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1.
J Adolesc Health ; 2022 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550333

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Liberalization of cannabis laws may be accompanied by changes in the use of substances other than cannabis and changes in associations of cannabis use with other types of substance use. This study assessed (1) trends in alcohol, nicotine, and nonprescribed pain reliever use and (2) changes in associations of cannabis use with these other substances among young adults in Washington State after nonmedical cannabis legalization. METHODS: Regression models stratified by age (18-20 vs. 21-25) were used to analyze six annual waves of cross-sectional survey data from a statewide sample from 2014 through 2019 (N = 12,694). RESULTS: Prevalence of past-month alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and cigarette use and prevalence of past-year pain reliever misuse decreased, while the prevalence of past-month e-cigarette use increased since 2016 (the first year assessed). Across years and age groups, the prevalence of substance use other than cannabis was higher among occasional and frequent cannabis users compared to cannabis nonusers. However, associations between both occasional (1-19 days in the prior month) and frequent (20+ days) cannabis use and pain reliever misuse and between frequent cannabis use and HED weakened over time among individuals ages 21-25. DISCUSSION: Contrary to concerns about spillover effects, implementation of legalized nonmedical cannabis coincided with decreases in alcohol and cigarette use and pain reliever misuse. The weakening association of cannabis use with the use of other substances among individuals ages 21-25 requires further research but may suggest increased importance of cannabis-specific prevention and treatment efforts.

2.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523927

RESUMEN

Neighborhood disadvantage is a developmental context that may contribute to Asian American adolescent internalizing problems, yet there is a dearth of longitudinal studies as well as examination of cultural protective factors. Co-ethnic density, or the proportion of individuals of the same racial/ethnic background in the neighborhood that is often cited as a protective factor for racial/ethnic minority groups, has not been adequately examined in Asian American youth. This study examined the longitudinal association between cumulative neighborhood risk and internalizing behavior, and the moderating role of sex and co-ethnic density using an Asian American subsample (N = 177; 45.2% female; ages 10-12, 14-15; Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Samoan, Vietnamese, and other ethnic backgrounds) of a longitudinal panel study over a span of 6 years. Cumulative neighborhood risk during early adolescence (ages 10-14) was significantly associated with internalizing behavior at mid-adolescence (age 15) controlling for prior levels of internalizing behavior. There was no evidence of moderation by co-ethnic density or sex, indicating that reducing neighborhood disadvantage may be a promising preventive measure to address mental health problems for both sexes of Asian American adolescents.

3.
Health Place ; 75: 102795, 2022 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344691

RESUMEN

Youth cannabis use is influenced by overlapping environmental contexts. We examined the associations between proximity to cannabis retailers and seeing cannabis advertisements and cannabis use behaviors in Oregon, a state with adult cannabis legalization. We used 2017 anonymous survey data from 24,154 Oregon 8th and 11th grade students. After adjustments for student and school district characteristics, advertising for 8th graders and presence of a retailer within a mile from school for 11th graders were associated with cannabis use and perceived harm. Additional policy efforts may further reduce youth exposure to cannabis.

4.
Am J Public Health ; 112(4): 638-645, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319936

RESUMEN

Objectives. To examine changes in prevalence of cannabis use and of cannabis use disorder symptomatology among young adults from 2014 to 2019 in Washington State, where nonmedical (or "recreational") cannabis was legalized in 2012 and retail stores opened in July 2014. Methods. We used 6 years of cross-sectional data collected annually from 2014 (premarket opening) to 2019 from 12 963 (∼2000 per year) young adults aged 18 to 25 years residing in Washington. Logistic regression models estimated yearly change in prevalence of cannabis use at different margins and related outcomes. Results. Prevalence of past-year, at least monthly, at least weekly, and daily use of cannabis increased for young adults, although increases were driven by changes among those aged 21 to 25 years. There was also a statistically significant increase in prevalence of endorsing at least 2 of 5 possible symptoms associated with cannabis use disorder. Conclusions. Among young adults in Washington, particularly those of legal age, prevalences of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder symptomatology have increased since legalization. This trend may require continued monitoring as the nonmedical cannabis market continues to evolve. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(4):638-645. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306641).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Uso de la Marihuana , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Washingtón/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 232: 109332, 2022 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123361

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study examined associations of local cannabis retail outlet availability and neighborhood disadvantage with cannabis use and related risk factors among young adults. METHODS: Data were from annual cross-sectional surveys administered from 2015 to 2019 to individuals ages 18-25 residing in Washington State (N = 10,009). As outcomes, this study assessed self-reported cannabis use at different margins/frequencies (any past year, at least monthly, at least weekly, at least daily) and perceived ease of access to cannabis and acceptability of cannabis use in the community. Cannabis retail outlet availability was defined as the presence of at least one retail outlet within a 1-kilometer road network buffer of one's residence. Sensitivity analyses explored four other spatial metrics to define outlet availability (any outlet within 0.5-km, 2-km, and the census tract; and census tract density per 1000 residents). Census tract level disadvantage was a composite of five US census variables. RESULTS: Adjusting for individual- and area-level covariates, living within 1-kilometer of at least one cannabis retail outlet was statistically significantly associated with any past year and at least monthly cannabis use as well as high perceived access to cannabis. Results using a 2-km buffer and census tract-level metrics for retail outlet availability showed similar findings. Neighborhood disadvantage was statistically significantly associated with at least weekly and at least daily cannabis use and with greater perceived acceptability of cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS: Results may have implications for regulatory and prevention strategies to reduce the population burden of cannabis use and related harms.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Adolescente , Adulto , Comercio , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Características de la Residencia , Factores de Riesgo , Washingtón/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107118, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583272

RESUMEN

Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) such that their effects overlap has emerged as a behavior that is riskier than using either substance separately. It has been associated with high-risk binge drinking and driving while intoxicated during young adulthood, and it has been demonstrated to cause greater physical and mental impairment than use of alcohol or marijuana separately. To identify intervention and prevention targets specific to SAM, we examined the relationships between alcohol- and marijuana-specific beliefs and attitudes (risk factors) and self-reported SAM compared to non-simultaneous co-use (CAM) and alcohol use only in the past 30 days in a sample of young adults (n = 1,023, mean age = 23.17; SD = 0.43). Of those who reported drinking alcohol in the past 30 days, 20.7% reported SAM, 12.6% reported CAM, and 66.6% reported using only alcohol. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that some marijuana-specific risk factors (e.g., belief that it is not at all wrong for someone their age to use marijuana) differentiated SAM or CAM from alcohol use only, but alcohol-specific risk factors generally did not. However, the perceptions that parents approved of their using marijuana or frequently drinking heavily were associated with a greater likelihood of SAM compared to CAM (OR ranged from 2.25 to 3.53). Findings point to the salience of individuals' attitudes and beliefs around marijuana use and their perception of parental approval of heavy drinking and marijuana use as potential targets for prevention programs targeting risk reduction among young adults.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etanol , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107079, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) may be linked to both short- and longer-term problems for young adults. Across two years of longitudinal data, we examined between- and monthly within-person associations of alcohol and marijuana use patterns, including SAM, with negative alcohol-related consequences, depressive symptoms, and general health. METHODS: 773 young adults (aged 18-23 at screening; 56% women) who used alcohol in the year prior to study enrollment were surveyed monthly for 24 months. Multilevel models assessed associations of alcohol and marijuana use patterns with outcomes. RESULTS: Individuals who reported a higher proportion of SAM months had more negative alcohol-related consequences (Rate Ratio [RR] = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17,1.89). At the within-person level, participants experienced more alcohol-related consequences on months when SAM was reported compared to months of alcohol-only (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10,1.25) and months of concurrent alcohol and marijuana use without simultaneous use (CAM; RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.11,1.29). Compared to alcohol-only, SAM was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer general health at the between-person level and with more depressive symptoms at the monthly within-person level; however, SAM did not differ substantially from using neither alcohol nor marijuana or CAM for these outcomes at either the between- or within-person level. CONCLUSIONS: SAM use may indicate risk for negative alcohol-related consequences, both within months of SAM use and across more extended time periods. Individuals who engage in SAM may experience worse mental and physical health than individuals who use alcohol exclusively.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Adulto Joven
8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(7): 1458-1467, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the nature of the association between cannabis and alcohol use within individuals over time in the era of legalized cannabis is of crucial importance for assessing the public health consequences of increasing cannabis use. An important unanswered question is whether cannabis and alcohol use substitute for one another. Specifically, is greater use of one substance associated with less use of the other substance (i.e., a negative association) or are the substances complementary and their association positive? METHODS: We used 24 consecutive months of data on a young adult sample (n = 774; 56% female, age 18-25 during the study) who drank alcohol in the year prior to enrollment. The sample was recruited in Washington State in 2015/2016 (after legalization of nonmedical cannabis) using media advertisements and community flyers and outreach. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we assessed three types of association between cannabis and alcohol use across the 24-month period: (1) an association between average levels of cannabis and alcohol use; (2) an association between rates of change in cannabis and alcohol use; and (3) correlations between shorter-term deviations/fluctuations off of longer-term trajectories of level and change in cannabis and alcohol use. RESULTS: We found a positive association between the average frequency of cannabis and alcohol use; individuals who used cannabis more frequently on average also drank alcohol more frequently on average. Change over time in cannabis use was positively associated with change in alcohol use. There was also a contemporaneous positive association between fluctuations in cannabis and alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found no evidence of substitution. Rather, the results suggest a complementary relationship between cannabis and alcohol use, such that the use of cannabis and alcohol rises and falls together.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Cannabis , Femenino , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Washingtón/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Health Promot Int ; 36(2): 417-429, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830230

RESUMEN

Many effective community health service delivery systems implemented in the USA assess risk and protective factors (RPFs) for youth problem behaviors in a community, and report these data back to local coalitions for prevention planning. This study examined whether community prevention coalitions in Chile and Colombia perceived these reports of RPFs-based on the results of the Communities That Care Youth Survey-to be understandable, valid, useful, and worth disseminating. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data collected from 7 focus groups with 75 coalition members. Results indicated heterogeneity between and within coalitions in terms of participants' understanding of RPFs. However, most participants found reports of RPFs to be easy to understand, thorough, 'true' to their communities, and useful for diagnosing and prioritizing needs, action planning, and mobilizing others in their communities. Findings suggest the viability of preventive systems that rely on community-level RPF data, for use in Latin America.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Factores Protectores , Adolescente , Chile , Colombia , Humanos , Medicina Preventiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Prev Sci ; 21(4): 508-518, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853720

RESUMEN

This study examined associations of neighborhood structural factors (census-based measures, socioeconomic disadvantage, and residential stability); self-reported measures of general and substance use-specific risk factors across neighborhood, school, peer, and family domains; and sociodemographic factors with substance use among 9th grade students. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate associations between risk factors and past month cigarette smoking, binge drinking, marijuana use, and polysubstance use among students (N = 766). Results of logistic regression models adjusting for neighborhood clustering and including all domains of risk factors simultaneously indicated that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and polysubstance use, but not marijuana use. In fully controlled models, substance use-specific risk factors across neighborhood, school, peer, and family domains were also associated with increased likelihood of substance use and results differed by the outcome considered. Results highlight substance-specific risk factors as an intervention target for reducing youth substance use and suggest that further research is needed examining mechanisms linking neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and youth substance use.


Asunto(s)
Características de la Residencia , Asunción de Riesgos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Adolescente , Relaciones Familiares , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Influencia de los Compañeros , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme , Washingtón
13.
Prev Sci ; 20(2): 194-204, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633175

RESUMEN

Accurate estimates of substance use in the teenage years by race/ethnicity may help identify when to intervene to prevent long-term substance use disparities. We examined trends in past 30-day use of marijuana, cigarette, and alcohol among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders in Washington State, which passed a recreational marijuana law in 2012 and initiated retail marijuana sales in 2014. Data are from the 2004-2016 Washington Healthy Youth Surveys (n = 161,992). We used time series regression models to assess linear and quadratic trends in substance use for the full sample and stratified on race/ethnicity and grade level and examined relative differences in prevalence of use by race/ethnicity. In Washington, across all racial/ethnic groups, marijuana use peaked in 2012. Although there was not a significant overall change in marijuana use for the full sample across the study period, there was a statistically significant increase in use among 12th graders and a statistically significant decrease among 8th graders. Relative to Whites, Asians had a lower prevalence of marijuana use, whereas all other race/ethnicity groups had a higher prevalence of use. Prevalence of marijuana use is particularly high among American Indian/Alaska Native and Black youth and has increased most rapidly among 12th grade Hispanic/Latinx youth. There were large and statistically significant decreases in alcohol and cigarette use across the study period for the full sample, as well as for each race/ethnicity group. These findings highlight the need for continued monitoring of trends in use among these groups and potentially warrant consideration of selective interventions that specifically focus on students of color and that include developmentally-appropriate strategies relevant to each grade.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Fumar Marihuana/etnología , Fumar Marihuana/tendencias , Fumar Tabaco/etnología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/tendencias , Medio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Fumar Tabaco/tendencias , Washingtón/epidemiología
14.
Prev Sci ; 20(2): 235-245, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504048

RESUMEN

Permissive attitudes and norms about marijuana use and perceptions of low harm from use are considered risk factors for adolescent marijuana use. However, the relationship between risk and use may be reciprocal and vary across development and socializing domains. We examined the bidirectional relationships between marijuana-specific risk factors in individual, parent, peer, and community domains and adolescent marijuana use. Longitudinal data came from a sample of 2002 adolescents in 12 communities. Controlling for sociodemographic covariates and communities in which the individuals resided, autoregressive cross-lagged models examined predictive associations between the risk factors and marijuana use. After accounting for concurrent relationships between risk and use and stability in behavior over time, early adolescence and the transition to high school were particularly salient developmental time points. Specifically, higher risk in all four domains in grades 7 and 9 predicted greater use 1 year later. Moreover, youth's perception of lax community enforcement of laws regarding adolescent use at all time points predicted increases in marijuana use at the subsequent assessment, and perceived low harm from use was a risk factor that prospectively predicted more marijuana use at most of the time points. Finally, greater frequency of marijuana use predicted higher levels of risk factors at the next time point in most socializing domains throughout adolescence. Prevention programs should take into account developmental transitions, especially in early adolescence and during the transition to high school. They also should focus on the reciprocal relationships between use and risk across multiple socializing domains.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Grupo Paritario , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Social , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
J Couns Psychol ; 65(3): 324-333, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672082

RESUMEN

Sexual minority women (SMW) are at high risk of trauma exposure and, subsequently, the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors extended a theoretical model explaining the higher risk of mental disorders in minority populations to the maintenance and exacerbation of PTSD symptoms among young adult SMW specifically. This study used observational longitudinal data from a sample of 348 trauma-exposed 18- to 25-year-old individuals assigned female sex at birth who identified as either bisexual (60.1%) or lesbian (39.9%) and met screening criteria for PTSD. Participants identified as White (82.8%), Hispanic/Latina (12.4%), American Indian/Alaska Native (13.5%), Black/African American (13.8%), and/or Asian/Asian American (4.9%). The authors investigated whether distal stressors (i.e., criterion A traumatic events, daily experiences of heterosexism) produced proximal stressors (i.e., trauma-related cognitions, internalized heterosexism) that maintained or exacerbated PTSD symptoms. Findings indicated that daily heterosexism longitudinally predicted trauma-related cognitions (i.e., cognitions related to the self, world, and self-blame). Internalized heterosexism and cognitions about the self longitudinally predicted PTSD symptom severity. In addition, a significant indirect effect was identified between daily heterosexism and PTSD symptoms via self-related posttraumatic cognitions. These findings suggest that exposure to minority-specific distal stressors appears to promote nonminority-specific cognitive processes that, in turn, may maintain or exacerbate PTSD among young adult SMW exposed to trauma. Clinicians should consider addressing daily heterosexism in young adult SMW presenting with PTSD and evaluate how these experiences might promote clients' global, negative views regarding themselves. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Bisexualidad/psicología , Cognición , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognición/fisiología , Mecanismos de Defensa , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Am J Public Health ; 108(5): 659-665, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565666

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, implemented in early adolescence to promote positive youth development and reduce health-risking behavior, endured through age 21 years. METHODS: We analyzed 9 waves of prospective data collected between 2004 and 2014 from a panel of 4407 participants (grade 5 through age 21 years) in the community-randomized trial of the CTC system in Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Oregon, Utah, and Washington State. We used multilevel models to evaluate intervention effects on sustained abstinence, lifetime incidence, and prevalence of past-year substance use, antisocial behavior, and violence. RESULTS: The CTC system increased the likelihood of sustained abstinence from gateway drug use by 49% and antisocial behavior by 18%, and reduced lifetime incidence of violence by 11% through age 21 years. In male participants, the CTC system also increased the likelihood of sustained abstinence from tobacco use by 30% and marijuana use by 24%, and reduced lifetime incidence of inhalant use by 18%. No intervention effects were found on past-year prevalence of these behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the CTC prevention system in adolescence reduced lifetime incidence of health-risking behaviors into young adulthood. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01088542.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/métodos , Trastorno de la Conducta Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Violencia , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Trastorno de la Conducta Social/epidemiología , Trastorno de la Conducta Social/prevención & control , Trastorno de la Conducta Social/terapia , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Estados Unidos , Violencia/prevención & control , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
17.
J Youth Adolesc ; 47(2): 369-382, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819911

RESUMEN

There is broad agreement that neighborhood contexts are important for adolescent development, but there is less consensus about their association with adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Few studies have examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic contexts and smoking and alcohol use while also accounting for differences in family and peer risk factors for substance use. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 808), a gender-balanced (female = 49%), multiethnic, theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate trajectories of smoking and alcohol use from 5th to 9th grade. Time-varying measures of neighborhood socioeconomic, family, and peer factors were associated with smoking and alcohol use at each wave after accounting for average growth in smoking and alcohol use over time and demographic differences. Results indicated that living in more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, lower family income, lower family general functioning, more permissive family smoking environments, and affiliation with deviant peers were independently associated with increased smoking. Lower family functioning, more permissive family alcohol use environments, and deviant peers were independently associated with increased alcohol use. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on smoking was mediated by family income and deviant peers while the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on alcohol use was mediated by deviant peers alone. Family functioning and family substance use did not mediate associations between neighborhood disadvantage and smoking or alcohol use. The results highlight the importance of neighborhood, family, and peer factors in early adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Future studies should examine the unique association of neighborhood disadvantage with adolescent smoking net of family socioeconomics, functioning, and substance use, as well as peer affiliations. Better understanding of the role of contextual factors in early adolescent smoking and alcohol use can help bolster efforts to prevent both short and long harms from substance use.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Familia , Grupo Paritario , Características de la Residencia , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Desarrollo del Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
J Community Psychol ; 45(3): 346-362, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225383

RESUMEN

Background: This study constitutes a building block in the cultural adaptation of Communities That Care (CTC), a community-based prevention system that has been found to be effective in reducing youth problem behaviors. Methods: Using the data from the CTC normative survey dataset that consists of more than quarter million youth nationwide, this study examines the reliability and validity of scores derived from the Communities That Care Youth Survey (CTC-YS), one of the primary assessment tools for gathering community data on risk and protective factors related to problem behaviors including substance use. The reliability and criterion validity analyses are conducted overall for the nationwide sample of youth as well as for the student subsample of Native American youth. Results: The results of this study indicate that the existing CTC-YS assessments of risk and protective factors in the domains of community, family, school, and peer groups as well as within individuals yield scores that are reliable and valid within the Native American sample of youth. Conclusions: This study informs the third step in the CTC prevention planning process, which involves the assessment of risk and protective factors to be targeted in preventive interventions. The question of how the assessment of risk and protective factors among Native American youth might be further improved and a description of efforts related to the cultural adaptation of the CTC program currently underway are also addressed in the discussion.


Asunto(s)
Indios Norteamericanos , Problema de Conducta , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/etnología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Niño , Cultura , Familia/etnología , Familia/psicología , Humanos , Indios Norteamericanos/psicología , Grupo Paritario , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Factores Protectores , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etnología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
19.
Infant Child Dev ; 26(5)2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062266

RESUMEN

This study examined whether parental alcohol use in adolescence, adulthood, and, for mothers, during pregnancy was related to their young children's functioning in terms of their on-time development as indicated by the number of developmental areas in which children experienced delay. Observed parenting practices and family socioeconomic status were tested as potential explanatory mechanisms of these links. Data came from the surveys and videotaped observations of a community sample of 123 biological parents and their 1-5 year old children followed longitudinally. Results suggest that the negative association between parental alcohol use and children's development operates primarily through fathers' alcohol use. Additionally, father's adolescent regular alcohol use predicted the family's low SES, which in turn predicted less-skilled maternal parenting practices and children's developmental delay.

20.
Am J Community Psychol ; 60(1-2): 267-278, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940467

RESUMEN

Living in disorganized neighborhoods characterized by high levels of poverty, crime, violence, and deteriorating buildings has been associated with increased alcohol consumption and mental health problems. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 790), a theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) symptoms from age 21 to 39. Time-varying measures of neighborhood disorganization, psychological distress, and sociodemographic factors were associated with deviations from average AUD symptoms at each wave. Results indicated that, on average, AUD symptoms decreased as individuals got older. Living in more disorganized neighborhoods and experiencing psychological distress was associated with increased AUD symptoms after accounting for average reductions from AUD symptoms over time and time-varying measures of relevant sociodemographic factors. Results of mediation analysis suggested that psychological distress is a mechanism by which disorganized neighborhoods increased risk of AUD from age 21 to 39.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Anomia (Social) , Características de la Residencia , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Washingtón/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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