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1.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 49: 102391, 2020 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957016

RESUMEN

One of the main goals of the Spanish and Portuguese-Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) is to promote and contribute to the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the field of forensic genetics. The GHEP-ISFG supports several Working Commissions which develop different scientific activities. One of them, the Working Commission on "Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS): Forensic Applications", organized its first collaborative exercise on forensic applications of MPS technology in 2019. The aim of this exercise was to assess the concordance between the MPS results and those obtained with conventional technologies (capillary electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing), as well as to compare the results obtained within the different MPS platforms and/or the different kits/panels and analysis software packages (commercial and open-access) available on the market. The seven participating laboratories analyzed some samples of the annual GHEP-ISFG proficiency test (EIADN No. 27 (2019)), using Ion Torrent™ or MiSeq FGx® platforms. Six of them sent autosomal STR sequence data, five laboratories performed MPS analysis of individual identification SNPs, four laboratories reported MPS data of Y-chromosomal STRs, and X-chromosomal STRs, three laboratories performed MPS analysis of ancestry informative SNPs and phenotype informative SNPs, two labs performed MPS analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region, and only one lab produced MPS data of lineage informative SNPs. Autosomal STR sequencing results were highly concordant to the consensus obtained by capillary electrophoresis in the EIADN No. 27 (2019) exercise. Furthermore, in general, a high level of concordance was observed between the results of the participating laboratories, regardless of the platform used. The main discordances were due to errors during the analysis process or from sequence data obtained with low depth of coverage. In this paper we highlight some issues that still arise, such as standardization of the nomenclature for STRs analyzed by sequencing with MPS, the universal uptake of a nomenclature framework by the analysis software, and well established validation and accreditation of the new MPS platforms for use in routine forensic case-work.

2.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; : e24130, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856314

RESUMEN

Colombia, located in the north of the South American subcontinent is a country of great interest for population genetic studies given its high ethnic and cultural diversity represented by the admixed population, 102 indigenous peoples and African descent populations. In this study, an analysis of the genetic structure and ancestry was performed based on 46 ancestry informative INDEL markers (AIM-INDELs) and considering the genealogical and demographic variables of 451 unrelated individuals belonging to nine Native American, two African American, and four multiple ancestry populations. Measures of genetic diversity, ancestry components, and genetic substructure were analyzed to build a population model typical of the northernmost part of the South American continent. The model suggests three types of populations: Native American, African American, and multiple ancestry. The results support hypotheses posed by other authors about issues like the peopling of South America and the existence of two types of Native American ancestry. This last finding could be crucial for future research on the peopling of Colombia and South America in that a single origin of all indigenous communities should not be assumed. It then would be necessary to consider other events that could explain their genetic variability and complexity throughout the continent.

4.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 48: 102308, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622324

RESUMEN

Forensic genetic laboratories perform a large amount of STR analyses of the Y chromosome, in particular to analyze the male part of complex DNA mixtures. However, the statistical interpretation of evidence retrieved from Y-STR haplotypes is challenging. Due to the uni-parental inheritance mode, Y-STR loci are connected to each other and thus haplotypes show patterns of relationship on the familial and population level. This precludes the treatment of Y-STR loci as independently inherited variables and the application of the product rule. Instead, the dependency structure of Y-STRs needs to be included in the haplotype frequency estimation process affecting also the current paradigm of a random match probability that is in the autosomal case approximated by the population frequency assuming unrelatedness of sampled individuals. Information on the degree of paternal relatedness in the suspect population as well as on the familial network is however needed to interpret Y-chromosomal results in the best possible way. The previous recommendations of the DNA commission of the ISFG on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis published more than a decade ago [1] cover the interpretation issue only marginally. The current recommendations address a number of topics (frequency estimators, databases, metapopulations, LR formulation, triage, rapidly mutating Y-STRs) with relevance for the Y-STR statistics and recommend a decision-based procedure, which takes into account legal requirements as well as availability of population data and statistical methods.

5.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 48: 102348, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707472

RESUMEN

Y-chromosomal STRs are important markers in forensic genetics, due to some peculiar characteristics. The absence of recombination makes them a useful tool to infer kinship in complex cases involving distant paternal relatives, or to infer paternal bio-geographic ancestry. The presence of a single copy, being transmitted from father to son, allow tracing mutational events in Y-STRs without ambiguity. For the statistical interpretation of forensic evidences based on Y-STR profiles, it is necessary to have estimates on both mutation rates and haplotype frequencies. In this work, 407 father-son duos from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states and 204 unrelated individuals from Manaus were analyzed. Haplotype frequencies and mutation rates for the Y-STRs from the PowerPlex Y23 commercial kit were estimated. Thirty-six mutations were observed in 15 of the 22 Y-STRs analyzed, for an average mutation rate of 3.84 × 10-3 (95 % CI 2.69 × 10-3 to 5.32 × 10-3). All mutations in GAAA repeats occurred in alleles with 13 or more uninterrupted units. Mutations in GATA repeats were observed in alleles with 9-17 uninterrupted units. An analysis carried out in different father's age groups showed an increase of 2.48 times the mutation rate in the age group of 40-50 years, when compared to the 20-30 age group, in agreement with the described for autosomal STRs. A high haplotype diversity was found in the three Brazilian populations. Pairwise genetic distance analysis (FST) showed no significant differences between the three populations in this study, which were also close to populations with strong European influence. The highest distances among the Brazilian populations were with São Gabriel da Cachoeira, which has a high Native American ancestry.

6.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(5): 1569-1579, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385594

RESUMEN

Although many genes have been shown to be associated with human pigmentary traits and forensic prediction assays exist (e.g. HIrisPlex-S), the genetic knowledge about skin colour remains incomplete. The highly admixed Brazilian population is an interesting study population for investigation of the complex genotype-phenotype architecture of human skin colour because of its large variation. Here, we compared variants in 22 pigmentary genes with quantitative skin pigmentation levels on the buttock, arm, and forehead areas of 266 genetically admixed Brazilian individuals. The genetic ancestry of each individual was estimated by typing 46 AIM-InDels. The mean proportion of genetic ancestry was 68.8% European, 20.8% Sub-Saharan African, and 10.4% Native American. A high correlation (adjusted R2 = 0.65, p < 0.05) was observed between nine SNPs and quantitative skin pigmentation using multiple linear regression analysis. The correlations were notably smaller between skin pigmentation and biogeographic ancestry (adjusted R2 = 0.45, p < 0.05), or markers in the leading forensic skin colour prediction system, the HIrisPlex-S (adjusted R2 = 0.54, p < 0.05). Four of the nine SNPs, OCA2 rs1448484 (rank 2), APBA2 rs4424881 (rank 4), MFSD12 rs10424065 (rank 8), and TYRP1 1408799 (rank 9) were not investigated as part of the HIrisPlex-S selection process, and therefore not included in the HIrisPlex-S model. Our results indicate that these SNPs account for a substantial part of the skin colour variation in individuals of admixed ancestry. Hence, we suggest that these SNPs are considered when developing future skin colour prediction models.

7.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 48: 102299, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414696

RESUMEN

Forensic Science International: Genetics and Forensic Science International: Reports communicate research on a variety of biological materials using genetics and genomic methods. Numerous guidelines have been produced to secure standardization and quality of results of scientific investigations. Yet, no specific guidelines have been produced for the ethical acquisition of such data. These guidelines summarize universally adopted principles for conducting ethical research on biological materials, and provide details of the general procedures for conducting ethical research on materials of human, animal, plant and environmental origin. Finally, the minimal ethics requirements for submission of research material are presented.

8.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 46: 102258, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066109

RESUMEN

The GHEP-ISFG organized a collaborative study to estimate mutation rates for the markers included in the Investigator Argus X-12 QS kit Qiagen. A total of 16 laboratories gathered data from 1,612 father/mother/daughter trios, which were used to estimate both maternal and paternal mutation rates, when pooled together with other already published data. Data on fathers and mothers' age at the time of birth of the daughter were also available for ∼93 % of the cases. Population analyses were computed considering the genetic information of a subset of 1,327 unrelated daughters, corresponding to 2,654 haplotypes from residents in several regions of five countries: Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Portugal and Spain. Genetic differentiation analyses between the population samples from the same country did not reveal signs of significant stratification, although results from Hardy-Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium tests indicated the need of larger studies for Ecuador and Brazilian populations. The high genetic diversity of the markers resulted in a large number of haplotype combinations, showing the need of huge databases for reliable estimates of their frequencies. It should also be noted the high number of new alleles found, many of them not included in the allelic ladders provided with the kit, as very diverse populations were analyzed. The overall estimates for locus specific average mutation rates varied between 7.5E-04 (for DXS7423) and 1.1E-02 (for DXS10135), the latter being a troublesome figure for kinship analyses. Most of the found mutations (∼92 %) are compatible with the gain or loss of a single repeat. Paternal mutation rates showed to be 5.2 times higher than maternal ones. We also found that older fathers were more prone to transmit mutated alleles, having this trend not been observed in the case of the mothers.

9.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 15, 2020 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996123

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current Brazilian population is the product of centuries of admixture between intercontinental founding groups. Although previous results have revealed a heterogeneous distribution of mitochondrial lineages in the Northeast region, the most targeted by foreign settlers during the sixteenth century, little is known about the paternal ancestry of this particular population. Considering historical records have documented a series of territorial invasions in the Northeast by various European populations, we aimed to characterize the male lineages found in Brazilian individuals in order to discover to what extent these migrations have influenced the present-day gene pool. Our approach consisted of employing four hierarchical multiplex assays for the investigation of 45 unique event polymorphisms in the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome of 280 unrelated men from several Northeast Brazilian states. RESULTS: Primary multiplex results allowed the identification of six major haplogroups, four of which were screened for downstream SNPs and enabled the observation of 19 additional lineages. Results reveal a majority of Western European haplogroups, among which R1b-S116* was the most common (63.9%), corroborating historical records of colonizations by Iberian populations. Nonetheless, FST genetic distances show similarities between Northeast Brazil and several other European populations, indicating multiple origins of settlers. Regarding Native American ancestry, our findings confirm a strong sexual bias against such haplogroups, which represented only 2.5% of individuals, highly contrasting previous results for maternal lineages. Furthermore, we document the presence of several Middle Eastern and African haplogroups, supporting a complex historical formation of this population and highlighting its uniqueness among other Brazilian regions. CONCLUSIONS: We performed a comprehensive analysis of the major Y-chromosome lineages that form the most dynamic migratory region from the Brazilian colonial period. This evidence suggests that the ongoing entry of European, Middle Eastern, and African males in the Brazilian Northeast, since at least 500 years, was significantly responsible for the present-day genetic architecture of this population.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales , Filogenia , Brasil , Cromosomas Humanos Y/genética , Genética de Población , Geografía , Haplotipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética
10.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 44: 102186, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677444

RESUMEN

The value of the evidence depends critically on propositions. In the second of two papers intended to provide advice to the community on difficult aspects of evaluation and the formulation of propositions, we focus primarily on activity level propositions. This helps the court address the question of "How did an individual's cell material get there?". In order to do this, we expand the framework outlined in the first companion paper. First, it is important not to conflate results and propositions. Statements given activity level propositions aim to help address issues of indirect vs direct transfer, and the time of the activity, but it is important to avoid use of the word 'transfer' in propositions. This is because propositions are assessed by the Court, but DNA transfer is a factor that scientists need to take into account for the interpretation of their results. Suitable activity level propositions are ideally set before knowledge of the results and address issues like: X stabbed Y vs. an unknown person stabbed Y but X met Y the day before. The scientist assigns the probability of the evidence, if each of the alternate propositions is true, to derive a likelihood ratio. To do this, the scientist asks: a) "what are the expectations if each of the propositions is true?" b) "What data are available to assist in the evaluation of the results given the propositions?" When presenting evidence, scientists work within the hierarchy of propositions framework. The value of evidence calculated for a DNA profile cannot be carried over to higher levels in the hierarchy - the calculations given sub-source, source and activity level propositions are all separate. A number of examples are provided to illustrate the principles espoused, and the criteria that such assessments should meet. Ideally in order to assign probabilities, the analyst should have/collect data that are relevant to the case in question. These data must be relevant to the case at hand and we encourage further research and collection of data to form knowledge bases. Bayesian Networks are extremely useful to help us think about a problem, because they force us to consider all relevant possibilities in a logical way. An example is provided.

11.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 44: 102163, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704485

RESUMEN

The use of Y-chromosomal genetic markers in forensic investigations demands the establishment of reliable and representative DNA databases of different reference populations. The genetic characterization of the Y chromosome variation in human populations requires the analyses of haplotype frequencies allied to haplogroup determination. The present study aimed to contribute to the Brazilian database by providing 1,382 Yfiler Plus individual profiles, from 11 Brazilian states. The Yfiler Plus markers showed high haplotype diversities in all Brazilian populations (>0.9970), allowing high intra-population discrimination in forensic investigations. Pairwise genetic distances showed a homogeneity between Brazilian populations (FST ≤ 0.0043; non-differentiation p-values ≥ 0.0212), indicating that admixed populations from Brazil can be represented in a single Yfiler Plus haplotype database, for forensic purposes. The performance of Haplogroup Predictor and NevGen software in haplogroup prediction based on Yfiler Plus and Yfiler haplotypes was evaluated in a subset of 416 Brazilian samples that were also genotyped for 51 Y-SNPs. In 25% of the samples, no classification or errors were found for at least one of the prediction tools or marker sets. NevGen presented lower error rates (5.52% and 8.65% with Yfiler Plus and Yfiler, respectively) than Haplogroup Predictor (16.11% with Yfiler Plus and 13.70% with Yfiler). In conclusion, both haplogroup prediction tools can be useful to direct the SNP typing, but present large error rates to be used in forensic analysis, especially in predicting African haplogroups in admixed South American populations.

12.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 42: 244-251, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382159

RESUMEN

The emergence of Massively Parallel Sequencing technologies enabled the analysis of full mitochondrial (mt)DNA sequences from forensically relevant samples that have, so far, only been typed in the control region or its hypervariable segments. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a commercially available multiplex-PCR-based assay, the Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel (Thermo Fisher Scientific), for the amplification and sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) from even degraded forensic specimens. For this purpose, more than 500 samples from 24 different populations were selected to cover the vast majority of established superhaplogroups. These are known to harbor different signature sequence motifs corresponding to their phylogenetic background that could have an effect on primer binding and, thus, could limit a broad application of this molecular genetic tool. The selected samples derived from various forensically relevant tissue sources and were DNA extracted using different methods. We evaluated sequence concordance and heteroplasmy detection and compared the findings to conventional Sanger sequencing as well as an orthogonal MPS platform. We discuss advantages and limitations of this approach with respect to forensic genetic workflow and analytical requirements.


Asunto(s)
ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Genética Forense/métodos , Haplotipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0214830, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206551

RESUMEN

As in other Latin American populations, Argentinians are the result of the admixture amongst different continental groups, mainly from America and Europe, and to a lesser extent from Sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is known that the admixture processes did not occur homogeneously throughout the country. Therefore, considering the importance for anthropological, medical and forensic researches, this study aimed to investigate the population genetic structure of the Argentinian Patagonia, through the analysis of 46 ancestry informative markers, in 433 individuals from five different localities. Overall, in the Patagonian sample, the average individual ancestry was estimated as 35.8% Native American (95% CI: 32.2-39.4%), 62.1% European (58.5-65.7%) and 2.1% African (1.7-2.4%). Comparing the five localities studied, statistically significant differences were observed for the Native American and European contributions, but not for the African ancestry. The admixture results combined with the genealogical information revealed intra-regional variations that are consistent with the different geographic origin of the participants and their ancestors. As expected, a high European ancestry was observed for donors with four grandparents born in Europe (96.8%) or in the Central region of Argentina (85%). In contrast, the Native American ancestry increased when the four grandparents were born in the North (71%) or in the South (61.9%) regions of the country, or even in Chile (60.5%). In summary, our results showed that differences on continental ancestry contribution have different origins in each region in Patagonia, and even in each locality, highlighting the importance of knowing the origin of the participants and their ancestors for the correct interpretation and contextualization of the genetic information.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética de Población/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Argentina/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Humanos , Indios Norteamericanos , Linaje
15.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 40: 175-181, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878721

RESUMEN

In addition to its valuable utility in forensic investigations, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis is a reliable tool to uncover the origins of admixed populations, such as Brazilians. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), similar to other coastal Brazilian states, has a population shaped by 3 main ancestral roots: Amerindian, African and European. Among the latter, the Pomeranian descendants stand out due to the preservation of the traditional aspects of their culture, especially the Pomeranian language. Despite the genetic data already available, there is no mtDNA database that adequately reflects the diversity, the geographic distribution, and the origins of the maternal lineages from ES. To increase the knowledge of maternal ancestry and to investigate the population's genetic stratification, a total of 291 samples were collected in the 4 macroregions (Metropolitan, South, Central and North) of ES and in the Pomeranian communities. Complete control region data were produced for the general (N=214) and Pomeranian (N=77) groups. Regarding the general population, the high values of haplotype diversity (H=99.9%) and pairwise differences (MNPD=16.9) found are in agreement with those reported for other populations in the southeast region of the country. Regarding maternal inheritance, the ES populations stood out due to the predominance of European haplogroups (49.5%), although the North macroregion had a higher African ancestry (47.1%). Among the Pomeranians, the lowest MNPD value (11.2) and the high percentage of shared haplotypes (15%) were indicative of founder events. The FST analysis showed that the Pomeranians (98.7% of European lineages) are genetically isolated from the other admixed populations in Brazil. This study demonstrated that the ES state contains singularities regarding the intrapopulational and interpopulational diversity of mtDNA. Even after 5 centuries of interethnic admixture, the present-day population of Espírito Santo harbors genetic marks that trace back to the historical aspects of its formation.


Asunto(s)
ADN Mitocondrial , Genética de Población , Herencia Materna , Brasil , Grupos de Población Continentales/genética , Electroforesis Capilar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Filogeografía , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
16.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(5): 1385-1388, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612323

RESUMEN

X-chromosomal markers can be useful in some forensic cases, where the analysis of the autosomal markers is not conclusive. In this study, a population sample of 500 unrelated individuals born in São Paulo State was characterized for 32 X-InDel markers. No deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected, except for MID1361. The 32 X-InDels showed an accumulated power of discrimination of 0.9999999999993 in females and 0.99999993 in males and an exclusion chance of 0.999996 in trios and 0.99995 in duos. São Paulo showed lower genetic distances to the Colombian admixed and European populations than to Native American, Asian, or African populations. Ancestry analysis revealed 41.8% European, 31.6% African, and 26.6% Native American contributions. Segregation analysis was performed in 101 trios, and the mutation rate was estimated to be low.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos X/genética , Genética de Población/métodos , Mutación INDEL , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Nativa Americana/genética , Brasil/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Familia , Femenino , Marcadores Genéticos , Haplotipos , Humanos , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Tasa de Mutación , Paternidad
17.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 39: 66-72, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594063

RESUMEN

Most studies on maternal lineages of South America populations are restricted to control region (CR) markers and, for some geographical regions, the number of studied samples does not adequately represent the existing diversity. This is the case of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies on Paraguay that are limited to two Native ethnic groups. To overcome this deficiency, we analysed the mitogenomes from 105 individuals living in Alto Paraná, the second most populated department of the country. Using the Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel, the molecule was sequenced on Ion S5. The majority of the haplotypes belong to the Native American lineages A, B, C and D. Analyses of maximum parsimony using mitogenome data retrieved from publications and in The 1000 Genomes Project showed a high number of new native American subclades in Paraguay. Also, none of the haplotypes found in Alto Paraná match the remaining South American samples, which include admixed populations from Colombia, Peru and Ecuador, and natives from Colombia and Ecuador. FST genetic distance analysis showed that the native genetic background of Alto Paraná has an intermediate position between the Amazonian groups and the admixed populations from Peru and Ecuador, supporting the theory about the Amazonian origin of the Tupi-Guarani and, at the same time, showing the influence of other linguistic groups.


Asunto(s)
ADN Mitocondrial , Genética de Población , Genoma Mitocondrial , Herencia Materna , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Femenino , Variación Genética , Haplotipos , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , América del Sur
18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5388, 2018 12 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568240

RESUMEN

Historical records and genetic analyses indicate that Latin Americans trace their ancestry mainly to the intermixing (admixture) of Native Americans, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. Using novel haplotype-based methods, here we infer sub-continental ancestry in over 6,500 Latin Americans and evaluate the impact of regional ancestry variation on physical appearance. We find that Native American ancestry components in Latin Americans correspond geographically to the present-day genetic structure of Native groups, and that sources of non-Native ancestry, and admixture timings, match documented migratory flows. We also detect South/East Mediterranean ancestry across Latin America, probably stemming mostly from the clandestine colonial migration of Christian converts of non-European origin (Conversos). Furthermore, we find that ancestry related to highland (Central Andean) versus lowland (Mapuche) Natives is associated with variation in facial features, particularly nose morphology, and detect significant differences in allele frequencies between these groups at loci previously associated with nose morphology in this sample.


Asunto(s)
Migración Humana , Indios Norteamericanos/genética , Indios Sudamericanos/genética , Haplotipos , Humanos , México , Nariz/anatomía & histología , América del Sur
19.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207130, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439976

RESUMEN

The valley of the Magdalena River is one of the main population pathways in Colombia. The gene pool and spatial configuration of human groups in this territory have been outlined throughout three historical stages: the Native pre-Hispanic world, Spanish colonization, and XIX century migrations. This research was designed with the goal of characterizing the diversity and distribution pattern of Y-chromosome lineages that are currently present in the Tolima and Huila departments (middle Magdalena River region). Historic cartography was used to identify the main geographic sites where the paternal lineages belonging to this area have gathered. Twelve municipalities were chosen, and a survey that included genealogical information was administered. Samples collected from 83 male volunteers were analyzed for 48 Y-SNPs and 17 Y-STRs. The results showed a highly diverse region characterized by the presence of 16 sublineages within the major clades R, Q, J, G, T and E and revealed that 93% (n = 77) of haplotypes were different. Among these haplogroups, European-specific R1b-M269 lineages were the most representative (57.83%), with six different subhaplogroups and 43 unique haplotypes. Native American paternal ancestry was also detected based on the presence of the Q1a2-M3*(xM19, M194, M199) and Q1a2-M346*(xM3) lineages. Interestingly, all Q1a2-M346*(xM3) samples (n = 7, with five different haplotypes) carried allele six at the DYS391 locus. This allele has a worldwide frequency of 0.169% and was recently associated with a new Native subhaplogroup. An in-depth phylogenetic analysis of these samples suggests the Tolima and Huila region to be the principal area in all Central and South America where this particular Native lineage is found. This lineage has been present in the region for at least 1,809 (+/- 0,5345) years.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos Y , Migración Humana , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Colombia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Frecuencia de los Genes , Haplotipos , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos/genética , Masculino , Filogeografía , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Bosque Lluvioso , Ríos
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