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1.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 386-390, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-harm and eating disorders are often comorbid in clinical samples but their co-occurrence in the general population is unclear. Given that only a small proportion of individuals who self-harm or have disordered eating present to clinical services, and that both self-harm and eating disorders are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, it is important to study these behaviours at a population level. METHODS: We assessed the co-occurrence of self-harm and disordered eating behaviours in 3384 females and 2326 males from a UK population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants reported on their self-harm and disordered eating behaviours (fasting, purging, binge-eating and excessive exercise) in the last year via questionnaire at 16 and 24 years. At each age we assessed how many individuals who self-harm also reported disordered eating, and how many individuals with disordered eating also reported self-harm. RESULTS: We found high comorbidity of self-harm and disordered eating. Almost two-thirds of 16-year-old females, and two-in-five 24-year old males who self-harmed also reported some form of disordered eating. Young people with disordered eating reported higher levels of self-harm at both ages compared to those without disordered eating. LIMITATIONS: We were not able to measure whether participants identified their disordered eating as a method of self-harm. CONCLUSIONS: Self-harm and disordered eating commonly co-occur in young people in the general population. It is important to screen for both sets of difficulties to provide appropriate treatment.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 592-600, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032030

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This paper investigates whether declines in suicide by insecticide poisoning in India following a national ban on endosulfan in 2011were associated with changes in other methods of suicide and total suicide rates. METHOD: Method-specific suicide rates between 2001-2014 were calculated using National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data by sex, age group and region, with observed rates compared to expected rates for the period post-2011. RESULTS: There were an estimated 20,146 fewer male and 8,418 fewer female suicides by insecticide poisoning and 5542 fewer male and 2679 fewer female suicides by all other methods following the national endosulfan ban. Contemporaneously, an estimated 92% (23,812) of male and 60% (6,735) of female suicides prevented by insecticide poisoning and all other methods were offset to increases in suicides by hanging and other poisoning. Joinpoint regression indicated a decrease in suicide by insecticide poisoning following the endosulfan ban (annual percentage change (APC) of -12.18 among males and -11.89 among females between 2010-2014) while an increase in male suicide by hanging was noted between 2009-2014 (APC of 7.05). LIMITATION: Suicide rates based on the NCRB data might be an underestimation of the true suicide rates. CONCLUSION: Declines in suicide by insecticide poisoning were largely offset by an increase in hanging suicides among males, however, this phenomenon was much less prominent in females and contributed to declines in total female suicide rates. Prevention strategies must continue to focus on pesticide bans with simultaneous attention on hanging prevention policies to reduce overall suicide rates in India.

3.
BJPsych Open ; 7(1): e2, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261707

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals attending emergency departments following self-harm have increased risks of future self-harm. Despite the common use of risk scales in self-harm assessment, there is growing evidence that combinations of risk factors do not accurately identify those at greatest risk of further self-harm and suicide. AIMS: To evaluate and compare predictive accuracy in prediction of repeat self-harm from clinician and patient ratings of risk, individual risk-scale items and a scale constructed with top-performing items. METHOD: We conducted secondary analysis of data from a five-hospital multicentre prospective cohort study of participants referred to psychiatric liaison services following self-harm. We tested predictive utility of items from five risk scales: Manchester Self-Harm Rule, ReACT Self-Harm Rule, SAD PERSONS, Modified SAD PERSONS, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and clinician and patient risk estimates. Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were used to evaluate predictive accuracy, with sensitivity analyses using classification-tree regression. RESULTS: A total of 483 self-harm episodes were included, and 145 (30%) were followed by a repeat presentation within 6 months. AUC of individual items ranged from 0.43-0.65. Combining best performing items resulted in an AUC of 0.56. Some individual items outperformed the scale they originated from; no items were superior to clinician or patient risk estimations. CONCLUSIONS: No individual or combination of items outperformed patients' or clinicians' ratings. This suggests there are limitations to combining risk factors to predict risk of self-harm repetition. Risk scales should have little role in the management of people who have self-harmed.

6.
Addiction ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197082

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are the most commonly used medications to quit smoking. Given their widespread use, monitoring adverse risks remains important. This study aimed to estimate the neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular risks associated with varenicline and NRT as used in routine UK care. DESIGN: Case crossover study. SETTING: UK based electronic primary care records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2006 to 2015 linked to hospital and mortality datasets. PARTICIPANTS: Adult smokers (n=?) observed in periods when exposed and not exposed to either varenicline or NRT. MEASUREMENTS: Main outcomes included suicide, self-harm, myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause death and cause-specific death (MI, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). In primary analyses, conditional logistic regression was used to compare the chance of varenicline or NRT exposure in the risk period (90 days prior to the event) with the chance of exposure in an earlier single reference period (91-180 days prior to the event) or multiple 90-day reference periods to increase statistical power. FINDINGS: In the primary analyses, findings were inconclusive for the associations between varenicline and the main outcomes using a single reference period, whilst NRT was associated with MI (Odds ratio (OR) 1.40, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.18-1.67). Using multiple reference periods, varenicline was associated with an increased risk of self-harm (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.56) and suicide (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.32-9.60) but a reduction in all-cause death (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93). NRT was associated with MI (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36-1.74), self-harm (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.18-1.44), and deaths from MI (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.10), COPD (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.56) and all causes (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.40) when using multiple reference periods. CONCLUSIONS: There appear to be positive associations between 1) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and myocardial infarction, death, and risk of self-harm and 2) varenicline and increased risk of self-harm and suicide, as well as a negative association between varenicline and all-cause death. The associations may not be causal. They may reflect health changes at the time of smoking cessation (NRT is prescribed for people with cardiac problems) or be associated with quit attempts (exposure to both medicines was associated with self-harm).

7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242437, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211766

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been recognized as an important risk factor for suicidal behaviour among adults, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is lacking. This study explored associations between ACE and hospital admission due to non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Adults admitted to a tertiary care hospital for medical management of self-poisoning were included as cases, and age and sex matched controls were recruited from the outpatient department. ACE were measured using the World Health Organization's Childhood Adversity Scale. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and religion were used to quantify the association between ACE and self-poisoning. RESULTS: The study included 235 cases and 451 controls. Cases were 2.5 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.6) more likely to report an ACE than controls and had higher ACE scores. Childhood physical abuse (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.2, 19.0) and emotional abuse or neglect (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3, 10.1, and 3.7, 95% CI 2.3, 6.0 respectively), increased the risk of self-poisoning in adulthood, as did witnessing household violence (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4, 3.4), growing up in a household with a mentally ill or suicidal household member (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2, 3.4), and experiencing parental death/separation/divorce (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0, 4.9) as a child. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing exposures to ACEs should be a priority for prevention of suicide and self-harm in Sri Lanka. Innovative methods to increase support for children facing adversity should be explored.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250203

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Biological markers of suicide risk have the potential to inform prevention and treatment efforts. It has recently been hypothesised that inflammation may influence mood and in turn suicide risk. We investigated the association between indicators of systemic inflammation and suicide in a large cohort of Taiwanese adults. METHODS: White blood cell (WBC) count and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 462,747 and 359,849 adults in the Taiwan MJ cohort, respectively. The associations between WBC, CRP and suicide risk were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors. RESULTS: During a mean 15.1 and 15.8 years of follow-up, 687 and 605 suicides were identified in participants who had information on WBC and CRP respectively. There was an association of suicide with WBC count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.13 per 1 standard deviation increase of log-transformed WBC, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.22). The association was driven by the highest quintile of WBC count (aHR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77; reference: the lowest quintile). No association between CRP and suicide was found. LIMITATIONS: Our cohort was from a privately-run health check-up programme and had a lower suicide rate than that in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with the highest WBC counts may have increased risk of suicide. Peripheral markers of inflammation are potential biomarkers of suicide risk; however, this seems to vary by population and the marker investigated and could be influenced by a range of confounding factors.

9.
BJPsych Open ; 6(6): e145, 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234189

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People who present to hospital following self-harm are at high risk of suicide. Despite this, there are considerable variations in the management of this group across hospitals and the factors influencing such variations are not well understood. AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify the specific hospital and individual factors associated with care pathways following hospital-presenting self-harm. METHOD: Data on presentations to hospitals by those aged 18 years and over were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland for 2017 and 2018. Factors associated with four common outcomes following self-harm (self-discharge, medical and psychiatric admission and psychosocial assessment before discharge) were examined using multilevel Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Care pathways following self-harm varied across hospitals and were influenced by both hospital and individual factors. Individual factors were primarily associated with self-discharge (including male gender, younger age and alcohol involvement), medical admission (older age, drug overdose as a sole method and ambulance presentations) and psychiatric admission (male gender, methods associated with greater lethality and older age). The hospital admission rate for self-harm was the only factor associated with all outcomes examined. The availability of psychiatric in-patient facilities and specialist mental health staff contributed to variation in psychiatric admissions and psychosocial assessments prior to discharge. Hospital factors explained the majority of observed variation in the provision of psychosocial assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of the presenting hospital and hospital admission rates influence the recommended care pathways following self-harm. Provision of onsite mental health facilities and specialist mental health staff has a strong impact on psychiatric care of these patients.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019954

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify groups of children presenting distinct perinatal adversity profiles and test the association between profiles and later risk of suicide attempt. METHODS: Data were from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD, N = 1623), and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, N = 5734). Exposures to 32 perinatal adversities (e.g. fetal, obstetric, psychosocial, and parental psychopathology) were modeled using latent class analysis, and associations with a self-reported suicide attempt by age 20 were investigated with logistic regression. We investigated to what extent childhood emotional and behavioral problems, victimization, and cognition explained the associations. RESULTS: In both cohorts, we identified five profiles: No perinatal risk, Poor fetal growth, Socioeconomic adversity, Delivery complications, Parental mental health problems (ALSPAC only). Compared to children with No perinatal risk, children in the Poor fetal growth (pooled estimate QLSCD-ALSPAC, OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.04-3.44), Socioeconomic adversity (pooled-OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.08-1.85), and Parental mental health problems (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.27-2.40), but not Delivery complications, profiles were more likely to attempt suicide. The proportion of this effect mediated by the putative mediators was larger for the Socioeconomic adversity profile compared to the others. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal adversities associated with suicide attempt cluster in distinct profiles. Suicide prevention may begin early in life and requires a multidisciplinary approach targeting a constellation of factors from different domains (psychiatric, obstetric, socioeconomic), rather than a single factor, to effectively reduce suicide vulnerability. The way these factors cluster together also determined the pathways leading to a suicide attempt, which can guide decision-making on personalized suicide prevention strategies.

11.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e170, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021194

RESUMEN

AIMS: Early puberty is associated with an increased risk of self-harm in adolescent females but results for males are inconsistent. This may be due to the use of subjective measures of pubertal timing, which may be biased. There is also limited evidence for the persistence of pubertal timing effects beyond adolescence, particularly in males. The primary aim of the current study was therefore to examine the association between pubertal timing and self-harm in both sexes during adolescence and young adulthood, using an objective measure of pubertal timing (age at peak height velocity; aPHV). A secondary aim was to examine whether this association differs for self-harm with v. without suicidal intent. METHODS: The sample (n = 5369, 47% male) was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective birth cohort study. Mixed-effects growth curve models were used to calculate aPHV. Lifetime history of self-harm was self-reported at age 16 and 21 years, and associated suicidal intent was examined at age 16 years. Associations were estimated using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for a range of confounders. Missing data were imputed using Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations. RESULTS: Later aPHV was associated with a reduced risk of self-harm at 16 years in both sexes (females: adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.96; males: OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.88). Associations were similar for self-harm with and without suicidal intent. There was some evidence of an association by age 21 years in females (adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.80-1.04), although the findings did not reach conventional levels of significance. There was no evidence of an association by age 21 years in males (adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.74-1.31). CONCLUSIONS: Earlier developing adolescents represent a group at increased risk of self-harm. This increased risk attenuates as adolescents transition into adulthood, particularly in males. Future research is needed to identify the modifiable mechanisms underlying the association between pubertal timing and self-harm risk in order to develop interventions to reduce self-harm in adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Pubertad/psicología , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912344

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that domestic violence (DV) is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviour. The level of risk and its contribution to the overall burden of suicidal behaviour among men and women has not been quantified in South Asia. We carried out a large case-control study to examine the association between DV and self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Cases (N = 291) were patients aged ⩾18 years, admitted to a tertiary hospital in Kandy Sri Lanka for self-poisoning. Sex and age frequency matched controls were recruited from the hospital's outpatient department (N = 490) and local population (N = 450). Exposure to DV was collected through the Humiliation, Afraid, Rape, Kick questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to estimate the association between DV and self-poisoning, and population attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: Exposure to at least one type of DV within the previous 12 months was strongly associated with self-poisoning for women [adjusted OR (AOR) 4.08, 95% CI 1.60-4.78] and men (AOR 2.52, 95% CI 1.51-4.21), compared to those reporting no abuse. Among women, the association was strongest for physical violence (AOR 14.07, 95% CI 5.87-33.72), whereas among men, emotional abuse showed the highest risk (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 1.57-4.82). PAF% for exposure to at least one type of DV was 38% (95% CI 32-43) in women and 22% (95% CI 14-29) in men. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-sectoral interventions to address DV including enhanced identification in health care settings, community-based strategies, and integration of DV support and psychological services may substantially reduce suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka.

15.
Br J Psychiatry ; 217(6): 717-724, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744207

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies of patterns of healthcare contacts in those who die by suicide to identify those at risk are scarce. AIMS: To examine type and timing of healthcare contacts in those who die by suicide. METHOD: A population-based electronic case-control study of all who died by suicide in Wales, 2001-2017, linking individuals' electronic healthcare records from general practices, emergency departments and hospitals. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios, adjusted for deprivation. We performed a retrospective continuous longitudinal analysis comparing cases' and controls' contacts with health services. RESULTS: We matched 5130 cases with 25 650 controls (5 per case). A representative cohort of 1721 cases (8605 controls) were eligible for the fully linked analysis. In the week before their death, 31.4% of cases and 15.6% of controls contacted health services. The last point of contact was most commonly associated with mental health and most often occurred in general practices. In the month before their death, 16.6 and 13.0% of cases had an emergency department contact and a hospital admission respectively, compared with 5.5 and 4.2% of controls. At any week in the year before their death, cases were more likely to contact healthcare services than controls. Self-harm, mental health and substance misuse contacts were strongly linked with suicide risk, more so when they occurred in emergency departments or as emergency admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Help-seeking occurs in those at risk of suicide and escalates in the weeks before their death. There is an opportunity to identify and intervene through these contacts.

16.
Trials ; 21(1): 745, 2020 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Improving children and young people's provision for mental health is a current health priority in England. Secondary school teachers have worse mental health outcomes than the general working population, which the Wellbeing in Secondary Education (WISE) cluster randomised controlled trial aimed to improve. The WISE intervention comprised a Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training package delivered to at least 16% of staff, a short mental health awareness session to all teachers and development of a staff peer support service. Twenty-five schools were randomised to intervention or control arms. This paper reports findings regarding the extent of uptake and fidelity of the intervention. METHODS: Mixed methods data collection comprised researcher observations of training delivery, training participant evaluation forms, trainer and peer supporter interviews, peer supporter feedback meetings, logs of support provided, and teacher questionnaires. Quantitative data were summarised descriptively, while thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. RESULTS: In the 12 schools assigned to the intervention arm, 113 (8.6%) staff completed the 2-day standard MHFA training course, and a further 146 (11.1%) staff completed the 1-day MHFA for schools and colleges training. In seven (58.3%) schools, the required 8% of staff completed the MHFA training packages. A 1-h mental health awareness-raising session was attended by 666 (54.5%) staff. Delivery of the MHFA training package was achieved with high levels of fidelity and quality across schools. All schools set up the peer support service following training, with a majority adhering to most of the operational guidelines developed from the pilot study at the outset. Teachers reported limited use of the peer support service during follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, only three (25.0%) schools indicated they had re-advertised the service and there was evidence of a reduction in support from senior leadership. CONCLUSION: The MHFA training package was delivered with reasonably high fidelity, and a staff peer support service was established with general, but not complete, adherence to guidelines. In some schools, insufficient staff received MHFA training and levels of delivery of the peer support service compromised intervention dose and reach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 95909211 . Registered on 15 January 2016.

18.
Crisis ; : 1-8, 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722926

RESUMEN

Background: There are longstanding concerns over the mental health and suicide risk of university students in the UK and internationally. Aims: This study aimed to identify risk factors for suicide among students attending universities in a UK city. Method: Suicide deaths between January 2010 and July 2018 were identified from university records. An audit tool was used to collate data from university records and coroners' inquest files. Results: A total of 37 student deaths were identified. Only 10.8% of the students had disclosed a mental health issue at university entry. There was strong statistical evidence that students who died by suicide were more likely to have been male, experiencing academic difficulties (repeated years, changing course, and suspension of studies were all associated with a 5-30-fold increased risk), and in need of financial support compared with other students. Limitations: The coroners' records were only available for around half of the deaths. Healthcare records were not available. Conclusion: Markers of academic and financial difficulty should be considered as flags to identify students at heightened risk. Whilst the relative risk associated with academic difficulties is high, the absolute risk is low. Improved disclosure of mental health issues at university registration could facilitate targeted support for vulnerable students.

19.
J Affect Disord ; 275: 58-65, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658824

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicide rates have risen in young people in several high-income countries over the last decade. Reasons for the increases are unclear. METHODS: We analysed trends in suicide rates in 15-24 year olds over the period 2000-2017 in high-income countries with populations >20 million using Joinpoint analysis. We investigated differences in the following population-level exposures between countries that are and are not experiencing suicide rates rises: 1) 2008 economic recession as indexed by changes in GDP; 2) Gini income inequality; 3) daily social media use. RESULTS: Four of the 11 countries studied are experiencing youth suicide rate rises: Australia, Canada, the UK, the USA. The year the increase began ranged from 2003 (95% confidence interval: 2002, 2007) in the UK to 2009 (95% CI: 2007, 2012) in Australia. There was little evidence of an association between social media use and youth suicide trends, and inconsistent evidence regarding the impact of the 2008 economic recession. Suicide rate rises were seen in countries with higher GDP per capita (Wilcoxon rank sum (WRS) z=-2.27; p=0.02) and income inequality (WRS z=-2.45; p=0.01) in 2008. LIMITATIONS: Suicide data were only available until 2016/2017. Social media and income inequality data were not available for all study years. The effect of other important factors were not investigated due to a lack of comparable data. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses indicate that the most populous high-income countries experiencing a rise in youth suicide rates are predominantly English-speaking, with higher levels of income inequality and GDP. These findings provide preliminary evidence regarding possible contributory factors to guide further research.

20.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(11): 898-906, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665369

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicide rates are higher in men than in women in most countries, although the gender ratios vary markedly worldwide. We investigated long-term trends in suicide rates and the male-to-female ratios in relation to age, method and economic factors in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial (1905-1940) and postwar (1959-2012) periods. METHODS: Suicide data were from the Statistical Reports of Taiwan Governor's Office (1905-1940), Vital Statistics (1959-1970) and cause-of-death mortality data files (1971-2012). Annual age-standardised and age-specific/method-specific suicide rates by gender and the gender ratios were calculated and examined graphically. The associations between trends in economic indicators, suicide and suicide gender ratio were investigated using Prais-Winsten regression. RESULTS: The male-to-female suicide rate ratio increased from below 1 in the 1900s to around 2 by 2000; the reversal was mainly due to a marked reduction in suicide rates in young women coupled with a rise in male suicide between 1905 and 1940. The gender ratio increased again from the 1980s onwards. Poisoning was the most common method in the 1970s-1980s, but its use decreased afterwards, more in women than in men proportionally. The use of gassing for suicide increased markedly in the 2000s and contributed to the rises in overall suicide and the gender ratio. Unemployment rates were more strongly associated with male suicide than female suicide in 1959-2012. Unemployment rates and gross domestic product per capita were positively associated with suicide gender ratios. CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences in suicide changed remarkably in Taiwan over the past century; such change may be related to cultural, socioeconomic and method-specific factors.

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