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Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 153: 105390, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37708918


Infections and inflammation during pregnancy or early life can alter child neurodevelopment and increase the risk for structural brain abnormalities and mental health disorders. There is strong evidence that TORCH infections (i.e., Treponema pallidum, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus) alter fetal neurodevelopment across multiple developmental domains and contribute to motor and cognitive disabilities. However, the impact of a broader range of viral and bacterial infections on fetal development and disability is less well understood. We performed a literature review of human studies to identify gaps in the link between maternal infections, inflammation, and several neurodevelopmental domains. We found strong and moderate evidence respectively for a higher risk of motor and cognitive delays and disabilities in offspring exposed to a range of non-TORCH pathogens during fetal life. In contrast, there is little evidence for an increased risk of language and sensory disabilities. While guidelines for TORCH infection prevention during pregnancy are common, further consideration for prevention of non-TORCH infections during pregnancy for fetal neuroprotection may be warranted.

Trastornos Mentales , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Toxoplasma , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Citomegalovirus , Inflamación , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/microbiología , Recién Nacido
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 147(7): 746-757, 2023 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36857117


CONTEXT.­: Before its eradication, the smallpox virus was a significant cause of poor obstetric outcomes, including maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The mpox (monkeypox) virus is now the most pathogenic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus infecting humans. The 2022 global mpox outbreak has focused attention on its potential effects during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE.­: To understand the comparative effects of different poxvirus infections on pregnancy, including mpox virus, variola virus, vaccinia virus, and cowpox virus. The impact on the pregnant individual, fetus, and placenta will be examined, with particular attention to the occurrence of intrauterine vertical transmission and congenital infection. DATA SOURCES.­: The data are obtained from the authors' cases and from various published sources, including early historical information and contemporary publications. CONCLUSIONS.­: Smallpox caused maternal and perinatal death, with numerous cases reported of intrauterine transmission. In endemic African countries, mpox has also affected pregnant individuals, with up to a 75% perinatal case fatality rate. Since the start of the 2022 mpox outbreak, increasing numbers of pregnant women have been infected with the virus. A detailed description is given of the congenital mpox syndrome in a stillborn fetus, resulting from maternal-fetal transmission and placental infection, and the potential mechanisms of intrauterine infection are discussed. Other poxviruses, notably vaccinia virus and, in 1 case, cowpox virus, can also cause perinatal infection. Based on the historical evidence of poxvirus infections, mpox remains a threat to the pregnant population, and it can be expected that additional cases will occur in the future.

Orthopoxvirus , Infecciones por Poxviridae , Virus de la Viruela , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos , Placenta , Virus Vaccinia
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 54(6): 687-698, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28094562


OBJECTIVE: Bone grafts in patients with cleft lip and palate can undergo a significant amount of resorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) on the success of bone grafts in rats. DESIGN: Thirty-five female 15-week-old Fischer F344 Inbred rats were divided into the following experimental groups, each receiving bone grafts to repair an intraoral CSD: (1) Graft/saline: systemic administration of saline and (2) systemic administration of zoledronic acid immediately following surgery (graft/BP/T0), (3) 1 week postoperatively (graft/BP/T1), and (4) 3 weeks postoperatively (graft/BP/T2). As an additional control, the defect was left empty without bone graft. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Microcomputed tomography and histologic analyses were performed in addition to evaluation of osteoclasts through tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. RESULTS: Bone volume fraction (bone volume/tissue volume) for the delayed BP treatment groups (graft/BP/T1 = 45.4% ± 8.8%; graft/BP/T2 = 46.1% ± 12.4%) were significantly greater than that for the graft/saline group (31.0% ± 7.9%) and the graft/BP/T0 (27.6% ± 5.9%) 6 weeks postoperatively (P < .05). Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed an evident increase in bone volume and fusion of defect margins with existing palatal bone in the graft/BP/T1 and graft/BP/T2 groups. The graft/BP/T0 group showed the lowest bone volume with signs of acute inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed BP administration following cleft bone graft surgery led to significant increase in bone volume and integration compared with saline controls. However, BP injection immediately after the surgery did not enhance bone volume, and rather, may negatively affect bone graft incorporation.

Proceso Alveolar/efectos de los fármacos , Proceso Alveolar/cirugía , Difosfonatos/administración & dosificación , Difosfonatos/farmacología , Imidazoles/administración & dosificación , Imidazoles/farmacología , Proceso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Animales , Resorción Ósea , Trasplante Óseo/métodos , Femenino , Fémur/trasplante , Ilion/trasplante , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas F344 , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Ácido Zoledrónico
Sleep Breath ; 21(3): 767-775, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28097623


PURPOSE: Alterations of the lingual frenulum may contribute to oromyofacial dysfunction, speech and swallowing impediments, underdevelopment of the maxillofacial skeleton, and even predispose to sleep breathing disorder. This study aims to assess the utility of existing instruments for evaluation of restricted tongue mobility, describe normal and abnormal ranges of tongue mobility, and provide evidence in support of a reliable and efficient measure of tongue mobility. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 1052 consecutive patients was evaluated during a 3-month period. Age, gender, ethnicity, height, weight, BMI, maximal interincisal mouth opening (MIO), mouth opening with tongue tip to maxillary incisive papillae at roof of mouth (MOTTIP), Kotlow's free-tongue measurement, and presence of severe tongue-tie were recorded. Secondary outcome measures include tongue range of motion deficit (TRMD, difference between MIO and MOTTIP) and tongue range of motion ratio (TRMR, ratio of MOTTIP to MIO). RESULTS: Results indicate that MIO is dependent on age and height; MOTTIP and TRMD are dependent on MIO; Kotlow's free-tongue measurement is an independent measure of free-tongue length and tongue mobility. TRMR is the only independent measurement of tongue mobility that is directly associated with restrictions in tongue function. CONCLUSIONS: We propose the use of tongue range of motion ratio as an initial screening tool to assess for restrictions in tongue mobility. "Functional" ankyloglossia can thus be defined and treatment effects followed objectively by using the proposed grading scale: grade 1: tongue range of motion ratio is >80%, grade 2 50-80%, grade 3 < 50%, grade 4 < 25%.

Anquiloglosia/diagnóstico , Anquiloglosia/fisiopatología , Frenillo Lingual/anomalías , Lengua/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Lengua/anomalías