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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380747

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health effects of air pollution on anaemia have been scarcely studied worldwide. We aimed to explore the associations of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with anaemia prevalence and haemoglobin levels in Chinese older adults. METHODS: We used two-level linear regression models and modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to examine the associations of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on haemoglobin concentrations and the prevalence of anaemia, respectively, among 10,611 older Chinese adults enrolled in World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) China. The average community exposure to ambient air pollutants (PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10), 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5), 1 µm or less (PM1) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) for each participant was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. Haemoglobin levels were measured for participants from dried blood spots. The models were controlled for confounders. RESULTS: All the studied pollutants were significantly associated with increased anaemia prevalence in single pollutant model (e.g., the prevalence ratios associated with an increase in inter quartile range in three years moving average PM10 (1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), PM2.5 (1.11; 95% CI: 1.06-1.16), PM1 (1.13; 95% CI: 1.06-1.20) and NO2 (1.42; 95% CI: 1.34-1.49), respectively. These air pollutants were also associated with lower concentrations of haemoglobin: PM10 (-0.53; 95% CI: -0.67, -0.38); PM2.5 (-0.52; 95% CI: -0.71, -0.33); PM1 (-0.55; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.41); NO2 (-1.71; 95% CI: -1.85, -1.57) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution exposure was significantly associated with increased prevalence of anaemia and decreased haemoglobin levels in a cohort of older Chinese adults.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138548, 2020 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread infectious disease in China. Associated meteorological factors have been widely studied, but their attributable risks have not been well quantified. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to quantify the HFMD burden attributable to temperature and other meteorological factors. METHODS: The daily counts of HFMD and meteorological factors in all 574 counties of East China were obtained for the period from 2009 to 2015. The exposure-lag-response relationships between meteorological factors and HFMD were quantified by using a distributed lag non-linear model for each county and the estimates from all the counties were then pooled using a multivariate mete-regression model. Attributable risks were estimated for meteorological variables according to the exposure-lag-response relationships obtained before. RESULTS: The study included 4,058,702 HFMD cases. Non-optimal values of meteorological factors were attributable to approximately one third of all HFMD cases, and the attributable numbers of non-optimal ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and sunshine hours were 815,942 (95% CI: 796,361-835,888), 291,759 (95% CI: 226,183-358,494), 92,060 (95% CI: 59,655-124,738) and 62,948 (95% CI: 20,621-105,773), respectively. The exposure-response relationship between temperature and HFMD was non-linear with an approximate "M" shape. High temperature had a greater influence on HFMD than low temperature did. There was a geographical heterogeneity related to water body, and more cases occurred in days with moderate high and low temperatures than in days with extreme temperature. The effects of meteorological factors on HFMD were generally consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Non-optimal temperature is the leading risk factor of HFMD in East China, and moderate hot and moderate cold days had the highest risk. Developing subgroup-targeted and region-specific programs may minimize the adverse consequences of non-optimum weather on HFMD risk.

3.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003114, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413025

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As one of its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), China has achieved a dramatic reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), although a distinct spatial heterogeneity still persists. Evidence of the quantitative effects of determinants on MMR in China is limited. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal heterogeneity and quantifying determinants of the MMR would support evidence-based policymaking to sustainably reduce the MMR in China and other developing areas worldwide. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on MMR collected by the National Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System (NMCHSS) at the county level in China from 2010 to 2013. We employed a Bayesian space-time model to investigate the spatiotemporal trends in the MMR from 2010 to 2013. We used Bayesian multivariable regression and GeoDetector models to address 3 main ecological determinants of the MMR, including per capita income (PCI), the proportion of pregnant women who delivered in hospitals (PPWDH), and the proportion of pregnant women who had at least 5 check-ups (PPWFC). Among the 2,205 counties, there were 925 (42.0%) hotspot counties, located mostly in China's western and southwestern regions, with a higher MMR, and 764 (34.6%) coldspot counties with a lower MMR than the national level. China's westernmost regions, including Tibet and western Xinjiang, experienced a weak downward trend over the study period. Nationwide, medical intervention was the major determinant of the change in MMR. The MMR decreased by 1.787 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.424-2.142, p < 0.001) per 100,000 live births when PPWDH increased by 1% and decreased by 0.623 (95% CI 0.436-0.798, p < 0.001) per 100,000 live births when PPWFC increased by 1%. The major determinants for the MMR in China's western and southwestern regions were PCI and PPWFC, while that in China's eastern and southern coastlands was PCI. The MMR in western and southwestern regions decreased nonsignificantly by 1.111 (95% CI -1.485-3.655, p = 0.20) per 100,000 live births when PCI in these regions increased by 1,000 Chinese Yuan and decreased by 1.686 (95% CI 1.275-2.090, p < 0.001) when PPWFC increased by 1%. Additionally, the western and southwestern regions showed the strongest interactive effects between different factors, in which the corresponding explanatory power of any 2 interacting factors reached up to greater than 80.0% (p < 0.001) for the MMR. Limitations of this study include a relatively short study period and lack of full coverage of eastern coastlands with especially low MMR. CONCLUSIONS: Although China has accomplished a 75% reduction in the MMR, spatial heterogeneity still exists. In this study, we have identified 925 (hotspot) high-risk counties, mostly located in western and southwestern regions, and among which 332 counties are experiencing a slower pace of decrease than the national downward trend. Nationally, medical intervention is the major determinant. The major determinants for the MMR in western and southwestern regions, which are developing areas, are PCI and PPWFC, while that in China's developed areas is PCI. The interactive influence of any two of the three factors, PCI, PPWDH, and PPWFC, in western and southwestern regions was up to and in excess of 80% (p < 0.001).

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416146

RESUMEN

Hubei province in China has completed cycle of quarantine-resumption in 23rd Janauary and 8th April 2020, providing a unique opportunity as for now to assess its intervention impact and the pattern of SARS-COV-2 transmission during the quarantine period. In this study, we evaluate the impact of the metropolitan-wide quarantine on the trend and transmission route of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei, China. The intervention reduces more than 70% of new infections in both households and the public space, as well as the deaths caused by COVID-19 pneumonia. Household transmission is the dominant route of disease spread regardless of quarantine. This will provide important evidence and scientific insights to other worldwide countries that are currently under quarantine.

5.
Environ Res ; 187: 109624, 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure and influenza virus infection have been documented to be independently associated with reduced lung function previously. Influenza vaccination plays an important role in protecting against influenza-induced severe diseases. However, no study to date has focused on whether influenza vaccination may modify the associations between ambient air pollution exposure and lung function. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 6740 children aged 7-14 years into Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study in China during 2012-2013. We collected information from parents/guardians about sociodemographic factors and influenza vaccination status in the past three years. Lung function was measured using portable electronic spirometers. Machine learning methods were used to predict 4-year average ambient air pollutant exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10). Two-level linear and logistic regression models were used to assess interactions between influenza vaccination and long-term ambient air pollutants exposure on lung function reduction, controlling for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Ambient air pollution were observed significantly associated with reductions in lung function among children. We found significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on lung function, suggesting greater vulnerability to air pollution among unvaccinated children. For example, an interaction (pinteraction = 0.002) indicated a -283.44 mL (95% CI: -327.04, -239.83) reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 concentrations among unvaccinated children, compared with the -108.24 mL (95%CI: -174.88, -41.60) reduction in FVC observed among vaccinated children. Results from logistic regression models also showed stronger associations between per IQR increase in PM1 and lung function reduction measured by FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF) among unvaccinated children than the according ORs among vaccinated children [i.e., Odds Ratio (OR) for PM1 and impaired FVC: 2.33 (95%CI: 1.79, 3.03) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.20, 2.28); OR for PM2.5 and impaired PEF: 1.45 (95%CI: 1.12,1.87) vs 1.04 (95%CI: 0.76,1.43)]. The heterogeneity of the modification by influenza vaccination of the associations between air pollution exposure and lung function reduction appeared to be more substantial in girls than in boys. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that influenza vaccination may moderate the detrimental effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among children. This study provides new insights into the possible co-benefits of strengthening and promoting global influenza vaccination programs among children.

6.
Environ Int ; 141: 105793, 2020 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417616

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although studies have examined the association between residential greenness and birth weight, there is no evidence regarding the association between residential greenness and fetal growth in utero. We aimed to investigate the associations of residential greenness with both fetal growth in utero and birth weight. METHODS: A birth cohort (2014-2017) with 18,665 singleton pregnancies was established in Tongzhou Maternal and Child hospital of Beijing, China. Residential greenness was matched with maternal residential address and estimated from remote satellite data using normalized difference vegetation index with 200 m and 500 m buffers (NDVI-200 and NDVI-500). Fetal parameters including estimated fetal weight (EFW), abdominal circumference (AC), head circumference (HC) and femur length (FL) were assessed by ultrasound measurements during pregnancy. Fetal parameters were standardized as gestational-age- and gender-adjusted Z-score and undergrowth was defined as Z-score < -1.88. Birth weight Z-score, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) were assessed as birth outcomes. Generalized estimating equations with the autoregressive working correlation structure and generalized linear regression were used to examine the associations of residential greenness with quantitative and categorized outcomes. RESULTS: We found an increase Z-score of EFW [0.054, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.020-0.087], AC (0.045, 95%CI: 0.011-0.080) and HC (0.054, 95%CI: 0.020-0.089) associated with residential greenness above NDVI-500 median compared to less than and equal to NDVI-500 median. Stratified analyses indicated that the associations might be stronger in women exposed to lower levels of particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm. No associations were found in the analyses of NDVI-250 with fetal growth in utero. We didn't observe significant associations of NDVI with birth weight Z-score, LBW and SGA. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a positive association of NDVI-500 and fetal growth in utero, but we didn't observe its association with birth weight measures. Our results suggest that building sufficient green infrastructure might potentially promote early life health.

7.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126667, 2020 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278916

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the change in rates of hospital emergency presentations or hospital admissions during the coal mine fire, and their associations with the coal mine fire-related fine particles (PM2.5). METHODS: Daily data on hospital emergency presentations and admissions were collected from the Department of Health and Human Services for the period January 01, 2009 to June 30, 2015, at Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2). The coal mine fire-related PM2.5 concentrations were modelled by the Chemical Transport Model coupled with the Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model. A generalised additive mixed model was used to estimate the change in rates of hospital emergency presentations and hospital admissions during the coal mine fire period, and to examine their associations with PM2.5 concentrations for smoke impacted areas, after controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Compared with non-fire periods, we found increased risks of all-causes, respiratory diseases, and asthma related emergency presentations and hospital admissions as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related emergency presentations during the fire period. Associations between daily concentrations of coal mine fire-related PM2.5 and emergency presentations for all-causes and respiratory diseases, including COPD and asthma, appeared after two days' exposure. Associations with hospital admissions for cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases appeared on the same day of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Coal mine fire smoke created a substantial health burden. People with respiratory diseases should receive targeted messages, follow self-management plans and take preventive medication during future coal mine fires.

8.
Environ Res ; 183: 109264, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311909

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The associations of long-term exposure to air pollution with osteoporosis are rarely reported, especially in rural China. This study aimed to explore the association among rural Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 8033 participants (18-79 years) derived from the Henan Rural Cohort Study (n = 39,259) were included in this cross-sectional study. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated using machine learning algorithms with satellite remote sensing, land use information, and meteorological data [including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)]. The bone mineral density of each individual was measured by using ultrasonic bone density apparatus and osteoporosis was defined based on the T-score ≤ -2.5. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of air pollution and osteoporosis prevalence. RESULTS: We observed that per 1 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were associated with a 14.9%, 14.6%, 7.3%, and 16.5% elevated risk of osteoporosis. Compared with individuals in the first quartile, individuals in the fourth quartile had higher odds ratio (OR) of osteoporosis (P-trend < 0.001), the ORs (95% confidence interval) were 2.08 (1.72, 2.50) for PM1, 2.28 (1.90, 2.74) for PM2.5, 1.93 (1.60, 2.32) for PM10, and 2.02 (1.68, 2.41) for NO2. It was estimated that 20.29%-24.36% of osteoporosis cases could be attributable to air pollution in the rural population from China. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollutants were positively associated with high-risk of osteoporosis, indicated that improving air quality may be beneficial to improve rural residents health.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1213-1218, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281327

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is raging in China and more than 20 other countries and regions since the middle of December 2019. Currently, there is no specific drug or vaccine besides symptomatic supportive therapy. Taking full advantage of the clinical experience of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in preventing and controlling major epidemics such as SARS, it is an important mission for TCM to propose effective formula with immediate response and solid evidence by using modern biomedical knowledge and techniques(molecular docking assisted TCM formulation for short). In view of the high homology between the gene sequences of the novel coronavirus and SARS virus, and the similarities between the two in terms of pathogenic mechanism and clinical manifestations, our team established a rapid screening and optimization model for the prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus based on clinical experience and molecular docking technology. Firstly, the clinical team and the research team pre-developed and screened TCM formula by using "back-to-back" manner. Then, the formula was optimized and determined by comparing and analyzing the results of the two groups. The results showed that the research team screened out 46 active ingredients from candidate TCMs that could act on the novel coronavirus S-protein-binding site of human ACE2 protein, which were mainly attributed to 7 herbs such as Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Mori Folium. The result was largely consistent with the formula raised by the clinical group, verifying and supporting its rationality. This provides evidence for the scientific and potential efficacy of the TCM prescription from the perspective of treatment target analysis, and also suggests that the TCM prescription has the potential to directly inhibit viral infection in addition to improving clinical symptoms or syndromes. Based on this, our team optimized and formed a new anti-coronavirus TCM prescription "Keguan Yihao", immediately providing the TCM prescription with certain clinical experience and objective evidence support for the prevention and treatment of new emergent infectious diseases in our hospital. The TCM prescription was combined with modern medicine symptomatic supportive treatment for clinical treatment, preliminary results showed better effect than symptomatic supportive therapy alone. This research has innovated the method mode in clinical practice and basic research integration of traditional Chinese medicine for the prevention and control of new emerging infectious diseases. It is of great significance to further improve the rapid response mechanism of TCM in face of major epidemics, and further improve the capability level of TCM to prevent and treat new emerging infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicina China Tradicional , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/farmacología , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319480

RESUMEN

We propose a biomimetic strategy to construct engineered yeast cells (EYCs) by building intracellular silica nanoscaffolds as biomimetic organelles. These nanosilica-based organelles can coordinate with loaded drug and yeast as a shell could prevent drug leakage. In vivo results show that EYCs serve as a dually responsive drug delivery system, targeted with extracellular caps (folate) and triggered by intracellular SiO2 at the low pH of cancer tissue.

11.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1847-1861, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241465

RESUMEN

The dynamic development of the animal intestine with a concurrent succession of microbiota and changes in microbial community and metabolite spectrum can exert far-reaching effects on host physiology. However, the precise mechanism of mutual response between microbiota and the gut is yet to be fully elucidated. Broilers with varying developmental degrees of intestinal wall thickness were selected, and they were divided into the thick group (H type) and the thin group (B type), using multiomics data integration analysis to reveal the fundamental regulatory mechanisms of gut-microbiota interplay. Our data showed, in broilers with similar body weight, the intestinal morphological parameters were improved in H type and the diversity of microbial communities is distinguishable from each other. The beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium breve was increased whereas avian endogenous retrovirus EAV-HP was decreased in the H type compared with the B type. Furthermore, microbial metabolic potentials were more active, especially the biosynthesis of folate was improved in the H type. Similarly, the consolidation of absorption, immunity, metabolism, and development was noticed in the thick group. Correlation analysis indicated that the expression levels of material transport and immunomodulatory-related genes were positively correlated with the relative abundance of several probiotics such as B. breve, Lactobacillus saerimneri, and Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum. Our findings suggest that the chickens with well-developed ileal thickness own exclusive microbial composition and metabolic potential, which is closely related to small intestinal morphogenesis and homeostasis.

12.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1862-1874, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241466

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and gut microbiota of broiler chickens subjected to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. One hundred and forty 1-day-old Arbor Acres male birds were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement including diet treatment (with or without 0.3% Arg supplementation) and immunological stress (with or without S. typhimurium challenge). Samples were obtained at 7 D after infection (day 23). Results showed that S. typhimurium challenge caused histopathological and morphological damages, but Arg addition greatly reduced these intestinal injuries. S. typhimurium challenge elevated the levels of serum inflammatory parameters, including diamine oxidase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, IL-1ß, IL-8, and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITNF) homolog. However, Arg supplementation decreased the serum procalcitonin, IL-1ß, IL-8, and LITNF concentration. S. typhimurium challenge significantly increased jejunal IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 mRNA expression and tended to upregulate IL-22 mRNA expression, but Arg supplementation remarkably reduced IL-8 mRNA expression, tended to downregulate IL-22 mRNA expression, and dramatically elevated IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA expression. In addition, sequencing data of 16S rDNA indicated that the population of Proteobacteria phylum; Enterobacteriaceae family; Escherichia-Shigella, and Nitrosomonas genera; and Escherichia coli and Ochrobactrum intermedium species were more abundant, but the population of Rhodocyclaceae and Clostridiaceae_1 families and Candidatus Arthromitus genus were less abundant in the ileal digesta of birds with only S. typhimurium infection when compared with the controls. Treatment with Arg in birds subjected to S. typhimurium challenge increased the abundances of Firmicutes phylum, Clostridiaceae_1 family, Methylobacterium and Candidatus Arthromitus genera but decreased the abundance of Nitrosomonas genus and Rhizobium cellulosilyticum and Rubrobacter xylanophilus species as compared with the only S. typhimurium-challenged birds. In conclusion, Arg supplementation can alleviate intestinal mucosal impairment by ameliorating inflammatory response and modulating gut microbiota in broiler chickens challenged with S. typhimurium.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(4): 252, 2020 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312957

RESUMEN

Aberrant activation of inflammasomes, a group of protein complexes, is pathogenic in a variety of metabolic and inflammation-related diseases. Here, we report that carnosol inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation by directly targeting heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), which is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activity, thereby treating inflammasome-mediated diseases. Our data demonstrate that carnosol inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Mechanistically, carnosol inhibits inflammasome activation by binding to HSP90 and then inhibiting its ATPase activity. In vivo, our results show that carnosol has remarkable therapeutic effects in mouse models of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated diseases, including endotoxemia and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Our data also suggest that intraperitoneal administration of carnosol (120 mg/kg) once daily for two weeks is well tolerated in mice. Thus, our study reveals the inhibitory effect of carnosol on inflammasome activation and demonstrates that carnosol is a safe and effective candidate for the treatment of inflammasome-mediated diseases.

14.
Environ Int ; : 105610, 2020 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked air pollutant to adverse health effects even at low exposure levels, but limited evidence is available on its associations with gene expression levels. AIM: To investigate associations between air pollutants and gene expression levels. METHODS: We collected data from Brisbane System Genetics Study (BSGS) - a family-based system genetics study. Expression levels of candidate genes were obtained for whole blood from 266 pairs of twins (192 monozygotic and 74 dizygotic pairs) and 165 parents. Data on individual phenotypes were also obtained, including age, sex, Body Mass Index and exposure to smoke. Daily data on mean temperature and air pollutants, including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), were collected from seven monitoring stations for the day when the blood samples were collected. The association between each air pollutant and expression level of each gene was analyzed by using generalized linear models with adjustment for temperature and individual phenotypes, and its difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins was investigated. RESULTS: The mean value for daily concentration of air pollutants were 5.9 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 16.3 ppb for O3, 6.5 ppb for NO2, and 1.4 ppb for SO2, respectively. All air pollutants' levels in Brisbane during our study period were well under the National Air Quality Standard Air pollutant levels. We observed positive associations (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.1) among twins between PM2.5 and expression levels of HSPA8 and SOD1 and also between SO2 and AHR expression level. Negative associations were observed between SO2 and 11 genes among twins, including AHR, DUSP1, GEMIN4, GPX1, KLF2, PTGS2, TLR4, TNF, TNFRSF1B, TXNRD1, and XBP1, with most of them found at lag 0-7 days (FDR < 0.1). Furthermore, the association between SO2 and DUSP1 expression level was stronger among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins (FDR < 0.1). We did not find strong evidence linking air pollutants to gene expression levels among parents. CONCLUSION: Our findings require confirmation but suggest potential associations of expression levels at several genes with air pollutants at low exposure level and an individual's genetic background modifies the association between SO2 and DUSP1 gene, which may help bridge the gap of epidemiological studies with both in vivo and in vitro toxicological experiments and provide some insights into the role of nature-nurture of an individual in gene expression response to air pollutants.

15.
Environ Res ; 184: 109113, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199315

RESUMEN

No evidence exists concerning the effect of airborne particulate matter of 1 µm or less (PM1) on blood pressure of young adults planning for pregnancy. We collected health examination information of about 1.2 million couples (aged 18-45 years) from a national birth cohort in China from Jan 1, 2013 to Oct 1, 2014 and matched their home address to daily PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations, which were predicted by remote sensing information. Generalized additive mixed models were used to analyze associations between long-term exposure to PM and blood pressure, after controlling for individual factors. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1 was associated with increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) for 0.26 (95%CI: 0.24, 0.29) mmHg in females and 0.29 (95%CI: 0.26, 0.31) mmHg in males, respectively. PM1 was also associated with increased DBP for 0.22 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.23) mmHg in females and 0.17 (95%CI: 0.15, 0.19) mmHg in males, respectively. Similar effects on blood pressure were found for PM2.5, meanwhile, the effect of PM2.5 on SBP increased with the scale of PM1 included in PM2.5 (p for interaction term <0.01). In summary, long-term exposure to PM1 as well as PM2.5 was associated with increased SBP and DBP of Chinese young adults planning for pregnancy.

16.
Environ Int ; 138: 105637, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been shown to be associated with blood lipid levels. However, studies on long-term ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤1 µm (PM1) exposure in high-exposure areas are still limited. This study aimed to explore the associations among long-term PM1 exposure, blood lipids and dyslipidemias. METHODS: Baseline data of The Henan Rural Cohort study was used in present study, including a total of 39,259 participants aged from 18 to 79 years. Daily levels of PM1 were estimated by a spatiotemporal model using ground-level measurements of PM1, satellite remote sensing data and other predictors, according to participants' home addresses. Individual exposure to PM1 was the 3-year average before baseline investigation. Linear regression and logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations among PM1, blood lipids ((total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)), and prevalence of dyslipidemias. RESULTS: The 3-year concentration of PM1 was 55.7 ± 2.1 µg/m3. Each 1 µg/m3 increment of PM1 was associated with an increase of 0.21% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11%-0.31%) in TC and 0.75% (95% CI: 0.61%-0.90%) in LDL-C, while decrease of 2.68% (95% CI: 2.43%-2.93%) in TG and 0.47% (95% CI: 0.35%-0.59%) in HDL-C. Each 1 µg/m3 increase in PM1 was associated with 6% (95% CI: 4%-8%), 3% (95% CI: 2%-5%) and 5% (95% CI: 3%-7%) higher risks of hypercholesterolemia, hyperbetalipoproteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Sex, age and BMI statistically modified the associations between PM1 with blood lipid levels and dyslipidemias. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PM1 exposure was associated with adverse changes of blood lipid levels and dyslipidemias. Males, older and overweight participants were susceptive to the adverse effects of PM1.

17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(15): 18784-18792, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207004

RESUMEN

Ambient air pollution may be associated with diabetes mellitus. However, evidence from developing countries is limited although the concentrations of air pollution are disproportionably higher in these countries. We collected daily data on diabetes mortality, air pollution, and weather conditions from 16 Chinese provincial cities during 2007-2013. A quasi-Poisson regression combined with a distributed lag model was used to quantify the city-specific mortality risk of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm). Then, a random-effect meta-analysis was conducted to pool effect estimates from 16 cities. We also calculated the attributable fraction and attributable number of diabetes mortality due to PM10. Effects of PM10 were found to be acute and limited to 3 days. Harvesting effect of PM10 was found during lag 4-10 days on diabetes mortality. An increase of 0.17% (95%CI: 0.01-0.34), 0.48% (95%CI: 0.22-0.73), and 0.53% (95%CI: 0.27-0.80) in diabetes mortality was associated with per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 at lag 0, 0-4 and 0-10 days, respectively. Totally, 5.76% (95%CI: 2.59-8.00%) and 5878 (95%CI: 2639-8163) deaths due to diabetes could be attributable to PM10. If the concentration of PM10 attained the Chinese government and WHO targets, the reduction in number of PM2.5-attributed diabetes deaths was 2016 and 5528, respectively. Higher effect estimates of PM10 were observed among females and those aged 0-64 years old at lag 0 day, while greater cumulative effects of PM10 were among males, the elderly aged 75 or over, and the illiterate at lag 0-10 days. However, the between-group differences were not statistically significant. It is one of the few studies on examining the attributable burden of diabetes mortality caused by particulate matter. Our findings indicated that effective efforts on controlling air pollution could reduce a prominent number of air pollution-related diabetes deaths.

18.
Environ Res ; 182: 109109, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069739

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies on the hypertensive effect of long-term air pollution exposure were inconclusive and showed scarce evidence from rural areas in developing countries. In this context, we examined the associations of air pollution exposure with hypertension and blood pressure, and their effect modifiers in rural Chinese adults. METHODS: We studied 39,259 participants from a cohort established in five rural regions of central China. Individual exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm and 10 µm) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was evaluated using satellite-based spatiotemporal models. Mixed-effect regression models were applied to examine the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution with hypertension and four blood pressure component measurements, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP). Several potential effect modifiers related to demographic and behavioral factors were also examined. RESULTS: The results showed that for each 1 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10 and NO2, the adjusted odds ratio of hypertension was 1.029 (95%CI: 1.001,1.057), 1.015 (95%CI: 1.001, 1.029) and 1.069 (95%CI: 1.038, 1.100), respectively. These three air pollutants were also associated with increased SBP (except for PM10), DBP and MAP. The hypertensive effects of air pollution were more pronounced among males, smokers, drinkers, individuals with a high-fat diet, and those with high-level physical activity. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 was associated with increased blood pressure and hypertension in rural Chinese adults, and the associations were modified by several behavioral factors.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114077, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041030

RESUMEN

Association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and obesity remains inconclusive, and the evidence from rural areas was limited. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association between ambient air pollution and obesity based on different anthropometric indices in Chinese rural adults, and further to compare the effect sizes of different air pollution types. A total of 38,824 participants (aged 18-79 years) were recruited from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Logistic and multivariable linear regression model were used to examine the association between ambient air pollution exposure (including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and obesity as well as obese anthropometric indices (including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP), and visceral fat index (VFI)). The potential effect modifications were also examined. Positive associations were found between long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 and obesity regardless of how obesity was defined (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Moreover, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, BFP, and VFI displayed increased trends with PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 concentrations increasing (all FDR<0.05). PM10 had the largest effects on obesity among the four types of air pollution. The elderly, women, individuals with low level of education and income, and those who had high fat diet were more vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. In addition, the results of the sensitivity analysis showed that those associations between ambient air pollution and obesity remained robust. These findings suggest that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutant (particularly PM10) may be positively associated with obesity in Chinese rural adults, especially among the elderly, women, individuals with low education and income, as well as unhealthy lifestyles.

20.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126103, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041074

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with many adverse consequences, including cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Although exposure to air pollution has been suggested in connection with excessive daytime sleepiness, evidence in China is scarce. The study aimed to explore the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and excessive daytime sleepiness in rural China. METHODS: A lot of 27935 participants (60% females) from the Henan Rural Cohort Study were included in this analysis. A satellite-based spatiotemporal model estimated a 3-year average air pollution exposure to NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters not more than 1 µm) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters not more than 2.5 µm) at the home address of participants before the baseline survey. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval between long-term air pollution and excessive daytime sleepiness. RESULTS: The average concentrations of NO2, PM1 and PM2.5 during three years preceding baseline survey were 38.22 µg/m³, 56.29 µg/m³ and 72.30 µg/m³. Exposure to NO2, PM1 and PM2.5 were all associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. Each 1 µg/m³ increment of NO2, PM1 and PM2.5 were related to a 20% (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.13-1.27), 10% (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05-1.16) and 17% (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.23) increase of the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that long-term exposure to NO2, PM1 and PM2.5 were all associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. The impact of air pollution should be considered when treating individuals with excessive daytime sleepiness.

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