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1.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(5): 1157-1162, 2019 Oct 17.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475835

RESUMEN

Introduction: Introduction: physical inactivity is the fourth most important risk factor for mortality worldwide and university students present this risk factor at a high level. Objective: to determine the changes in the physical activity of university students in Navarra during the first three years of college. Methods: prospective observational study of a cohort of university students. They participated in the first year, and two years later in the third year. The cohorts were comprised of 454 students who answered a voluntary and anonymous self-completion questionnaire with sociodemographic and physical activity related variables. Data were analyzed with SPSS v21.0. Results: of the participants, 67.4% (n = 306) were women and 32.6% (n = 148) were men. In the first year, 61.6% of students performed more than 150 minutes of physical activity per week. This percentage increased by 2.7%. The frequency of physical activity at least three times a week increased 6.1%, reaching 30.5% of students. Conclusions: university does not play a significant role in the promotion of physical activity, finding minimal modifications. In the future, it would be convenient to consider the reasons that hinder physical activity and design programs according to current recommendations.

2.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 111(9): 677-682, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317752

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: an increasing number of elderly patients undergo urgent abdominal surgery and this population has a higher risk of mortality. The main objective of the study was to identify mortality-associated factors in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery and to design a mortality scoring tool, the Urgent Surgery Elderly Mortality risk score (the USEM score). PATIENTS AND METHODS: this was a retrospective study using a prospective database. Patients > 65 years old that underwent urgent abdominal surgery were included. Risk factors for 30-day mortality were identified using multivariate regression analysis and weights assigned using the odds ratios (OR). A mortality score was derived from the aggregate of weighted scores. Model calibration and discrimination were judged using the receiver operating characteristics curves and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. RESULTS: in the present study, 4,255 patients were included with an 8.5% mortality rate. The risk factors significantly associated with mortality were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, age, preoperative diagnosis (OR: 37.82 for intestinal ischemia, OR: 5.01 for colorectal perforation, OR: 6.73 for intestinal obstruction), surgical wound classification and open or laparoscopic surgery. A risk score was devised from these data for the estimation of the probability of survival in each patient. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for this score was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82-0.86) and the AUROC correct was 0.83 (0.81-0.85). CONCLUSIONS: a simple score that uses five clinical variables predicts 30-day mortality. This model can assist surgeons in the initial evaluation of an elderly patient undergoing urgent abdominal surgery.

3.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 91(4): 219-227, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857913

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infant mortality is an indicator of child health, and an explanatory variable to reflect the socioeconomic development of a country. We aimed to examine the changes and trends of infant mortality in the European Union (EU) and its 28 member states in the 1994-2015 period. METHODS: We extracted data of deaths in children aged less than one year between 1994 and 2015 from the Eurostat database. We analysed secular variation in the EU overall, by country and by geographical region using joinpoint regression analysis. We conducted additional analyses to examine neonatal and early neonatal mortality trends. RESULTS: Infant mortality in the EU has declined significantly from 8,3 to 3,6 per 1,000 live births (annual percent change=-3,8%; 95% confidence interval, -4,1 to -3,6). Among EU countries, we found the highest mortality rates throughout the study period in Romania and Bulgaria, and the lowest rates in Scandinavian countries (Finland, Sweden). There were significant decreasing trends in every country of the EU, which were most pronounced in former Soviet Baltic states and Eastern European countries, and least pronounced in Western European countries. Mortality rates have increased significantly in Greece in the last years, and plateaued in the United Kingdom and Ireland. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, which are based on official data, provide consistent evidence that infant mortality has declined steadily in the EU and its member states in the past decades, most markedly in Eastern European countries and former Soviet Baltic states. However, rates have risen or levelled off in some western countries in the past few years.

4.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-9, 2019 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794108

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) have been inconsistently associated with declines in cognitive function. Because of their low caloric content and replacement of sugar, ASB are often seen as 'healthy' alternatives to SSB. OBJECTIVE: We longitudinally assessed the association between the consumption of SSB or ASB and cognitive function. DESIGN: A subsample of the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' (SUN) cohort of university graduates aged over 55 years old was evaluated with the Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (STICS-m) at two-time points, separated by 6 years. Consumption of SSB and ASB was appraised using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models were fitted, adjusting for potential confounders, including cardiometabolic variables, with the change in the STICS-m score at year 6 as the dependent variable. RESULTS: A significant association between the consumption of SSB and changes in cognitive function as measured by the STICS-m was observed in the total sample, with a change of -0.43 (95% CI -0.85, -0.02, p = 0.04) in those that consumed >1 beverage/month compared to never/seldom consumers. The association was not significant for the consumption of ASB, but point estimates showed negative values, suggesting declines in cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Only the consumption of SSB, but not ASB, was significantly associated with a decline in cognitive function after 6 years. Further longitudinal studies are needed to explore the relationship between these beverages and cognitive function and the potential mechanisms through which they might be harmful.

5.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 20(2): 177-181, 2018 Mar-Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569998

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE : To determine the prevalence of symptoms associated with asthma, rhinitis and eczema with food intake in children under six years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Descriptive study on the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema and their correlation with food consumption. Information was obtained from 1 520 schoolchildren of the District of Barranquilla and its metropolitan area. The ISSAC method was used to process the information, which was provided by the child's guardian, using the software SPSS version 24. Only duly completed questionnaires with informed consents were considered. Analysis was made using a chi-squared test, with a significant P value and 95% confidence. RESULTS : In the 1 520 children surveyed, the type of food related to allergies was fish, associated with asthma, showing that this may be a protective factor for the population regarding the onset of eczema, with a statistically a P value of <0.05, chi-square of 4.566, and CI of 95% [0.3;0.8]. CONCLUSIONS : The analyzed foods showed that fish is related and associated as a protective factor for eczema, while the consumption of cow's milk was related as a protective factor for rhinitis. Regarding other foods and allergies, the study is not conclusive as to whether their early intake is a predisposing factor or trigger in children.


Asunto(s)
Asma/etiología , Dermatitis Atópica/etiología , Dieta/efectos adversos , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/complicaciones , Rinitis Alérgica/etiología , Factores de Edad , Asma/epidemiología , Niño , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Dermatitis Atópica/epidemiología , Femenino , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores Protectores , Rinitis Alérgica/epidemiología
6.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 33(7): 440-449, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068226

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a concerning public health issue. We aimed to analyze the trends of hospital morbidity from AD in the European Union (EU) in the period 2000 to 2014. METHODS: Data from hospital discharges of men and women over 50 years old hospitalized due to AD in the EU were extracted from Eurostat database. We tested for secular trends computing anual percent change, and identified significant changes in the linear slope of the trend. RESULTS: Hospital morbidity from AD showed a 0.8% (95% confidence intervals -2.2 to 0.6) slight declining trend in the EU. In men and women, we recorded a -0.5% and -1.0% decrease in hospital morbidity rates, respectively. Several countries showed changing trends during the study period. CONCLUSION: Alzheimer's disease hospital morbidity has slightly declined in the entire EU in the past years. Eastern European countries showed steadily increasing trends, whereas in western and Mediterranean countries the rates decreased or leveled off.

7.
Gac Sanit ; 2018 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054168

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the Spanish version of the modified Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (STICS-m) with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and predict its ability to detect the development of dementia. METHOD: 106 participants in a dietary intervention trial underwent face-to-face evaluation with the MMSE, and phone interview with the STICS-m. The correlation between STICS-m and MMSE was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of consistency. Secondly, 932 participants over 55 years old from the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" cohort were evaluated with the STICS-m and data on dementia diagnosis were gathered (median follow-up time of 6.5 years). A logistic regression model evaluated the association between STICS-m score or 2-year changes in STICS-m score and risk of developing dementia, adjusting for ApoE, age and years of university education. RESULTS: The ICC between the MMSE and the STICS-m was 0.31 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.13-0.48). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the development of dementia for each additional point in the baseline STICS-m score was 0.85 (95%CI: 0.72-1.02; p=0.084). When considering the 2-year change in the STICS-m score as exposure, the OR for the development of dementia was 0.79 (95%CI: 0.67-0.93; p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The weak correlation between the STICS-m and the MMSE reflects moderate-low concurrent validity. Even so, the STICS-m can be regarded as an useful tool in the epidemiological setting since increasing scores appear to be able to predict a lower risk of developing dementia.

8.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(6): 342-351, jun.-jul. 2018. tab, graf, mapas
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-176584

RESUMEN

Background: The objective of this study was to update and analyze tuberculosis (TB) mortality data in the European Union between 2000 and 2010 separately for men and women and try to detect if there have been any changes in trends in each country and the association with the economic situation and inequalities. Methods: Data were extracted for tuberculosis deaths in 2000–2010 for 29 European Union countries and for Switzerland, via the World Health Organization (WHO) European detailed mortality database (DMDB), using the Mortality tabulation list 1 (MTL1) codes for men and women separately for one age group (20–85+). We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, and analyzed data using the Joinpoint Regression Program for men and women separately in the European Union overall and by individual country for each year. Results: Between 2000 and 2010, there were 68,771 recorded tuberculosis deaths in the European Union and the mortality rates were higher for men than women in the entire study zone. Overall, TB mortality rates declined linearly for both genders, but more in women than in men (from 5.43/100,000 in 2000 to 2.59/100,000 in 2010 in men and from 1.37/100,000 in 2000 to 0.51/100,000 in 2010 in women). There was decline in both genders for the entire study period, with a significant Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) of -8.1 for women and -7 for men when alpha < 0.05 and with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A higher tuberculosis mortality was associated with lower economic resources and greater inequalities. Conclusions: TB mortality rates in the European Union decreased overall in 2000–2010 for both genders. Men have higher TB mortality rates than women in all countries. Our findings were consistent with the downward TB mortality trend in many other countries worldwide


Antecedentes: El objetivo de este estudio fue actualizar y analizar los datos sobre la mortalidad por tuberculosis (TB) en la Unión Europea entre 2000 y 2010, separadamente para varones y mujeres, así como tratar de detectar si se han producido cambios en las tendencias para cada país, al igual que la asociación con la situación económica y las desigualdades. Métodos: Se extrajeron los datos sobre muertes por TB durante el periodo 2000-2010 para los 29 países de la Unión Europea y para Suiza, a través de la base de datos detallada europea sobre mortalidad (DMDB) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), utilizando por separado los códigos para varones y mujeres de la lista de tabulación de la mortalidad 1 (MTL1) para un grupo de edad (20-85+). Calculamos los índices de mortalidad estandarizados por edad, y analizamos los datos utilizando el programa de regresión Joinpoint, separando varones y mujeres, en la Unión Europea en general, y por país individual para cada año. Resultados: Entre 2000 y 2010, se produjeron 68.771 muertes por TB registradas en la Unión Europea, siendo los índices de mortalidad superiores en varones que en mujeres en el área total de estudio. En general, los índices de mortalidad por TB descendieron de forma lineal para ambos sexos, aunque más en mujeres que en varones (de 5,43/100.000 en 2000 a 2,59/100.000 en 2010 en varones, y de 1,37/100.000 en 2000 a 0,51/100.000 en 2010 en mujeres). Se produjo un descenso en ambos sexos durante el periodo total de estudio, con un cambio porcentual anual estimado (EAPC) de -8,1 para mujeres y de -7 para varones, siendo alfa < 0,05, y con un 95% de intervalo de confianza (IC). La mortalidad superior por TB se asoció a unos menores recursos económicos y a unas mayores desigualdades. Conclusiones: Los índices de mortalidad por TB en la Unión Europea descendieron en general durante el periodo 2000-2010 para ambos sexos. Los varones reflejan unos índices superiores de mortalidad que las mujeres en todos los países. Nuestros hallazgos fueron consistentes con la tendencia a la baja de la mortalidad por TB en muchos otros países a nivel mundial


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Tuberculosis/mortalidad , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
9.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 50(6): 332-339, jun.-jul. 2018. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-179048

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Conocer los factores asociados al asma y síntomas relacionados con asma en la población infantil y adolescente en la zona rural de Navarra (España) a través de la validación del cuestionario ISAAC. Participantes y métodos: Estudio transversal mediante la realización del cuestionario ISAAC y variables adicionales por 797 niños y adolescentes, a través del cual se obtuvieron datos de prevalencia sobre síntomas de asma y factores asociados sin realizar ninguna prueba diagnóstica adicional. Emplazamiento: Marco de atención primaria. A través de las zonas básicas de salud se hizo la selección de la muestra y en los centros educativos de dichas zonas se realizó el cuestionario. Mediciones y resultados: El análisis estadístico se hizo a través de regresión logística, chi cuadrado e intervalo de confianza al 95%. La prevalencia asma referida es del 11,7% en niños y del 13,4% en adolescentes. En cuanto a los factores relacionados, según los valores de OR destacan: OR = 9,5 entre sibilancias y asma, y OR = 3,5 entre rinitis recientes y asma. Respecto a las sibilancias recientes, hallamos un OR = 11,5 entre despertares y sibilancias recientes, y un OR = 3,4 entre rinitis recientes y sibilancias recientes. Conclusiones: El asma referida es una enfermedad prevalente ligeramente superior en la adolescencia y la población femenina de los escolares de la zona rural. Rinitis y otros síntomas de asma están relacionados con el asma y con las sibilancias, así como la utilización de los servicios de urgencias en el caso del asma y la bronquitis con las sibilancias


Objectives: To determine the factors associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in children and adolescents in rural areas of Navarre (Spain). Participants and methods: A cross-sectional study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, as well as additional variables, was conducted on 797 children and adolescents. These provided prevalence data on asthma symptoms and associated factors without further diagnostic testing. Location: Primary Care setting, through the basic health areas and in the corresponding education centres. Measurements and results: The prevalence of referred asthma is 11.7% in children, and 13.4% in adolescents. The prevalence in the female population is 13.7% and in males it is 11.3%. As for the related factors according to the values of OR, an OR = 9.5 was found between wheezing and asthma, and an OR = 3.5 between recent rhinitis and asthma. As regards recent wheezing, an OR = 11.5 was found between awakenings due to wheezing and recent wheezing, and an OR = 3.4 between recent rhinitis and wheezing. Conclusions: Referred asthma is a prevalent disease in children and adolescents in rural areas. It is more prevalent in adolescence and in the female population. Rhinitis and other asthma symptoms are related to asthma and wheezing, as well as the use of emergency services, in the case of asthma


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Población Rural , Prevalencia
10.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 89(3): 367-375, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893010

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: To study the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in a very large unselected population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and evaluate potential modulatory factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Estudio de Atención Primaria de Navarra, The APNA Study, is a cross-sectional study conducted in northern Spain. It involved 303 883 people, of 20 years of age and older, who live in the Navarra region. Participants are covered by the public healthcare system and medical records are digitalized. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The information was gathered from e-registered data regarding serum thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones, thyroid antibody concentration and clinical context. Measurements were logged (demographic information and potential thyroid function modulatory factors). RESULTS: Serum TSH (mU/L) normal range was established at 0.7-4.28. At the time of the study, 87% of the Navarra population had a TSH level within the normal range. Mean serum TSH in euthyroid individuals was higher in women (2.15) than in men (1.96) (P < .001) and higher in the obese with body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 (2.12) as compared to the non-obese BMI <30 kg/m2 (2.06) (P < .001). Mean TSH for the entire population was 1.9. The native Spanish population had statistically significantly lower TSH (1.87) than non-native Spanish (2.15) (P < .001). Additionally, we observed that serum TSH levels decreased with age and an increase in the prevalence of hypothyroidism in the elderly and among people with low-income levels. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Navarra was 12.3%. The prevalence of hypothyroidism (or high TSH) in the population was 8.8% (13.3% in women, 4.2% in men), and the prevalence of hyperthyroidism (or low TSH) was 4.3% (5.6% in women, 3.0% in men). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 15% of the general population suffers from biochemical thyroid dysfunction. The serum TSH level appears to be influenced by sex, BMI, age, ethnic origin and socio-economic status.

11.
Addict Behav ; 87: 17-23, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940387

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The use of non-prescribed prescription sedatives and sleeping pills (NPPSSP) among university students has been described as an important public health issue. However, the impact of perceived social norms on students' use and attitudes towards use of NPPSSP is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether perceptions of peer use and approval of use are associated with students' personal use and approval of NPPSSP use. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug Use (SNIPE) project containing 4482 university students from seven European countries were analyzed to investigate self-other discrepancies regarding personal use and attitudes towards NPPSSP use. Associations between personal and perceived peer use and between personal and perceived approval of use were examined using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The majority (51.0%) of students perceived their peers' NPPSSP use to be higher than their personal use. 92.6% of students perceived their peers' approval of NPPSSP use to be identical or higher than their personal approval. Students perceiving that the majority of peers had used NPPSSP at least once displayed higher odds for personal lifetime use (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.49-2.55). Perceived peer approval of NPPSSP use was associated with higher odds for personal approval (OR: 5.49, 95% CI: 4.63-6.51). CONCLUSIONS: Among European university students, perceiving NPPSSP use and approval of use to be the norm was positively associated with students' personal NPPSSP use and approval of use, respectively. Interventions addressing perceived social norms may prevent or reduce NPPSSP use among university students. Final trial registration number: DRKS00004375 on the 'German Clinical Trials Register'.

12.
Salud UNINORTE ; 34(1): 76-83, ene.-abr. 2018. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004555

RESUMEN

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de alergias en niños y niñas de 6 y 7 años y su relación con la nutrición materna Materiales y métodos: Este estudio transversal descriptivo de prevalencia de alergias en niños y niñas de 6 y 7 años y su relación con la alimentación de la madre recolectó la información a través del cuestionario del International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, el cual es empleado para describir el comportamiento epidemiológico de las enfermedades como asma, rinitis y eccema en niños y jóvenes; dicho instrumentos este fue resuelto por los padres de los menores previa firma y entrega del consentimiento informado. El cuestionario arrojó una confiabilidad del 0,78 en el α de Cronbach; a las categorías de interés de este estudio se les hizo análisis de proporción, y el contraste de hipótesis se realizó mediante diferencia de proporciones con intervalo de confianza en un nivel del 95 %, Resultados: Teniendo en cuenta los resultados sobre el consumo de alimentos de la madre en etapa de gestación y la presencia de síntomas de alergia en los menores, se concluye que: Valor-P = 0,05 Valor-Zα/2 = -34,6241 No se acepta la H0 para un α/2 = 0,025, se encontró en el estudio que aunque las madres refirieron haber consumido mayormente alimentos saludables, sus hijos presentaron síntomas de enfermedades alérgicas asociadas a asma, rinitis y eccema. Conclusiones: Este estudio, al igual que otros, no presenta un consenso sobre si la dieta materna influye positivamente en la disminución de alergias en los neonatos.


Abstract Objective: To establish the prevalence of allergies in boys and girls of 6 and 7 years old and their relation with maternal nutrition. Methods and materials: Descriptive transversal study of prevalence of allergies in boys and girls of 6 and 7 years old and their relation with theirs mother´s nutrition, information that was collected through the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, which is used to describe the epidemiological behavior of diseases like asthma, rhinitis and eczema in kids and youths. It was resolved by theirs parents before their signature and delivery of informed consent. It was made a questionnaire throw one reliability of 0,78 in the α of Cronbach, an analysis of proportion to the categories of interest of this study and a contrast of hypothesis was made by the differences of proportions with the interval of confidence in a level of 95% Results: Given the results of the consumption of mother´s food in the gestation age and the presence of symptom of allergies in kids, it includes that: Value-P: 0,05 Value -Za/2: -34,6241, it´s not accepted the Ho for a α/2= 0,025. It was found in the study although mothers reported having consumed mainly healthy food, these children felt and showed symptom of allergic diseases, associated with asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Conclusions: This study as well as others, does not present a consensus looking if the maternal diet influences positively in the reduction of allergies in neonates.

13.
Rev. salud pública ; 20(2): 177-181, mar.-abr. 2018. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-978969

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar la prevalencia de síntomas asociados a asma, rinitis y eccema relacionada con la ingesta de alimentos en menores de seis a siete años. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de prevalencia de asma, rinitis y eccema y la relación con el consumo de alimentos. Información obtenida en 1 520 escolares del Distrito de Barraquilla y su área metropolitana. Se empleó metodología ISSAC procesándose la información mediante el software SPSS versión 24 El cuestionario fue contestado por el acudiente del menor y solo se tuvieron en cuenta los que tenían debidamente diligenciado los consentimientos informados Se hizo análisis empleando Chi-cuadrado, y el valor P de significancia con un 95% de confianza. Resultados Para los 1 520 menores encuestados el alimento que presentó relación con alergias fue el pescado asociándolo con el asma, evidenciando que en la población puede ser factor protector para la aparición de eccema mostrando estadísticamente una P<0,05, un Chi-cuadrado: 4,566, IC 95% [0,3;0,8]. Conclusiones De los alimentos analizados el pescado es uno que presentó relación y se asoció como factor protector para el eccema, el consumo de la leche de vaca se relacionó como factor protector para rinitis; en lo referente a los demás alimentos y las alergias el estudio no es conclusivo en cuanto a si la ingesta temprana es un factor predisponente o desencadenante de ellas en los menores, o no lo son.


ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of symptoms associated with asthma, rhinitis and eczema with food intake in children under six years of age. Materials and Methods Descriptive study on the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema and their correlation with food consumption. Information was obtained from 1 520 schoolchildren of the District of Barranquilla and its metropolitan area. The ISSAC method was used to process the information, which was provided by the child's guardian, using the software SPSS version 24. Only duly completed questionnaires with informed consents were considered. Analysis was made using a chi-squared test, with a significant P value and 95% confidence. Results In the 1 520 children surveyed, the type of food related to allergies was fish, associated with asthma, showing that this may be a protective factor for the population regarding the onset of eczema, with a statistically a P value of <0.05, chi-square of 4.566, and CI of 95% [0.3;0.8]. Conclusions The analyzed foods showed that fish is related and associated as a protective factor for eczema, while the consumption of cow's milk was related as a protective factor for rhinitis. Regarding other foods and allergies, the study is not conclusive as to whether their early intake is a predisposing factor or trigger in children.

14.
Gac Med Mex ; 154(1): 92-104, 2018.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420528

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate some methodological and ethical quality variables of clinical trials (CTs) published in 10 family medicine journals. Methods: Quality descriptive study of 10 family medicine journals including CTs in humans published since 2010 to 2013. We obtained 141 CT and 2447 were excluded. Results: CTs parallels controlled in 92.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 92.0-93.9). Masked randomization in 72.3% (95% CI: 71.7-73.1), decentralized in 51.8% (95% CI: 51.4-52.4) and using as control an active treatment in 82.2% (95% CI: 81.5-83.1). Wrote informed consent in 48.9% (95% CI: 48.5-49.5) and it was not withdrawn in 56.0% of cases (95% CI: 55.5-56.7). Approval by clinical research ethics committee (CREC) in 134, and there was no conflict of interest in 117 CTs. Average κ was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93-0.99). Conclusions: We observe an increase in some quality variables like masked randomization (19.6%) and approval by CREC (75%) post CONSORT, in CTs published in 10 family medicine journals (2010-2013).


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/ética , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/normas , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Edición
15.
Aten Primaria ; 50(6): 332-339, 2018 Jun - Jul.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935380

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in children and adolescents in rural areas of Navarre (Spain). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, as well as additional variables, was conducted on 797 children and adolescents. These provided prevalence data on asthma symptoms and associated factors without further diagnostic testing. LOCATION: Primary Care setting, through the basic health areas and in the corresponding education centres. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The prevalence of referred asthma is 11.7% in children, and 13.4% in adolescents. The prevalence in the female population is 13.7% and in males it is 11.3%. As for the related factors according to the values of OR, an OR=9.5 was found between wheezing and asthma, and an OR=3.5 between recent rhinitis and asthma. As regards recent wheezing, an OR=11.5 was found between awakenings due to wheezing and recent wheezing, and an OR=3.4 between recent rhinitis and wheezing. CONCLUSIONS: Referred asthma is a prevalent disease in children and adolescents in rural areas. It is more prevalent in adolescence and in the female population. Rhinitis and other asthma symptoms are related to asthma and wheezing, as well as the use of emergency services, in the case of asthma.

16.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 12(1): 34-44, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732655

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Assess compliance with the IDF recommendations for patients with Diabetes Type2 (DM2), and its variability, by groups of doctors and nurses who provide primary care services in Navarre (Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGIES: A cross-sectional study of a population of 462,568 inhabitants, aged ≥18 years in 2013, attended by 381 units of doctor/nurse (quota). Clinical data were collected retrospectively through electronic records. Using cluster analysis, we identified two groups of units according to the score for each indicator. We calculated the Odds Ratio, adjusted for age sex, BMI, socioeconomic status and smoking, for complying with each recommendation whether a patient was treated by one of the quota from the highest score to the lowest. 30,312 patients with DM2 were identified: prevalence: 6.39%; coefficient of variation between UDN: 22.8%; biggest cluster 7.7% and smallest 5.3%; OR=1.54 (1.50-1.58). The HbA1c control at ≤8% was 82.8% (82.2-83.3) and >9% was 7.6% (7.3-8.0), with OR 1.79 (1.69-1.89) and 2.62 (2.36-2.91) respectively. Control of BP and LDL-C show significant differences between the clusters. CONCLUSIONS: An important variability was identified according to the doctor treating patients. The average HbA1c control is acceptable being limited in BP and LDL-C.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Adhesión a Directriz/normas , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/normas , Atención Primaria de Salud/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores/sangre , Glucemia/metabolismo , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Análisis por Conglomerados , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Adhesión a Directriz/tendencias , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/tendencias , Prevalencia , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
17.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 36(6): 342-351, 2018 Jun - Jul.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733107

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to update and analyze tuberculosis (TB) mortality data in the European Union between 2000 and 2010 separately for men and women and try to detect if there have been any changes in trends in each country and the association with the economic situation and inequalities. METHODS: Data were extracted for tuberculosis deaths in 2000-2010 for 29 European Union countries and for Switzerland, via the World Health Organization (WHO) European detailed mortality database (DMDB), using the Mortality tabulation list 1 (MTL1) codes for men and women separately for one age group (20-85+). We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, and analyzed data using the Joinpoint Regression Program for men and women separately in the European Union overall and by individual country for each year. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2010, there were 68,771 recorded tuberculosis deaths in the European Union and the mortality rates were higher for men than women in the entire study zone. Overall, TB mortality rates declined linearly for both genders, but more in women than in men (from 5.43/100,000 in 2000 to 2.59/100,000 in 2010 in men and from 1.37/100,000 in 2000 to 0.51/100,000 in 2010 in women). There was decline in both genders for the entire study period, with a significant Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) of -8.1 for women and -7 for men when alpha<0.05 and with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A higher tuberculosis mortality was associated with lower economic resources and greater inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: TB mortality rates in the European Union decreased overall in 2000-2010 for both genders. Men have higher TB mortality rates than women in all countries. Our findings were consistent with the downward TB mortality trend in many other countries worldwide.

18.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 27(1): 135-140, 2018. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-172516

RESUMEN

El desplazamiento activo, bien caminando o en bicicleta, contribuye a incrementar el nivel de actividad física de las personas. Este hábito podría favorecerse actuando sobre ciertos factores psicosociales, y creando entornos próximos propicios. El propósito del presente trabajo fue determinar la percepción de los factores individuales y del entorno próximo, relacionados de forma especial, con cada una de las dos modalidades de desplazamiento, en una muestra poblacional de las personas adultas que residen en el área metropolitana de Pamplona. Se realizó un estudio transversal basado en la metodología propuesta por el Internacional Physical Activity and the Environment Network Adult Group, que estudia la relación entre los factores del entorno y la actividad física que practican las personas adultas. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la falta de tiempo para practicar actividad física se asoció con mayor probabilidad con el grupo que menos se desplazó caminando, OR 1.23(1.08-1,.40), y la falta de disfrute de la actividad física con el que menos se desplazó en bicicleta, OR 1.29(1.04-1.61). Asimismo, la existencia de arbolado en las calles se asoció con mayor probabilidad de desplazarse caminando, OR 1.23(1.03-1.46), mientras que la presencia de señales o pasos, que ayudaran a cruzar a los peatones, se relacionó con mayor probabilidad de utilizar bicicleta, OR 1.42(1.08 -1.87). En conclusión, determinadas características individuales y del entorno se asocian particularmente con los desplazamientos caminando mientras que otras, lo hacen con el uso de bicicleta. Así, las personas que dedican menos tiempo a caminar para desplazase señalan la falta de tiempo como el motivo que les impide realizar actividad física, mientras que el grupo que menos usa la bicicleta para desplazarse indica la falta de disfrute. Además, la presencia de árboles en las aceras favorece y anima a las personas a realizar los desplazamientos caminando y la percepción de tráfico intenso se asocia con el grupo que menos tiempo dedica a caminar para desplazarse de un lugar a otro. Sin embargo, el desarrollo de infraestructuras que faciliten la movilidad de los peatones se asocia con mayor uso de la bicicleta para los desplazamientos (AU)


The active transport, whether walking or cycling, contributes to increasing the level of physical activity of people. This habit could be favoured by acting on certain psychosocial factors, and by creating favourable environments. The purpose of the present study was to determine the perception of individual factors and of the nearby environment, related in a special way to each of the two modalities of active transport, in a population sample of the adults living in the metropolitan area of Pamplona. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the methodology suggested by the International Physical Activity and the Environment Network Adult Group, which studies the relationship between environmental factors and physical activity practiced by adults. The results showed that the lack of time to practice physical activity was more likely to be associated with the group that walked less, OR 1.23 (1.08-1.40), and the lack of enjoyment of the physical activity with those who transport by bicycle less, OR 1.29 (1.04-1.61). Also, the existence of trees in the streets was associated with a greater probability of transport by walking, OR 1.23 (1.03-1.46), while the presence of signs or zebra crossings, which helped pedestrians to cross, was related to a wider use of the bycicle, OR 1.42 (1.08 -1.87). In conclusion, certain characteristics of the individual and the environment are particularly associated with walking while others are with the use of the bicycle. Thus, people who spend less time walking to go from one place to another indicate lack of time as the reason that prevents them from carrying out some physical activity, while the group that uses the bicycle less to transport indicates lack of enjoyment. In addition, the presence of trees on the pavements favours and encourages people to travel by walking and the perception of intense traffic is associated with the group that dedicates less time to walking in order to go from one place to another. However, developing infrastructures that facilitate the mobility of pedestrians is associated with a greater use of the bicycle for active transport (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Ejercicio/psicología , Ambiente , Percepción , Ciclismo/psicología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Autoeficacia , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Intervalos de Confianza , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Apoyo Social , Carencia Psicosocial
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(5): 1345-1352, 2017 Nov 16.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280650

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There is a huge evidence in adults, that a high level of physical activity and a low level of sedentariness are associated independently with a reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF). This association has been poor evaluated in young people and the results are not conclusive. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between CMRF, physical activity and sedentariness in Chilean university students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Sample of 326 students who enrolled at University of La Frontera, Temuco, Chile, in 2014. They were selected randomly and stratified according to faculty, career and gender. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, lipidic profile, glycemia, insulin resistance, tobacco and alcohol consumption. These variables were associated with physical activity level (PAL) and sedentariness using the IPAQ questionnaire. RESULTS: The students with a low PAL had a higher probability of abdominal obesity (OR: 4.68; IC 95% 1.86-11.73), metabolic syndrome (OR: 3.80; IC 95% 1.23-11.73) and triglycerides elevated (OR: 2.61 IC 95%; 1.18-5.75), compared with students with moderate and vigorous PAL (p < 0.05). There were no association between CMRF and sedentariness, even after fit by physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between CMRF and PAL which was independent of sedentatiness. We believe it is very important to implement effective physical activity programs at universities. It is necesary to encourage students in order to increase the physical activity level to a moderate and vigorous range with the purpose of decreasing their cardiovascular risk. We consider it is recommendable to keep studying the association between sedentariness and CMRF.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Cardiopatías/epidemiología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/epidemiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Estudiantes , Chile/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Universidades , Adulto Joven
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(6): 1345-1352, nov.-dic. 2017. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-168974

RESUMEN

Introducción: existe una amplia evidencia en población adulta de que un alto nivel de actividad física y un bajo nivel de sedentarismo se asocian de forma independiente con una reducción de los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico (FRCM). Esta asociación ha sido poco estudiada en población joven y los resultados no son concluyentes. Objetivo: estimar la asociación entre FRCM, actividad física y sedentarismo en estudiantes universitarios chilenos. Métodos: estudio de corte transversal. Muestra de 326 estudiantes matriculados el año 2014 en la Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile, seleccionados en forma aleatoria, estratificada según facultad, carrera y sexo. Se evaluó antropometría, presión arterial, perfil lipídico, glicemia, insulinorresistencia, consumo de tabaco y alcohol. Estas variables se asociaron con los niveles de actividad física (NAF) y sedentarismo, de acuerdo al cuestionario IPAQ. Resultados: los estudiantes con un NAF bajo tuvieron mayor probabilidad de tener obesidad abdominal (Odds ratio [OR]: 4,68; IC 95% 1,86-11,73), síndrome metabólico (OR: 3,80; IC 95% 1,23-11,73) y triglicéridos elevados (OR: 2,61 IC95%; 1,18-5,75), en comparación con aquellos estudiantes que realizaban NAF moderados o vigorosos (p < 0,05). No se observó asociación entre FRCM y sedentarismo, incluso después de ajustar por actividad física. Conclusión: encontramos asociación entre FRCM y NAF, que fue independiente del sedentarismo. Es de suma importancia implementar programas de actividad física efectivos en las universidades, motivando a los estudiantes a incrementar los NAF a rangos moderado y vigoroso, con el fin de reducir el riesgo cardiovascular. Consideramos que es necesario seguir investigando la asociación entre sedentarismo y FRCM (AU)


Introduction: There is a huge evidence in adults, that a high level of physical activity and a low level of sedentariness are associated independently with a reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF). This association has been poor evaluated in young people and the results are not conclusive. Objective: To estimate the association between CMRF, physical activity and sedentariness in Chilean university students. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Sample of 326 students who enrolled at University of La Frontera, Temuco, Chile, in 2014. They were selected randomly and stratified according to faculty, career and gender. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, lipidic profile, glycemia, insulin resistance, tobacco and alcohol consumption. These variables were associated with physical activity level (PAL) and sedentariness using the IPAQ questionnaire. Results: The students with a low PAL had a higher probability of abdominal obesity (OR: 4.68; IC 95% 1.86-11.73), metabolic syndrome (OR: 3.80; IC 95% 1.23-11.73) and triglycerides elevated (OR: 2.61 IC 95%; 1.18-5.75), compared with students with moderate and vigorous PAL (p < 0.05). There were no association between CMRF and sedentariness, even after fit by physical activity. Conclusions: We found an association between CMRF and PAL which was independent of sedentatiness. We believe it is very important to implement effective physical activity programs at universities. It is necesary to encourage students in order to increase the physical activity level to a moderate and vigorous range with the purpose of decreasing their cardiovascular risk. We consider it is recommendable to keep studying (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Conducta Sedentaria , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Ejercicio/fisiología , Nutrición de los Grupos de Riesgo , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estilo de Vida , Chile/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales/métodos , Antropometría/métodos , Presión Arterial/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Declaración de Helsinki , Análisis Estadístico , Distribución por Sexo , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos
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