraining regional-to-global scale modelled GPP. Here, we use monthly 0.5° GOME-2 SIF data from 2007 to 2011 to optimise GPP parameters of the ORCHIDEE TBM. The optimisation reduces GPP magnitude across all vegetation types except C4 plants. Global mean annual GPP therefore decreases from 194 ± 57 PgCyr-1 to 166 ± 10 PgCyr-1, bringing the model more in line with an up-scaled flux tower estimate of 133 PgCyr-1. Strongest reductions in GPP are seen in boreal forests: the result is a shift in global GPP distribution, with a ~50% increase in the tropical to boreal productivity ratio. The optimisation resulted in a greater reduction in GPP than similar ORCHIDEE parameter optimisation studies using satellite-derived NDVI from MODIS and eddy covariance measurements of net CO2 fluxes from the FLUXNET network. Our study shows that SIF data will be instrumental in constraining TBM GPP estimates, with a consequent improvement in global carbon cycle projections.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/análisis , Clorofila/análisis , Internacionalidad , Luz Solar , Fluorescencia , Geografía , Estaciones del Año , Factores de Tiempo , Incertidumbre
7.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(7): 2980-2996, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460467

RESUMEN

Leaf fluorescence can be used to track plant development and stress, and is considered the most direct measurement of photosynthetic activity available from remote sensing techniques. Red and far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) maps were generated from high spatial resolution images collected with the HyPlant airborne spectrometer over even-aged loblolly pine plantations in North Carolina (United States). Canopy fluorescence yield (i.e., the fluorescence flux normalized by the light absorbed) in the red and far-red peaks was computed. This quantifies the fluorescence emission efficiencies that are more directly linked to canopy function compared to SIF radiances. Fluorescence fluxes and yields were investigated in relation to tree age to infer new insights on the potential of those measurements in better describing ecosystem processes. The results showed that red fluorescence yield varies with stand age. Young stands exhibited a nearly twofold higher red fluorescence yield than mature forest plantations, while the far-red fluorescence yield remained constant. We interpreted this finding in a context of photosynthetic stomatal limitation in aging loblolly pine stands. Current and future satellite missions provide global datasets of SIF at coarse spatial resolution, resulting in intrapixel mixture effects, which could be a confounding factor for fluorescence signal interpretation. To mitigate this effect, we propose a surrogate of the fluorescence yield, namely the Canopy Cover Fluorescence Index (CCFI) that accounts for the spatial variability in canopy structure by exploiting the vegetation fractional cover. It was found that spatial aggregation tended to mask the effective relationships, while the CCFI was still able to maintain this link. This study is a first attempt in interpreting the fluorescence variability in aging forest stands and it may open new perspectives in understanding long-term forest dynamics in response to future climatic conditions from remote sensing of SIF.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/fisiología , Bosques , Fotosíntesis/fisiología , Pinus taeda/fisiología , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Fluorescencia , North Carolina , Desarrollo de la Planta
8.
Geophys Res Lett ; 45(19): 10456-10463, 2018 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104094

RESUMEN

In recent years, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) retrieved from space borne spectrometers has been extensively used as a proxy for terrestrial photosynthesis at relatively sparse temporal and spatial scales. The near-infrared band of the recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) features the required spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio to retrieve SIF in a spectral range devoid of atmospheric absorption features. We find that initial TROPOMI spectra meet high expectations for a substantially improved spatio-temporal resolution (up to 7 km × 3.5 km pixels with daily revisit), representing a step change in SIF remote sensing capabilities. However, interpretation requires caution, as the broad range of viewing-illumination geometries covered by TROPOMI's 2600 km wide swath needs to be taken into account. A first inter-sensor comparison with OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) SIF shows excellent agreement, underscoring the high quality of TROPOMI's SIF retrievals and the notable radiometric performance of the instrument. Plain Language Summary: Photosynthesis is the most essential process for life on Earth, but gradually changing environmental conditions such as increasing concentrations of atmospheric trace gases, rising temperatures or reduced water availability could adversely affect the photosynthetic productivity. The recently launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is designed to monitor atmospheric trace gases and air pollutants with an unprecedented resolution in space and time, while its radiometric performance also permits us to see a weak electromagnetic signal emitted by photosynthetically active vegetation - solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). Mounting evidence suggests that SIF observations from satellite instruments augment our abilities to track the photosynthetic performance and carbon uptake of terrestrial vegetation. In this study, we present the first TROPOMI SIF retrievals, largely outperforming previous and existing capabilities for a spatial continuous monitoring of SIF from space.

9.
Sci Adv ; 3(11): e1701528, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181445

RESUMEN

A central aim of the "lighting revolution" (the transition to solid-state lighting technology) is decreased energy consumption. This could be undermined by a rebound effect of increased use in response to lowered cost of light. We use the first-ever calibrated satellite radiometer designed for night lights to show that from 2012 to 2016, Earth's artificially lit outdoor area grew by 2.2% per year, with a total radiance growth of 1.8% per year. Continuously lit areas brightened at a rate of 2.2% per year. Large differences in national growth rates were observed, with lighting remaining stable or decreasing in only a few countries. These data are not consistent with global scale energy reductions but rather indicate increased light pollution, with corresponding negative consequences for flora, fauna, and human well-being.

10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 39748, 2016 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28008960

RESUMEN

Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models. These models are weighted by their spatial representativeness of the satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). We then use this weighted GPP ensemble to investigate the GPP variability for different aridity regimes. We show that semi-arid regions contribute to 57% of the detrended IAV of global GPP. Moreover, in regions with higher GPP variability, GPP fluctuations are mostly controlled by precipitation and strongly coupled with evapotranspiration (ET). This higher GPP IAV in semi-arid regions is co-limited by supply (precipitation)-induced ET variability and GPP-ET coupling strength. Our results demonstrate the importance of semi-arid regions to the global terrestrial carbon cycle and posit that there will be larger GPP and ET variations in the future with changes in precipitation patterns and dryland expansion.

11.
Sci Rep ; 6: 37747, 2016 11 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886216

RESUMEN

Each year, terrestrial ecosystems absorb more than a quarter of the anthropogenic carbon emissions, termed as land carbon sink. An exceptionally large land carbon sink anomaly was recorded in 2011, of which more than half was attributed to Australia. However, the persistence and spatially attribution of this carbon sink remain largely unknown. Here we conducted an observation-based study to characterize the Australian land carbon sink through the novel coupling of satellite retrievals of atmospheric CO2 and photosynthesis and in-situ flux tower measures. We show the 2010-11 carbon sink was primarily ascribed to savannas and grasslands. When all biomes were normalized by rainfall, shrublands however, were most efficient in absorbing carbon. We found the 2010-11 net CO2 uptake was highly transient with rapid dissipation through drought. The size of the 2010-11 carbon sink over Australia (0.97 Pg) was reduced to 0.48 Pg in 2011-12, and was nearly eliminated in 2012-13 (0.08 Pg). We further report evidence of an earlier 2000-01 large net CO2 uptake, demonstrating a repetitive nature of this land carbon sink. Given a significant increasing trend in extreme wet year precipitation over Australia, we suggest that carbon sink episodes will exert greater future impacts on global carbon cycle.

12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(2): 716-26, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26490834

RESUMEN

Large-scale monitoring of crop growth and yield has important value for forecasting food production and prices and ensuring regional food security. A newly emerging satellite retrieval, solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) of chlorophyll, provides for the first time a direct measurement related to plant photosynthetic activity (i.e. electron transport rate). Here, we provide a framework to link SIF retrievals and crop yield, accounting for stoichiometry, photosynthetic pathways, and respiration losses. We apply this framework to estimate United States crop productivity for 2007-2012, where we use the spaceborne SIF retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 satellite, benchmarked with county-level crop yield statistics, and compare it with various traditional crop monitoring approaches. We find that a SIF-based approach accounting for photosynthetic pathways (i.e. C3 and C4 crops) provides the best measure of crop productivity among these approaches, despite the fact that SIF sensors are not yet optimized for terrestrial applications. We further show that SIF provides the ability to infer the impacts of environmental stresses on autotrophic respiration and carbon-use-efficiency, with a substantial sensitivity of both to high temperatures. These results indicate new opportunities for improved mechanistic understanding of crop yield responses to climate variability and change.


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Comunicaciones por Satélite , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clima , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Fluorescencia , Fotosíntesis , Lluvia , Luz Solar , Temperatura , Estados Unidos
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(9): 2979-96, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26683113

RESUMEN

Mid-to-high latitude forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, but the representation of photosynthesis in boreal forests by current modelling and observational methods is still challenging. In particular, the applicability of existing satellite-based proxies of greenness to indicate photosynthetic activity is hindered by small annual changes in green biomass of the often evergreen tree population and by the confounding effects of background materials such as snow. As an alternative, satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be used as a direct proxy of photosynthetic activity. In this study, the start and end of the photosynthetically active season of the main boreal forests are analysed using spaceborne SIF measurements retrieved from the GOME-2 instrument and compared to that of green biomass, proxied by vegetation indices including the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from MODIS data. We find that photosynthesis and greenness show a similar seasonality in deciduous forests. In high-latitude evergreen needleleaf forests, however, the length of the photosynthetically active period indicated by SIF is up to 6 weeks longer than the green biomass changing period proxied by EVI, with SIF showing a start-of-season of approximately 1 month earlier than EVI. On average, the photosynthetic spring recovery as signalled by SIF occurs as soon as air temperatures exceed the freezing point (2-3 °C) and when the snow on the ground has not yet completely melted. These findings are supported by model data of gross primary production and a number of other studies which evaluated in situ observations of CO2 fluxes, meteorology and the physiological state of the needles. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of space-based SIF measurements to light-use efficiency of boreal forests and their potential for an unbiased detection of photosynthetic activity even under the challenging conditions interposed by evergreen boreal ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila , Bosques , Fotosíntesis , Ciclo del Carbono , Estaciones del Año , Taiga
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 21(9): 3469-77, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25881891

RESUMEN

Several studies have shown that satellite retrievals of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide useful information on terrestrial photosynthesis or gross primary production (GPP). Here, we have incorporated equations coupling SIF to photosynthesis in a land surface model, the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model version 4 (NCAR CLM4), and have demonstrated its use as a diagnostic tool for evaluating the calculation of photosynthesis, a key process in a land surface model that strongly influences the carbon, water, and energy cycles. By comparing forward simulations of SIF, essentially as a byproduct of photosynthesis, in CLM4 with observations of actual SIF, it is possible to check whether the model is accurately representing photosynthesis and the processes coupled to it. We provide some background on how SIF is coupled to photosynthesis, describe how SIF was incorporated into CLM4, and demonstrate that our simulated relationship between SIF and GPP values are reasonable when compared with satellite (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite; GOSAT) and in situ flux-tower measurements. CLM4 overestimates SIF in tropical forests, and we show that this error can be corrected by adjusting the maximum carboxylation rate (Vmax ) specified for tropical forests in CLM4. Our study confirms that SIF has the potential to improve photosynthesis simulation and thereby can play a critical role in improving land surface and carbon cycle models.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/metabolismo , Ecosistema , Fluorescencia , Modelos Biológicos , Ciclo del Carbono , Luz Solar
15.
Nature ; 515(7527): 394-7, 2014 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409829

RESUMEN

The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 25° N and 60° N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 50° N and 70° N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 per cent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001-2010 than in 1961-1970, suggesting that human land use and management contribute to seasonal changes in the CO2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/estadística & datos numéricos , Atmósfera/química , Ciclo del Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Biomasa , Biota , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Cambio Climático/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Eficiencia , Análisis Factorial , Geografía , Hawaii
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 20(12): 3727-42, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24953485

RESUMEN

Photosynthesis simulations by terrestrial biosphere models are usually based on the Farquhar's model, in which the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax ) is a key control parameter of photosynthetic capacity. Even though Vcmax is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental controls, it is typically parameterized in models with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. Remote sensing can be used to produce a spatially continuous and temporally resolved view on photosynthetic efficiency, but traditional vegetation observations based on spectral reflectance lack a direct link to plant photochemical processes. Alternatively, recent space-borne measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can offer an observational constraint on photosynthesis simulations. Here, we show that top-of-canopy SIF measurements from space are sensitive to Vcmax at the ecosystem level, and present an approach to invert Vcmax from SIF data. We use the Soil-Canopy Observation of Photosynthesis and Energy (SCOPE) balance model to derive empirical relationships between seasonal Vcmax and SIF which are used to solve the inverse problem. We evaluate our Vcmax estimation method at six agricultural flux tower sites in the midwestern US using spaced-based SIF retrievals. Our Vcmax estimates agree well with literature values for corn and soybean plants (average values of 37 and 101 µmol m(-2)  s(-1) , respectively) and show plausible seasonal patterns. The effect of the updated seasonally varying Vcmax parameterization on simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) is tested by comparing to simulations with fixed Vcmax values. Validation against flux tower observations demonstrate that simulations of GPP and light use efficiency improve significantly when our time-resolved Vcmax estimates from SIF are used, with R(2) for GPP comparisons increasing from 0.85 to 0.93, and for light use efficiency from 0.44 to 0.83. Our results support the use of space-based SIF data as a proxy for photosynthetic capacity and suggest the potential for global, time-resolved estimates of Vcmax .


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/análisis , Ecosistema , Modelos Biológicos , Fotosíntesis/fisiología , Desarrollo de la Planta , Simulación por Computador , Fluorescencia , Medio Oeste de Estados Unidos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Estaciones del Año
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(14): E1327-33, 2014 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24706867

RESUMEN

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/fisiología , Productos Agrícolas/fisiología , Fotosíntesis , Fluorescencia , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 280(1761): 20130171, 2013 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23760636

RESUMEN

It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Árboles/fisiología , Clorofila/metabolismo , Deshidratación , Fluorescencia , Modelos Biológicos , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , América del Sur , Nave Espacial , Luz Solar , Clima Tropical
20.
Appl Opt ; 50(24): 4755-64, 2011 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21857698

RESUMEN

Accurate spectral calibration of airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers is essential for proper preprocessing and scientific exploitation of high spectral resolution measurements of the land and atmosphere. A systematic performance assessment of onboard and scene-based methods for in-flight monitoring of instrument spectral calibration is presented for the first time in this paper. Onboard and ground imaging data were collected at several flight altitudes using the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer. APEX is equipped with an in-flight characterization (IFC) facility allowing the evaluation of radiometric, spectral, and geometric system properties, both in-flight and on-ground for the full field of view. Atmospheric and onboard filter spectral features present in at-sensor radiances are compared with the same features in reference transmittances convolved to varying instrument spectral configurations. A spectrum-matching algorithm, taking advantage of the high sensitivity of measurements around sharp spectral features toward spectrometer spectral performance, is used to retrieve channel center wavelength and bandwidth parameters. Results showed good agreement between spectral parameters estimated using onboard IFC and ground imaging data. The average difference between estimates obtained using the O(2) and H(2)O features and those obtained using the corresponding filter features amounted to about 0.3 nm (0.05 of a spectral pixel). A deviation from the nominal laboratory instrument spectral calibration and an altitude-dependent performance was additionally identified. The relatively good agreement between estimates obtained by the two approaches in similar spectral windows suggests they can be used in a complementary fashion: while the method relying on atmospheric features can be applied without the need for dedicated calibration acquisitions, the IFC allows assessment at user-selectable wavelength positions by custom filters as well as for the system on-ground.

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