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1.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 263-271, 2019 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521862

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The working alliance plays an essential role in the treatment of patients with different diseases. However, this variable has received little attention in patients with bipolar disorder. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to examine the working alliance's influence on these patients' treatment outcomes, analyze its role in the adherence to pharmacotherapy, and identify the variables that are related to a good working alliance. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched until January 5, 2018 using a predetermined search strategy. Then, a formal process of study selection and data extraction was conducted. RESULTS: Seven articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and they included a total of 3,985 patients with bipolar disorder type I and II. Although the working alliance's ability to predict the duration and presence of manic and depressive symptoms is unclear, a good working alliance facilitates the adherence to pharmacological treatment. In addition, good social support for patients is associated with a strong working alliance. LIMITATIONS: The selected studies used different definitions and measures of the working alliance and adherence, and most used self-reports to assess the working alliance. Furthermore, the relationships found among the variables were correlational. CONCLUSIONS: The working alliance can play an important role in adjunctive psychological therapies and in pharmacological and somatic treatments for patients with bipolar disorder. However, the number of studies on working alliance in bipolar disorder is rather limited and there is methodological heterogeneity between the studies.

2.
J Psychosom Res ; 124: 109780, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443809

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare quality of life (QoL), anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption and other correlates between patients with psoriasis and controls; and to identify features of psoriasis associated with lower levels of QoL. METHOD: Case-control study including 70 subjects with moderate-severe psoriasis and 140 controls without psoriasis. All participants answered the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), with physical and mental component scores of quality of life, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Among subjects with psoriasis, the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were used, respectively, to measure the severity of psoriasis and the impact of psoriasis on the specific quality of life. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with psoriasis showed higher HADS depression score and alcohol consumption, and lower QoL. Among subjects with psoriasis, multivariate analysis showed: 1) poorer physical QoL was associated with older age, articular lesions and anxious symptoms, whereas poorer mental QoL was associated with younger age, female sex, genital lesions and depressive symptoms; 2) the higher the severity of psoriasis, the lower the level of QoL and the higher the levels of anxious or depressive symptoms; and 3) female sex and articular or genital location of lesions are linked with higher HADS scores. CONCLUSION: Higher scores in anxiety and depression and lower QoL is common in psoriasis, especially among women and those with genital or articular lesions. Dermatologists should give special attention to this subgroup of persons with psoriasis in order to prevent future psychopathology.

3.
Eur Addict Res ; 25(5): 256-262, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163435

RESUMEN

AIMS: Smoking cessation in subjects with a severe mental illness (SMI) is a challenging but attainable goal. Furthermore, the identification of variables involved in the quitting process is a highly relevant factor in clinical practice. This study aimed to analyze the influence of smokers' motivation in smoking reduction and cessation and select the most suitable way of measuring motivation. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a 9-month, multicenter trial examining a Multicomponent Smoking Cessation Program in 82 adult outpatients with SMI. At the end of the preparation stage, the smokers' motivational level was evaluated with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale. This allowed us to rate subjects using a continuous measure ("Readiness to Change," RTC) and group them in "Stages of Change" (SOC). Regression analyses were carried out to identify predictors of the efficacy outcomes: a reduction in at least 50% of the cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), a reduction in the expired carbon monoxide (CO), and complete abstinence from smoking. RESULTS: We studied differences in measurements of motivational levels independently (RTC and SOC) for patients who had a reduction in at least 50% of the CPD and for patients who achieved complete abstinence from smoking. However, these differences did not reach statistical significance during the follow-up study with a logistic mixed-effects model. In a linear mixed-effects model, the reduction of expired CO was significantly associated with RTC, at the end of the active treatment phase and during follow-up (ß: -1.51; SD 0.82; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The motivation level achieved in the preparation phase predicted the reduction of expired CO over a given period when calculated by a continuous measure (RTC).

4.
J Affect Disord ; 249: 199-207, 2019 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego (TEMPS-A) is a self-administered questionnaire intended to assess five affective temperaments: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. Our objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the TEMPS-A using a sample comprised by patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls (HC) and to determine cut-off scores for each temperament. METHODS: Five hundred and ninety-eight individuals (327 BD and 271 HC) completed the TEMPS-A. Cronbach's alpha was used to examine internal consistency reliability. Test-retest reliability and association between different temperamental scales were assessed using Spearman correlation. To confirm factor structure a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out. Cut-off scores indicating the presence of dominant temperament were also calculated. RESULTS: Internal consistency was optimal for all temperament subscales (α: 0.682- 0.893). The questionnaire demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ρ: 0.594-0.754). The strongest positive associations were found between cyclothymic and anxious and between depressive and anxious temperaments. Hyperthymic and depressive as well as hyperthymic and anxious temperaments showed a strong negative correlation. LIMITATIONS: The HC sample was not matched with the BD group. There were some sociodemographic and clinical differences between groups that may impact on the obtained results. A portion of patients with BD was recruited from tertiary centers. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish version of the Barcelona TEMPS-A questionnaire presents a good internal consistency and their results are stable in clinical population. The performance of the Barcelona TEMPS-A is as good as the original scale.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Temperamento/clasificación , Adulto , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Humor/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Humor/psicología , Inventario de Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España , Traducciones
6.
Trials ; 20(1): 47, 2019 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642365

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of premature death in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disease are leading causes of increased mortality rates in these patients, and tobacco consumption remains the most preventable risk factor involved. Developing new tools to motivate patients towards cessation of smoking is a high priority. Information on the motivational value of giving the lung age and prevention opportunities is unknown in this high-risk population. METHODS/DESIGN: This article describes in detail a protocol developed to evaluate an intensive motivational tool, based on the individual risks of pulmonary damage and prevention opportunities. It is designed as a randomized, 12-month, follow-up, multicenter study. A minimum of 204 smokers will be included, aged 40 years and older, all of whom are patients diagnosed with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will be evaluated using spirometry, and the diagnosis will then be validated by a pneumologist and the lung age estimated. Based on this value, a motivational message about prevention will be issued for the intervention group, which will be reinforced by individualized text messages over a period of 3 months. The efficacy of the method and the pulmonary damage variables will be evaluated: smoking cessation at the end of follow-up will be confirmed by cooximetry, and the COPD diagnosis and the severity of the staging for disease will be assessed. DISCUSSION: In the context of community care, screening and early detection of lung damage could potentially be used, together with mobile technology, in order to produce a prevention message, which may provide patients with SMI with a better chance of quitting smoking. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03583203 . Registered on 11 July 2018. Trial status: recruitment.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/terapia , Esquizofrenia , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/psicología , Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Motivación , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Estudios Prospectivos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/psicología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Fumar/efectos adversos , España , Mensaje de Texto , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 182-189, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583261

RESUMEN

Studies on disordered eating behaviors (DEB) in multicultural populations with multiple religious/cultural affiliations are needed in order to clarify the relationship between cultural background and DEB. Therefore, we compared the presence of DEB among Christian and Muslim adolescents who share their school environment, controlling for the effect of body mass index, demographic variables and lifestyle habits. A sample of 493 girls and boys (339 Christian, 138 Muslim) whose mean (±SD) age was 14.8 (±1.7) years completed self-reporting questionnaires and underwent measurements of anthropometric data. Religious/cultural affiliation was defined by self-identification. The dependent variable, DEB was assessed by means of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). Muslim girls and boys score higher than Christians on EDI-2 total scores, especially on the perfectionism subscale. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the characteristics associated with DEB, which were detected in 24% of participants (19% of Christians and in 35% of Muslims). Among girls, DEB were directly associated with overweight or obesity, the presence of frequent quarrels with parents, academic failure and spending more than 3 h a day watching screen images. Among boys, DEB were directly associated with overweight or obesity and Muslim background; and inversely associated with age and socioeconomic status.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/etnología , Cristianismo/psicología , Cultura , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/etnología , Islamismo/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Factores de Edad , Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Conducta Alimentaria/etnología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidad/etnología , Obesidad/psicología , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Clase Social , España
8.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 31(2): 136-146, 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2201

RESUMEN

El consumo de tabaco es el principal factor prevenible de mortalidad en pacientes con trastorno bipolar (TB), y las posibles soluciones se encuentran bloqueadas por prejuicios acerca del deseo, posibilidades y riesgos al dejar el consumo de tabaco en estos pacientes. En 8 Centros de Salud Mental se reclutaron consecutivamente pacientes con TB. Los fumadores fueron evaluados antes y después de una intervención breve basada en las 3 As y clasificados según los "estadios de cambio" (EC) y su "disposición para el cambio" (DC). Mediante una regresión lineal múltiple se analizó la evolución del DC y su efecto sobre otras variables independientes (tratamiento farmacológico, historias de síntomas psicóticos, presencia de síntomas de ansiedad, deseo de abandono, capacidad auto-percibida y la percepción subjetiva de funcionamiento cognitivo). Se incluyeron 212 pacientes con TB estabilizados, los fumadores activos (n = 101; 47.6%) pasaron a la fase de intervención, y un 80.2% la completaron. Basalmente, 75.2% consideraban la idea de dejar de fumar, después de la intervención breve, el 30.9% de los pacientes progresó en su EC. Se observó un incremento significativo del nivel de DC (53.3 vs 59.3, P = 0.019). La autopercepción del rendimiento cognitivo (β = -0.35;P = 0.002), el deseo de abandono (β = 0.32;P = 0.008), la autopercepción de la capacidad para dejar de fumar (β = -0.30;P = 0.012), la edad del paciente (β = -0.72;P = 0.004), la edad de inicio del tabaquismo (β = 0.48;P = 0.022) y los años fumando (β = 0.48;P = 0.025) fueron los factores que influyeron significativamente en la posibilidad de cambio tras la intervención breve. Los fumadores con TB consideran la idea de dejar de fumar y una intervención breve desarrollada en el marco de la atención a la salud mental diaria, mejoraría el nivel de preparación. La disfunción neurocognitiva asociada con el TB podría limitar la disposición de los pacientes a dejar de fumar


Tobacco consumption is the main preventable factor of mortality in smokers with bipolar disorder (BD), and any possible solutions are often blocked by prejudices over desire, and the possibilities and risks for these patients in giving up tobacco consumption. Adults with BD were recruited at 8 Mental Health Centres. Smokers were evaluated before and after a brief intervention based on the 3 A's and classified into a 'Stage of Change' (SOC) and their 'Readiness to Change' (RTC). A multiple linear regression was used to analyze the progression in their RTC and the independent effect of different variables (pharmacological treatment, history of psychotic symptoms, current anxiety symptoms, willingness, self-perceived capacity to quit smoking and subjective perception of cognitive functioning). Of 212 stable patients diagnosed with BD, current smokers (n = 101; 47.6%) were included in the intervention phase, and 80.2% completed it. At baseline, 75.2% were considering the idea of giving up smoking and, after the brief intervention, 30.9% of the patients progressed in their SOC. A significant increase in the level of RTC was observed (53.3 vs 59.3, P = 0.019). Perception of cognitive performance (β = - 0.35;P = 0.002), the degree of willing to quit (β = 0.32;P = 0.008), selfperceived capacity to quit tobacco smoking (β = -0.30; P = 0.012), the patient's age (β = -0.72; P= 0.004), the age of onset of smoking (β = 0.48;P = 0.022) and years as a smoker (β = 0.48;P = 0.025) were all factors that significantly influenced the chances of improving after the short intervention. Smokers with BD consider the idea of quitting and a brief intervention developed in the every day mental health care setting improves the level of readiness. The neurocognitive dysfunction associated with BD may limit patients' readiness to quit smoking

9.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 25(3): 89-95, sept.-dic. 2018.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-175113

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Revisión de la evidencia científica sobre el manejo clínico del aripiprazol. Metodología: Un panel de expertos formado por 7 miembros discutió una serie de casos clínicos. Cuando se llegó a un consenso, sacaron sus conclusiones. Además, se revisaron e incluyeron los datos y la evidencia clínica de los ensayos clínicos de aripiprazol más relevantes de los últimos 10años. Resultados: El aripiprazol por vía oral es eficaz para el tratamiento de los pacientes con esquizofrenia y trastorno bipolar, tanto en la fase aguda como en la fase de mantenimiento. También demostró ser eficaz para evitar las recaídas. La administración intramuscular es útil en el manejo de la agitación en esos pacientes. La presentación inyectable de liberación prolongada ha tenido resultados positivos en el retraso de la recaída en pacientes esquizofrénicos y bipolares, y mejora el cumplimiento del tratamiento. El aripiprazol es un fármaco bien tolerado y los efectos adversos, como somnolencia, aumento de peso, trastornos metabólicos o eventos cardiovasculares, son menos frecuentes que para otros fármacos antipsicóticos. El aripiprazol ha sido bien tolerado cuando se usa en combinación con otros antipsicóticos, debido a sus interacciones limitadas. Conclusiones: Los datos de los estudios revisados y el consenso del panel de expertos mostraron que el aripiprazol es un tratamiento efectivo y bien tolerado para los pacientes con esquizofrenia, trastorno esquizoafectivo, trastorno bipolar moderado a grave y episodios maníacos. Su uso también conduce a una mejor adherencia. La menor frecuencia de sedación y el hecho de que no afecte a la función cognitiva del paciente mejoran la adherencia y colocan al aripiprazol en una buena posición como opción terapéutica


Objective: To review the scientific evidence on the clinical management of aripiprazole. Methodology: A seven-member expert panel discussed a series of clinical cases. When a consensus was reached, they drew their conclusion. They also reviewed, and included data and clinical evidence from the most relevant aripiprazole clinical trials from the last 10years. Results: Oral aripiprazole is effective for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, both in the acute and maintenance phase. It was also shown to be effective to prevent relapses. Intramuscular administration is useful in the management of agitation in these patients. The presentation of prolonged action has had positive results in the delay of a relapse in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, and improves treatment compliance. Aripiprazole is a well-tolerated drug and the secondary effects, such as drowsiness, increase in weight, metabolic disorders, or cardiovascular events are less common than in other antipsychotic drugs. Aripiprazole has been well-tolerated when it was used in combination with other antipsychotic drugs, due to their limited interaction. Conclusions: The data from the reviews studied and the consensus of the Expert Panel showed that Aripiprazole is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorders, moderate to severe bipolar disorder, and manic episodes. Its use leads to improved adherence. The lower sedation frequency and the fact that it does affect the cognitive function of the patient improves adherence and places aripiprazole in a good position as a therapeutic option


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Aripiprazol/administración & dosificación , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Bipolar/tratamiento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Conferencias de Consenso como Asunto , Recurrencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Adicciones ; 0(0): 1006, 2018 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059580

RESUMEN

Tobacco consumption is the main preventable factor of mortality in smokers with bipolar disorder (BD), and any possible solutions are often blocked by prejudices over desire, and the possibilities and risks for these patients in giving up tobacco consumption. Adults with BD were recruited at 8 Mental Health Centres. Smokers were evaluated before and after a brief intervention based on the 3 A's and classified into a 'Stage of Change' (SOC) and their 'Readiness to Change' (RTC). A multiple linear regression was used to analyze the progression in their RTC and the independent effect of different variables (pharmacological treatment, history of psychotic symptoms, current anxiety symptoms, willingness, self-perceived capacity to quit smoking and subjective perception of cognitive functioning). Of 212 stable patients diagnosed with BD, current smokers (n=101; 47.6%) were included in the intervention phase, and 80.2% completed it. At baseline, 75.2% were considering the idea of giving up smoking and, after the brief intervention, 30.9% of the patients progressed in their SOC. A significant increase in the level of RTC was observed (53.3 vs 59.3, P=0.019). Perception of cognitive performance (ß=-0.35;P=0.002), the degree of willing to quit (ß=0.32;P=0.008), self-perceived capacity to quit tobacco smoking (ß=-0.30;P=0.012), the patient's age (ß=-0.72;P=0.004), the age of onset of smoking (ß=0.48;P=0.022) and years as a smoker (ß=0.48;P=0.025) were all factors that significantly influenced the chances of improving after the short intervention. Smokers with BD consider the idea of quitting and a brief intervention developed in the every day mental health care setting improves the level of readiness. The neurocognitive dysfunction associated with BD may limit patients' readiness to quit smoking.

12.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954707

RESUMEN

Antipsychotics are an essential component in the treatment of schizophrenia. Long-acting injectable formulations (LAI) arose to improve adherence with the associated potential of reducing the risk of relapse. The objective of this article is to analyze the use of LAI antipsychotics in Spain, which is similar to other European countries but with a predominance of the use of second generation LAI, to discuss the possible causes of prescribing differences with respect to other countries (including organizational aspects, attitudes of psychiatrists, patients and family members, and clinical practice guidelines), and to discuss their use in acute psychiatric units, first episode, and in children and adolescents. In our view, while it is necessary to increase existing evidence regarding the advantages of LAI antipsychotics and the differentiation between LAI antipsychotics currently available, their use will likely continue to grow driven by clinical experience.

14.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818612

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Current classification of bipolar disorder (BD) in type i or type ii, however useful, may be insufficient to provide relevant clinical information in some patients. As a result, complementary classifications are being proposed, like the predominant polarity (PP) based, which is defined as a clear tendency in the patient to present relapses in the manic or depressive poles. METHODS: We carried out a search in PubMed and Web of Science databases, following the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses -PRISMA- guidelines, to identify studies about BD reporting PP. The search is updated to June 2016. RESULTS: Initial search revealed 907 articles, of which 16 met inclusion criteria. Manic PP was found to be associated with manic onset, drug consumption prior to onset and a better response to atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Depressive PP showed an association with depressive onset, more relapses, prolonged acute episodes, a greater suicide risk and a later diagnosis of BD. Depressive PP was also associated with anxiety disorders, mixed symptoms, melancholic symptoms and a wider use of quetiapine and lamotrigine. LIMITATIONS: Few prospective studies. Variability in some results. CONCLUSION: PP may be useful as a supplement to current BD classifications. We have found consistent data on a great number of studies, but there is also contradictory information regarding PP. Further studies are needed, ideally of a prospective design and with a unified methodology.

15.
Ther Adv Psychopharmacol ; 7(4): 137-140, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28540033

RESUMEN

The rapidly-acting antidepressant properties of ketamine are a trend topic in psychiatry. Despite its robust effects, these are ephemeral and can lead to certain adverse events. For this reason, there is still a general concern around the off-label use of ketamine in clinical practice settings. Nonetheless, for refractory depression, it should be an indication to consider. We report the case of a female patient admitted for several months due to a treatment-resistant depressive bipolar episode with chronic suicidal behaviour. After repeated intravenous ketamine infusions without remarkable side effects, the patient experienced a complete clinical recovery during the 4 weeks following hospital discharge. Unfortunately, depressive symptoms reappeared in the 5th week, and the patient was finally readmitted to hospital as a result of a suicide attempt.

16.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 45(2): 71-78, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-161751

RESUMEN

La infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) puede dar lugar a alteraciones neuropsiquiátricas tales como déficits cognitivos, alteraciones comportamentales o sintomatología psiquiátrica como manía o psicosis secundaria. La evolución y curso pronóstico de los individuos con VIH que presentan comorbilidad psiquiátrica dependerá en gran medida de que se ofrezca un tratamiento adecuado que incluya, por una parte, tratamiento del factor etiológico (VIH) y, por otra, tratamiento de los síntomas psíquicos en cuestión. A partir de la presentación del caso clínico de una paciente con encefalitis en el contexto de una infección por VIH no conocida, que debuta con sintomatología psicótica en forma de trastorno por ideas delirantes de tipo somático, ofrecemos una revisión acerca del manejo de la psicosis en pacientes VIH. Dicha revisión se centra en la epidemiología, etiopatogenia y presentación clínica de la psicosis asociada al VIH así como en el manejo farmacológico recomendado (antirretroviral y antipsicótico) y su particular respuesta al mismo. Ofrecemos al mismo tiempo amplia información acerca de las principales interacciones entre los fármacos antipsicóticos y antirretrovirales que otorgarán al clínico un manejo más adecuado de dichos pacientes (AU)


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can cause neuropsychiatric disorders such as cognitive impairment, behavioural difficulties or psychiatric symptoms –for instance, mania and psychosis. HIV patients with psychiatric comorbidities need an appropriate treatment which tackles the HIV infection as much as the particular mental symptoms. Here we present the case of a patient suffering from delusions, which turned out to be caused by encephalitis secondary to a previously unknown HIV infection. A review of psychosis in HIV-infected patients is also presented. This review is focused on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HIV-induced psychosis, as well as the recommended pharmacological treatment (antiretroviral therapy and antipsychotic medication) and the expected treatment response. We also present wide information concerning pharmacological interactions between antiretroviral and antipsychotic medications that we hope will help the clinician to better manage this complex condition (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Psicóticos/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Interacciones de Drogas , Inhibidores de Proteasas/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo
17.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 45(2): 71-78, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28353292

RESUMEN

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can cause neuropsychiatric disorders such as cognitive impairment, behavioural difficulties or psychiatric symptoms –for instance, mania and psychosis. HIV patients with psychiatric comorbidities need an appropriate treatment which tackles the HIV infection as much as the particular mental symptoms. Here we present the case of a patient suffering from delusions, which turned out to be caused by encephalitis secondary to a previously unknown HIV infection. A review of psychosis in HIV-infected patients is also presented. This review is focused on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HIV-induced psychosis, as well as the recommended pharmacological treatment (antiretroviral therapy and antipsychotic medication) and the expected treatment response. We also present wide information concerning pharmacological interactions between antiretroviral and antipsychotic medications that we hope will help the clinician to better manage this complex condition.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Trastornos Psicóticos/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Psicóticos/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment ; 10(1): 45-58, ene.-mar. 2017. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-160229

RESUMEN

Se revisan sistemáticamente los factores asociados a la presencia de malestar psicológico o trastornos mentales comunes en poblaciones migrantes. Se revisaron los artículos publicados entre enero de 2000 y diciembre de 2014, de los que se seleccionaron 85 que aplicaban análisis estadísticos multivariantes. Los trastornos mentales comunes se asociaban significativamente a características sociodemográficas y psicológicas, lo mismo que se observa en grandes estudios epidemiológicos de poblaciones generales. La probabilidad de trastornos mentales comunes aumentó significativamente entre grupos de migrantes, además de por la región de origen, por los siguientes factores: sucesos traumáticos previos; migración forzosa, escasamente planificada o ilegal; bajo nivel de aculturación, vivir solo o separado de la familia en el nuevo país, falta de apoyo social, discriminación percibida y tiempo transcurrido en el nuevo país. Para diseñar estrategias preventivas se ha de tener en cuenta los factores asociados al riesgo de morbilidad psiquiátrica en poblaciones migrantes (AU)


We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants’ residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Aculturación/historia , Salud Mental/normas , Salud Mental/tendencias , Servicios de Salud Mental/economía , Servicios de Salud Mental/tendencias , Apoyo Social
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 250: 264-269, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183022

RESUMEN

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Nicotine dependence (ND) often co-occur. However, little attention has been given to the temporal order between the two disorders. We compared the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals whose onset of ND preceded (ND-prior) or followed the onset of MDD (MDD-prior). Binary logistic regression models were computed to compare ND-prior (n=546) and MDD-prior (n=801) individuals from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n=43,093). We found that MDD-prior were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts and a family history of both depression and antisocial behavior, to have had psychiatric hospitalization, and to have an earlier age of onset of the first depressive episode; but a later age of onset for both daily smoking and ND. On average, MDD-prior individuals showed a significantly longer transition time from daily smoking to ND (15.6±0.6 vs. 6.9±0.4 years, P<0.001). In contrast, ND-prior subjects had a significantly greater proportion of withdrawal symptoms, and of lifetime alcohol use or alcohol use disorder. We conclude that the phenomenology and course of ND and MDD vary significantly, depending on which disorder had earlier onset.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/tendencias , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Personalidad/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Fumar/tendencias , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Factores de Tiempo , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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