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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(3): e6-e24, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368798

RESUMEN

Background: The purpose of this guideline is to optimize evaluation and management of patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS).Methods: A multidisciplinary panel identified and prioritized five clinical questions. The panel performed systematic reviews of available studies (up to July 2018) and followed the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation evidence-to-decision framework to develop recommendations. All panel members discussed and approved the recommendations.Recommendations: After considering the overall very low quality of the evidence, the panel made five conditional recommendations. We suggest that: 1) clinicians use a serum bicarbonate level <27 mmol/L to exclude the diagnosis of OHS in obese patients with sleep-disordered breathing when suspicion for OHS is not very high (<20%) but to measure arterial blood gases in patients strongly suspected of having OHS, 2) stable ambulatory patients with OHS receive positive airway pressure (PAP), 3) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) rather than noninvasive ventilation be offered as the first-line treatment to stable ambulatory patients with OHS and coexistent severe obstructive sleep apnea, 4) patients hospitalized with respiratory failure and suspected of having OHS be discharged with noninvasive ventilation until they undergo outpatient diagnostic procedures and PAP titration in the sleep laboratory (ideally within 2-3 mo), and 5) patients with OHS use weight-loss interventions that produce sustained weight loss of 25% to 30% of body weight to achieve resolution of OHS (which is more likely to be obtained with bariatric surgery).Conclusions: Clinicians may use these recommendations, on the basis of the best available evidence, to guide management and improve outcomes among patients with OHS.

2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(10): 1286-1294, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162952

RESUMEN

Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in pregnancy and associated with maternal and fetal complications. Early detection of OSA may have important implications for maternal-fetal well-being. A screening tool combining several methods of assessment may better predict OSA among pregnant women compared with tools that rely solely on self-reported information.Objectives: To develop a screening tool combining subjective and objective measures to predict OSA in pregnant women.Methods: This study is a secondary analysis using data collected from a completed cohort of pregnant women (n = 121 during the first and n = 87 during the third trimester). Participants underwent full polysomnography and completed the Multivariable Apnea Prediction Questionnaire. The Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome Score and Facco apnea predictive model were obtained. Logistic regression analysis and area under the curve (AUC) were used to identify models predicting OSA risk.Results: Participants' mean age was 27.4 ± 7.0 years. The prevalence of OSA during the first and third trimester was 10.7% and 24.1%, respectively. The final model predicting OSA risk consisted of body mass index, age, and presence of tongue enlargement. During the first trimester, the AUC was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.96). During the third trimester, the AUC was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.96). When the first-trimester data were used to predict third-trimester OSA risk, the AUC was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.97). This model had high sensitivity and specificity when used during both trimesters. The negative posttest probabilities (probability of OSA given a negative test result) ranged from 0.03 to 0.07.Conclusions: A new model consisting of body mass index, age, and presence of tongue enlargement provided accurate screening of OSA in pregnant women, particularly African-Americans. This tool can be easily and rapidly administered in busy clinical practices without depending on patients' awareness of experiencing apnea symptoms.

4.
J Adolesc Health ; 64(5): 671, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010552
5.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(1): 23-32, 2019 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621825

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in commercial motor vehicle operators (CMVOs); however, polysomnography (PSG), the gold-standard diagnostic test, is expensive and inconvenient for screening. OSA is associated with changes in heart rate and voltage on electrocardiography (EKG). We evaluated the utility of EKG parameters in identifying CMVOs at greater risk for sleepiness-related crashes (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30 events/h). METHODS: In this prospective study of CMVOs, we performed EKGs with concurrent PSG, and calculated the respiratory power index (RPI) on EKG, a surrogate for AHI calculated from PSG. We evaluated the utility of two-stage predictive models using simple clinical measures (age, body mass index [BMI], neck circumference, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, and the Multi-Variable Apnea Prediction [MVAP] score) in the first stage, followed by RPI in a subset as the second-stage. We assessed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and negative posttest probability (NPTP) for this two-stage approach and for RPI alone. RESULTS: The best-performing model used the MVAP, which combines BMI, age, and sex with three OSA symptoms, in the first stage, followed by RPI in the second. The model yielded an estimated (95% confidence interval) AUC of 0.883 (0.767-0.924), sensitivity of 0.917 (0.706-0.962), and NPTP of 0.034 (0.015-0.133). Predictive characteristics were similar using a model with only BMI as the first-stage screen. CONCLUSIONS: A two-stage model that combines BMI or the MVAP score in the first stage, with EKG in the second, had robust discriminatory power to identify severe OSA in CMVOs.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 198(6): e70-e87, 2018 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215551

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity is a common, reversible risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea severity (OSA). The purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of overweight/obesity in patients with OSA. METHODS: The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the literature. Clinical recommendations were formulated by a panel of pulmonary, sleep medicine, weight management, and behavioral science specialists. RESULTS: Behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical treatments promote weight loss and can reduce OSA severity, reverse common comorbidities, and improve quality of life, although published studies have methodological limitations. After considering the quality of evidence, feasibility, and acceptability of these interventions, the panel made a strong recommendation that patients with OSA who are overweight or obese be treated with comprehensive lifestyle intervention consisting of 1) a reduced-calorie diet, 2) exercise or increased physical activity, and 3) behavioral guidance. Conditional recommendations were made regarding reduced-calorie diet and exercise/increased physical activity as separate management tools. Pharmacological therapy and bariatric surgery are appropriate for selected patients who require further assistance with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-loss interventions, especially comprehensive lifestyle interventions, are associated with improvements in OSA severity, cardiometabolic comorbidities, and quality of life. The American Thoracic Society recommends that clinicians regularly assess weight and incorporate weight management strategies that are tailored to individual patient preferences into the routine treatment of adult patients with OSA who are overweight or obese.

7.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(7): 1239-1244, 2018 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29991434

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a globally recognized medical condition, associated with development of long-term adverse health consequences, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, neurocognitive deficiencies, and vehicular and occupational accidents. OSA can be screened effectively, because it can be identified well before the manifestation of the aforementioned poor health and public safety consequences. Additionally, appropriate management of OSA includes an assessment of outcomes before and after therapeutic intervention initiation. OSA clinical screening and outcome assessment tools exist; however, a key existing knowledge gap is identifying which tools are most clinically relevant and efficient to use in clinical practice models. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a task force (TF) of sleep medicine experts to identify and evaluate current OSA screening and assessment tools for adult patients and determine if they are reliable, effective, and feasible for use in clinical settings. No single tool met all the TF's objective criteria and subjective evaluation for clinical validity and feasibility to be recommended by the AASM. The TF provides several suggestions for the development of new tools or modifications to existing tools that would enhance their functionality in adults.

9.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(4): 683-685, 2018 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609728

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The ridesharing-or ride-hailing-industry has grown exponentially in recent years, transforming quickly into a fee-for-service, unregulated taxi industry. While riders are experiencing the benefits of convenience and affordability, two key regulatory and safety issues deserve consideration. First, individuals who work as drivers in the ridesharing industry are often employed in a primary job, and they work as drivers during their "off" time. Such a schedule may lead to driving after extended periods of wakefulness or during nights, both of which are factors that increase the risk of drowsy driving accidents. Second, these drivers are often employed as "independent contractors," and therefore they are not screened for medical problems that can reduce alertness, such as obstructive sleep apnea. Some ridesharing companies now require a rest period after an extended driving shift. This measure is encouraging, but it is insufficient to impact driving safety appreciably, particularly since many of these drivers are already working extended hours and tend to drive at non-traditional times when sleepiness may peak. Therefore, it is the position of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) that fatigue and sleepiness are inherent safety risks in the ridesharing industry. The AASM calls on ridesharing companies, government officials, medical professionals, and law enforcement officers to work together to address this public safety risk. A collaborative effort is necessary to understand and track the scope of the problem, provide relevant education, and mitigate the risk through thoughtful regulation and effective fatigue risk management systems.

10.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(2): 117-126, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388810

RESUMEN

The purpose of this workshop was to identify knowledge gaps in the perioperative management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). A single-day meeting was held at the American Thoracic Society Conference in May, 2016, with representation from many specialties, including anesthesiology, perioperative medicine, sleep, and respiratory medicine. Further research is urgently needed as we look to improve health outcomes for these patients and reduce health care costs. There is currently insufficient evidence to guide screening and optimization of OSA and OHS in the perioperative setting to achieve these objectives. Patients who are at greatest risk of respiratory or cardiac complications related to OSA and OHS are not well defined, and the effectiveness of monitoring and other interventions remains to be determined. Centers involved in sleep research need to develop collaborative networks to allow multicenter studies to address the knowledge gaps identified below.

12.
Hypertension ; 70(6): 1283-1290, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038203

RESUMEN

Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist. Little is known about the effects of obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, or their treatment on central aortic pressures and large artery stiffness. We randomized 139 adults with obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea to (1) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy (n=45), (2) weight loss (WL) therapy (n=48), or (3) combined CPAP and WL (n=46) for 24 weeks. We assessed the effect of these interventions on central pressures and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (a measure of large artery stiffness), measured with arterial tonometry. Central systolic pressure was reduced significantly only in the combination arm (-7.4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -12.5 to -2.4 mm Hg; P=0.004), without significant reductions detected in either the WL-only (-2.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -7.5 to 3.0; P=0.39) or the CPAP-only (-3.1 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -8.3 to 2.0; P=0.23) arms. However, none of these interventions significantly changed central pulse pressure, pulse pressure amplification, or the central augmentation index. The change in mean arterial pressure (P=0.008) and heart rate (P=0.027) induced by the interventions was significant predictors of the change in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. However, after adjustment for mean arterial pressure and heart rate, no significant changes in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were observed in any group. In obese subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, combination therapy with WL and CPAP is effective in reducing central systolic pressure. However, this effect is largely mediated by changes in mean, rather than central pulse pressure. WL and CPAP, alone or in combination, did not reduce large artery stiffness in this population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00371293.


Asunto(s)
Arterias/fisiopatología , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua/métodos , Obesidad/terapia , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/terapia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Polisomnografía , Pronóstico , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/etiología , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/fisiopatología , Sístole
13.
J Behav Med ; 40(6): 955-963, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639107

RESUMEN

This study examined the association between depressive symptoms, as well as depressive symptom dimensions, and three candidate biological pathways linking them to Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): (1) inflammation; (2) circulating leptin; and (3) intermittent hypoxemia. Participants included 181 obese adults with moderate-to-severe OSA enrolled in the Cardiovascular Consequences of Sleep Apnea (COSA) trial. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). We assessed inflammation using C-reactive protein levels (CRP), circulating leptin by radioimmunoassay using a double antibody/PEG assay, and intermittent hypoxemia by the percentage of sleep time each patient had below 90% oxyhemoglobin saturation. We found no significant associations between BDI-II total or cognitive scores and CRP, leptin, or percentage of sleep time below 90% oxyhemoglobin saturation after controlling for relevant confounding factors. Somatic symptoms, however, were positively associated with percentage of sleep time below 90% saturation (ß = 0.202, P = 0.032), but not with CRP or circulating leptin in adjusted models. Another significant predictor of depressive symptoms included sleep efficiency (ßBDI Total = -0.230, P = 0.003; ßcognitive = -0.173, P = 0.030 (ßsomatic = -0.255, P = 0.001). In patients with moderate-to-severe OSA, intermittent hypoxia may play a role in somatic rather than cognitive or total depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/metabolismo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación/complicaciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Polisomnografía , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/psicología
14.
Sleep ; 40(3)2017 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28364424

RESUMEN

Study Objective: To validate that the symptomless Multi-Variable Apnea Prediction index (sMVAP) is associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) diagnosis and assess the relationship between sMVAP and adverse outcomes in patients having elective surgery. We also compare associations between Bariatric surgery, where preoperative screening for OSA risk is mandatory, and non-Bariatric surgery groups who are not screened routinely for OSA. Methods: Using data from 40 432 elective inpatient surgeries, we used logistic regression to determine the relationship between sMVAP and previous OSA, current hypertension, and postoperative complications: extended length of stay (ELOS), intensive-care-unit-stay (ICU-stay), and respiratory complications (pulmonary embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and/or aspiration pneumonia). Results: Higher sMVAP was associated with increased likelihood of previous OSA, hypertension and all postoperative complications (p < .0001). The top sMVAP quintile had increased odds of postoperative complications compared to the bottom quintile. For ELOS, ICU-stay, and respiratory complications, respective odds ratios (95% CI) were: 1.83 (1.62, 2.07), 1.44 (1.32, 1.58), and 1.85 (1.37, 2.49). Compared against age-, gender- and BMI-matched patients having Bariatric surgery, sMVAP was more strongly associated with postoperative complications in non-Bariatric surgical groups, including: (1) ELOS (Orthopedics [p < .0001], Gastrointestinal [p = .024], Neurosurgery [p = .016], Spine [p = .016]); (2) ICU-stay (Orthopedics [p = .0004], Gastrointestinal [p < .0001], and Otorhinolaryngology [p = .0102]); and (3) respiratory complications (Orthopedics [p =.037] and Otorhinolaryngology [p =.011]). Conclusions: OSA risk measured by sMVAP correlates with higher risk for select postoperative complications. Associations are stronger for non-Bariatric surgeries, where preoperative screening for OSA is not routinely performed. Thus, preoperative screening may reduce OSA-related risk for adverse postoperative outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/efectos adversos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/diagnóstico , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/complicaciones , Adulto , Cirugía Bariátrica/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Mórbida/complicaciones , Oportunidad Relativa , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Factores de Riesgo , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/complicaciones , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico
15.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 13(5): 745-758, 2017 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356173

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Sleep and Transportation Safety Awareness Task Force responded to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration and Federal Railroad Administration Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and request for public comments regarding the evaluation of safety-sensitive personnel for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The following document represents this response. The most salient points provided in our comments are that (1) moderate-to-severe OSA is common among commercial motor vehicle operators (CMVOs) and contributes to an increased risk of crashes; (2) objective screening methods are available and preferred for identifying at-risk drivers, with the most commonly used indicator being body mass index; (3) treatment in the form of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective and reduces crashes; (4) CPAP is economically viable; (5) guidelines are available to assist medical examiners in determining whether CMVOs with moderate-to-severe OSA should continue to work without restrictions, with conditional certification, or be disqualified from operating commercial motor vehicles.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducción de Automóvil , Seguridad , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/terapia , Comités Consultivos , Concienciación , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Medicina del Sueño , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
16.
Biomark Med ; 10(3): 265-300, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26925513

RESUMEN

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and is a major risk factor for postoperative cardiovascular complications and death. Recognizing this, the American Society of Anesthesiologists urges clinicians to implement special considerations in the perioperative care of OSA patients. However, as the volume of patients presenting for TJA increases, resources to implement these recommendations are limited. This necessitates mechanisms to efficiently risk stratify patients having OSA who may be susceptible to post-TJA cardiovascular complications. We explore the role of perioperative measurement of cardiac troponins (cTns) and brain natriuretic peptides (BNPs) in helping determine which OSA patients are at increased risk for post-TJA cardiovascular-related morbidity.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Miocardio/metabolismo , Medición de Riesgo , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/metabolismo , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología
20.
N Engl J Med ; 370(24): 2265-75, 2014 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24918371

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist and are associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure, but their causal relation to these abnormalities is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned 181 patients with obesity, moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) greater than 1.0 mg per liter to receive treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a weight-loss intervention, or CPAP plus a weight-loss intervention for 24 weeks. We assessed the incremental effect of the combined interventions over each one alone on the CRP level (the primary end point), insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, and blood pressure. RESULTS: Among the 146 participants for whom there were follow-up data, those assigned to weight loss only and those assigned to the combined interventions had reductions in CRP levels, insulin resistance, and serum triglyceride levels. None of these changes were observed in the group receiving CPAP alone. Blood pressure was reduced in all three groups. No significant incremental effect on CRP levels was found for the combined interventions as compared with either weight loss or CPAP alone. Reductions in insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels were greater in the combined-intervention group than in the group receiving CPAP only, but there were no significant differences in these values between the combined-intervention group and the weight-loss group. In per-protocol analyses, which included 90 participants who met prespecified criteria for adherence, the combined interventions resulted in a larger reduction in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure than did either CPAP or weight loss alone. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea, CPAP combined with a weight-loss intervention did not reduce CRP levels more than either intervention alone. In secondary analyses, weight loss provided an incremental reduction in insulin resistance and serum triglyceride levels when combined with CPAP. In addition, adherence to a regimen of weight loss and CPAP may result in incremental reductions in blood pressure as compared with either intervention alone. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT0371293 .).


Asunto(s)
Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua , Obesidad/complicaciones , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/terapia , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Anciano , Presión Sanguínea , Terapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/sangre , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/complicaciones , Triglicéridos/sangre
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