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1.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(1)2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367907

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, psychological problems like anxiety, depression, irritability, mood swings, inattention and sleep disturbance are fairly common among quarantined children in several studies. A systematic review of these publications to provide an accurate burden of these psychiatric/behavioral problems is needed for planning mitigating measures by the health authorities. METHODS: Different electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, medRxiv and bioRxiv) were searched for articles describing psychological/behavioral complications in children/adolescents with/without pre-existing behavioral abnormalities and their caregivers related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Only original articles with/without comparator arms and a minimum sample size of 50 were included in the analysis. The pooled estimate of various psychological/behavioral problems was calculated using a random-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen studies describing 22 996 children/adolescents fulfilled the eligibility criteria from a total of 219 records. Overall, 34.5%, 41.7%, 42.3% and 30.8% of children were found to be suffering from anxiety, depression, irritability and inattention. Although the behavior/psychological state of a total of 79.4% of children was affected negatively by the pandemic and quarantine, at least 22.5% of children had a significant fear of COVID-19, and 35.2% and 21.3% of children had boredom and sleep disturbance. Similarly, 52.3% and 27.4% of caregivers developed anxiety and depression, respectively, while being in isolation with children. CONCLUSION: Anxiety, depression, irritability, boredom, inattention and fear of COVID-19 are predominant new-onset psychological problems in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children with pre-existing behavioral problems like autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a high probability of worsening of their behavioral symptoms.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Pandemias , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Mental , Problema de Conducta
2.
Brain Dev ; 43(1): 152-156, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855000

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infections are a common cause of childhood stroke with variable presentation. The current case describes a rare infective cause of venous and arterial stroke in an immunocompetent girl with management implications. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 12 year old girl, presented with history of fever for 10 days, painful swelling of right eye for 7 days and altered sensorium for 2 days. On examination, she had right eye orbital cellulitis and fullness of right paranasal area. On nervous system examination, she was delirious, had right eye ophthalmoparesis, left upper motor neuron facial palsy and signs of meningeal inflammation. Her contrast enhanced CT head and subsequent MRI brain with arteriography and venography revealed right cavernous sinus and distal internal carotid artery thrombosis. She was started on intravenous ceftriaxone and vancomycin and subcutaneous heparin. In view of persistent symptoms, endoscopic debridement of right nasal cavity was done, which showed growth of aspergillus flavus. Subsequently, she was started on intravenous voriconazole. Within a week, she was afebrile, her inflammatory and neurological signs started improving. She was discharged after 3 weeks of intravenous voriconazole which was continued for 3 more weeks orally. Her procoagulant and immunodeficiency work up were normal. At 4 months follow up, she showed both clinical and radiological resolution. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high mortality described in sino-orbital aspergillosis, early and appropriate treatment led to optimal outcome. In deep seated infections, isolation of etiological organism should be attempted, particularly when patient doesn't respond to conventional antimicrobial therapy.

3.
Environ Res ; 192: 110277, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069701

RESUMEN

The present study discusses the genomic analysis of Bacillus sp. ISTL8 along with the production of EPS (Extracellular polymeric substances) using carbofuran, a toxic carbamate pesticide. Bacillus strain was isolated from landfill soil and evaluated for high growth rates and EPS production. One strain, renamed ISTL8 grew on a broad range of carbon sources, including toxic carbofuran, while producing copious EPS. Growth assays verified the strain to be thermophilic, low salt tolerant, and with a preference for neutral pH. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) was used for morphological characterization of the EPS while the monomeric composition, bonding patterns and functional groups were deduced by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry), 1H and 13C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). The production of EPS using carbofuran (carbamate pesticide) as a carbon source was found to be 6.20 ± 0.29 g L-1 containing 61.17% w/w carbohydrates, 29.72% w/w proteins and 6.11% w/w lipids (of dry EPS). The potential cytotoxicity of EPS was evaluated with 3- (4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-Yl) -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and found non-toxic (2.25%). WGS (Whole genome sequencing) was performed for the strain Bacillus sp. ISTL8 producing EPS; an array of genes putatively involved in the EPS production were identified in several different genomic locations, guiding potential genetic manipulation studies in the future. The results highlight the potency of a bacterial isolate Bacillus sp. ISTL8 to produce non-cytotoxic EPS using carbofuran that can be further harnessed for environmental and commercial applications. Additionally, WGS revealed an array of EPS specific genes which can be effectively engineered for much enhanced production.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1154998

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of commonly used smokeless tobacco forms on oral health at habitual placement sites of smokeless tobacco compared to non-placement sites among the North Indian population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 542 individuals using smokeless tobacco recruited from the outpatient wing of the Dental College. Subjects completed a questionnaire and received an oral examination. Periodontal pocket depth, gingival index, plaque index, gingival recession, and oral mucosal changes were assessed. Kendal's Tau test, paired t-test, and chi-square test were carried out to compare different variables among placement and non-placement sites. Results: Most of the subjects were male, reporting an average of 11.26 years of SLT use. Clinical inflammation of gingiva was significantly greater (p=0.01) at placement-sites (1.64 ± 0.53) of SLT in comparison to non-placement-sites (1.40 ± 0.41). The difference in the GR and PPD at placement and non-placement-sites was also statistically significant with p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively. Clinically, the majority of subjects had mucosal changes at the placement sites, and a statistically significant association (p=0.034) was observed between the duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and the mucosal changes. Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco use predisposes to increased risk of periodontal diseases and oral mucosal changes at the placement sites in an individual due to the local irritant effect.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116176, 2020 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307397

RESUMEN

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene are universal contaminants existing in the environment which have known cancer-causing and mutagenic characteristics. A psychrophilic bacterial strain Shewanella sp. ISTPL2 was isolated from the sediment sample collected from the Pangong lake, Jammu & Kashmir, India. In our previous study, the pyrene degradation potential of the ISTPL2 strain was studied in both mineral salt media as well as in soil artificially spiked with different concentrations of pyrene. Whole-genome sequencing of ISTPL2 strain in the current study highlighted the key genes of pyrene metabolism, including alcohol dehydrogenase and ring hydroxylating dioxygenase alpha-subunit. Pyrene cytotoxicity was evaluated on HepG2, a human hepato-carcinoma cell line. The cytotoxicity of the organic extract decreased with the increasing duration of bacterial treatment. To develop a more sustainable biodegradation approach, the potential impacts were evaluated for human health and ecosystem using life-cycle assessment (LCA) following the ReCiPe methodology for the considered PAH. The results implemented that global warming potential (GWP) had the highest impact, whereas both ecotoxicity and human toxicity had least from this study.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt B): 124412, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249259

RESUMEN

The most prominent aromatic feedstock on Earth is lignin, however, lignin valorization is still an underrated subject. The principal preparatory strategies for lignin valorization are fragmentation and depolymerization which help in the production of fuels and chemicals. Owing to lignin's structural heterogeneity, these strategies result in product generation which requires tedious separation and purification to extract target products. The bacterial genus Pseudomonas has been dominant for its lignin valorization potency, owing to a robust enzymatic machinery that is used to funnel variable lignin derivatives into certain target products such as polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs) and cis, cis-muconic acid (MA). In this review, the potential of genus Pseudomonas in lignin valorization is critically reviewed along with the advanced genetic techniques and tools to ease the use of lignin/lignin-model compounds for the synthesis of bioproducts. This review also highlights the research gaps in lignin biovalorization and discuss the challenges and possibilities for future research.

7.
Epilepsia ; 61(12): 2763-2773, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188527

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate ENDIT score and develop a novel outcome prediction score for outcome of pediatric convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) at the hospital and 3 months postdischarge. METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 1 month to 14 years, presenting with CSE to a tertiary care teaching center in North India from January 2017 to March 2019, were screened for enrollment. In-hospital and 3-month postdischarge outcome were defined as poor if Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale (PCPCS) score dropped by ≥2 levels. RESULTS: Overall, 61 patients were enrolled for final analysis after applying exclusion and inclusion criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for ENDIT score in predicting mortality and differentiating good from poor outcome at the hospital and at 3 months postdischarge was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58-0.89), 0.7 (95% CI = 0.57-0.83), and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.6-0.82), respectively. Based on predictors in the present cohort that were significantly different between good and poor outcome cases at the hospital and 3 months postdischarge, a new six-point score named PEDSS (pre-status epilepticus PCPCS, background electroencephalographic abnormalities, drug refractoriness, semiology, and critical sickness) was developed. The area under ROC curves for PEDSS score in predicting mortality and differentiating good from poor outcome at the hospital and at 3 months postdischarge were 0.93 (95% CI = 0.87-0.99), 0.8 (95% CI = 0.7-0.9), and 0.89 (95% CI = 0.8-0.96), respectively. The best cutoff PEDSS scores for predicting mortality and poor outcome at the hospital and at 3 months postdischarge were ≥4, ≥3, and ≥3, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: The PEDSS score has high predictive accuracy for mortality and differentiating good from poor outcome at the hospital and 3 months postdischarge in pediatric CSE. Future studies should be planned to validate it in various geographical and health care settings and in adults.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114980, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544663

RESUMEN

Microplastics (MPs) as emerging persistent pollutants have been a growing global concern. Although MPs are extensively studied in aquatic systems, their presence and fate in agricultural systems are not fully understood. In the agricultural soils, major causes of MPs pollution include application of biosolids and compost, wastewater irrigation, mulching film, polymer-based fertilizers and pesticides, and atmospheric deposition. The fate and dispersion of MPs in the soil environment are mainly associated with the soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and diversity of soil biota. Although there is emerging pollution of MPs in the soil environment, no standardized detection and quantification techniques are available. This study comprehensively reviews the sources, fate, and dispersion of MPs in the soil environment, discusses the interactions and effects of MPs on soil biota, and highlights the recent advancements in detection and quantification methods of MPs. The prospects for future research include biomagnification potency, cytotoxic effects on human/animals, nonlinear behavior in the soil environment, standardized analytical methods, best management practices, and global policies in the agricultural industry for the sake of sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes del Suelo , Agricultura , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Suelo
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 312: 123613, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513509

RESUMEN

Mechanochemical synthesis of nano-biochar by ball-milling technology is gaining attention for the sake of its low-cost and eco-friendly nature. Ball milling as a non-/less-solvent technology can propel environmental sustainability and waste valorization into engineered biochar for advanced applications. Scalable production of biochar nanomaterials with superior properties (e.g., 400-500 m2 g-1 surface area and 0.5-1000 nm pore sizes) enables diverse applications in the field of energy and environment. This review critically evaluates the synthesis, characterization, and application of ball-milled biochar nanomaterials based on the latest findings. Limitations such as feedstock selection, process optimization, product homogeneity and reusability, environmental risks, and sustainability assessment remain challenging for further studies. This work highlights the recent advances on mechanochemical biochar technology and offer insights into opportunities and future prospects related to sustainable and facile synthesis of biochar-based novel materials for achieving sustainable development goals.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico , Nanoestructuras
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 731: 139074, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417476

RESUMEN

The environment of a high altitude brackish water lake presents an unprecedented reservoir for the microbial community with adaptability towards surviving stressful conditions. Pangong lake is a high altitude brackish water lake of the Himalayas situated in the eastern part of Ladakh (Indian Tibet), at the height of 4250 m above the sea level. Shotgun metagenomics sequencing of Pangong Lake sediments was performed to examine the taxonomic diversity and functional adaptations of the resident psychrophilic and psychrotolerant microbial communities of the lake (September; a temperature of ±10 °C). Proteobacteria was the most prominent phylum, and Methylophaga, Halomonas, and Marinobacter were mainly abundant at the genus level. Enzyme pathways responsible for methane metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, sulfur reduction, benzoate, and xylene degradation appeared to be complete in the metagenomic dataset. Stress response genes responsible for adaption to pH, cold, salt tolerance, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress were also found in abundance in the metagenome. We compared the Pangong lake metagenome sample to sediments and water samples from three different aquatic habitats, namely saline lake, freshwater lakes and marine ecosystem using MG-RAST server against RefSeq and Subsystem databases. The Pangong lake microbial community contains six unique genera. Regression analysis using metagenome samples suggested that Pangong lake was most closely related to the Trophic South Pacific Ocean (R2 = 0.971) and Socompa lake ecosystem (R2 = 0.991) at phylum and functional level II, respectively. Our study signifies that the functional metabolic potentiality of Pangong lake is strongly influenced by the taxonomic structure and environmental conditions. We are reporting the metagenome of the sediment sample of the Pangong lake, which unveils the microbial diversity and their functional potential.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Metagenoma , Bacterias/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metagenómica , Océano Pacífico , Filogenia , Tibet
14.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(2): 177-181, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189858

RESUMEN

Objectives: To assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of West syndrome (WS) in Indian children, who differ in their clinical profile from the western population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled children aged 2--5 years with prior diagnosis of WS between November 2013 and March 2015. They were assessed for epilepsy outcome and developmental outcome using developmental profile 3 (DP3) and vineland adaptive behavioral scale II (VABS II). Results: Sixty-one children were enrolled. Perinatal asphyxia (40.9%), neonatal hypoglycemia (14.8%), and neonatal meningitis (9.8%) were predominant causes among the children with known etiology. Favorable epilepsy outcome (seizure freedom for >6 months) was observed in 29/61 patients (47.5%). Moderate to severe developmental delay was observed in 55/61 children (91.8%). Favorable developmental outcome (GDS by DP3 >70) was observed in just 5/61 (8%) patients. Conclusions: This study highlights the high prevalence of developmental delay in this population of children with WS, with adverse perinatal events being the most common etiology.

16.
Bioresour Technol ; 282: 417-424, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884462

RESUMEN

The present study demonstrates EPS production by Cupriavidus sp. ISTL7 along with its capability to remediate a toxic carbamate pesticide, carbofuran. The strain ISTL7 efficiently degraded approximately 98% of carbofuran (400 ppm) within 96 h. GC-MS analysis showed catabolic metabolites of degradation which included carbofuran-7-phenol, methylamine, 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methylpropan-2-ol)benzene-N-methyl-carbamate etc. EPS production from the mineral medium supplemented with carbofuran was observed to be 3.112 ±â€¯0.3682 g L-1. FTIR confirmed its carbohydrate composition and the monomeric sugars: glucose, xylose, sorbitol and fructose were identified by GC-MS analysis. The toxic potential of degradation experiment and the produced EPS was evaluated on HepG2 (mammalian liver cell line). The cytotoxicity of carbofuran was reduced upon bacterial degradation and the formed EPS was found to be non-toxic as inferred from percentage cell viability. The present research can possibly influence the development strategies of biological remediation.


Asunto(s)
Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Carbamatos/metabolismo , Carbofurano/metabolismo , Cupriavidus/metabolismo , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Fenoles/metabolismo
18.
Genome Announc ; 5(42)2017 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051248

RESUMEN

We report the soil microbial diversity and functional aspects related to degradation of recalcitrant compounds, determined using a metagenomic approach, in a landfill lysimeter prepared with soil from Ghazipur landfill site, New Delhi, India. Metagenomic analysis revealed the presence and functional diversity of complex microbial communities responsible for waste degradation.

19.
Genome Announc ; 5(40)2017 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982995

RESUMEN

Pangong is a brackish water lake having environmental conditions that are hostile to supporting life. This is the first report unveiling the microbial diversity of sediment from Pangong Lake, Ladakh, India, using a high-throughput metagenomic approach. Metagenomic data analysis revealed a community structure of microbes in which functional genetic diversity facilitates their survival.

20.
J Forensic Dent Sci ; 8(3): 120-125, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123264

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tooth morphometry is resistant to postmortem destruction and can be used as an adjunct in skeletal sex and age determination. Therefore, an attempt was made to compare mandibular canine index (MCI) and Pont's index for their level of accuracy in gender determination for a Puducherry population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crown size and arch width dimension for the Puducherry population using MCI and Pont's index. To compare the MCI and Pont's index, for the level of accuracy in gender determination and to validate its use as a forensic tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and six participants (53 males and 53 females) in the age group of 18-25 years of the Puducherry population were included in the study. Their MCI and Pont's index were recorded. RESULTS: The data obtained were subjected to paired t-test analysis. It was observed that right MCI was most accurate and molar index was least accurate in sex determination. CONCLUSION: MCI and Pont's index showed significant sexual dimorphism. They can be used as an adjunct to other tools for sex determination and identification of the person for the Puducherry population.

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