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1.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Objective measurement of alcohol consumption is important for clinical care and research. Adjusting for self-reported alcohol use, we conducted an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to examine factors associated with the sensitivity of phosphatidylethanol (PEth), an alcohol metabolite, among persons self-reporting unhealthy alcohol consumption. METHODS: We identified 21 eligible studies and obtained 4073 observations from 3085 participants with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) positive scores (≥3 for women and ≥4 for men) and PEth measurements. We conducted 1-step IPD meta-analysis using mixed effects models with random intercepts for study site. We examined the associations between demographic (sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and biologic (body mass index-BMI, hemoglobin, HIV status, liver fibrosis, and venous versus finger-prick blood collection) variables with PEth sensitivity (PEth≥8 ng/ml), adjusting for the level of self-reported alcohol use using the AUDIT-C score. RESULTS: One third (31%) of participants were women, 32% were African, 28% African American, 28% White, and 12% other race/ethnicity. PEth sensitivity (i.e., ≥8 ng/ml) was 81.8%. After adjusting for AUDIT-C, we found no associations of sex, age, race/ethnicity, or method of blood collection with PEth sensitivity. In models that additionally included biologic variables, those with higher hemoglobin and indeterminate and advanced liver fibrosis had significantly higher odds of PEth sensitivity; those with higher BMI and those living with HIV had significantly lower odds of PEth sensitivity. African Americans and Africans had higher odds of PEth sensitivity than whites in models that included biologic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Among people reporting unhealthy alcohol use, several biological factors (hemoglobin, BMI, liver fibrosis, and HIV status) were associated with PEth sensitivity. Race/ethnicity was associated with PEth sensitivity in some models but age, sex, and method of blood collection were not. Clinicians should be aware of these factors, and researchers should consider adjusting analyses for these characteristics where possible.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246629, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657120

RESUMEN

HIV care provides an opportunity to integrate comprehensive sexual and reproductive healthcare, including sexually transmitted infection (STI) management. We describe STI prevalence and correlates among men living with HIV (MLWH) accessing safer conception care to conceive a child with an HIV-uninfected partner while minimizing HIV transmission risks. This study reflects an ongoing safer conception program embedded within a regional referral hospital HIV clinic in southwestern Uganda. We enrolled MLWH, planning for pregnancy with an HIV-uninfected partner and accessing safer conception care. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires detailing socio-demographics, gender dynamics, and sexual history. Participants also completed STI laboratory screening for syphilis (immunochromatographic testing confirmed by rapid plasma reagin), and chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV-RNA via GeneXpert nucleic acid amplification testing. Bivariable associations of STI covariates were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Among the 50 men who completed STI screening, median age was 33 (IQR 31-37) years, 13/50 (26%) had ≥2 sexual partners in the prior three months, and 46/50 (92%) had HIV-RNA <400 copies/mL. Overall, 11/50 (22%) had STIs: 16% active syphilis, 6% chlamydia. All participants initiated STI treatment. STI prevalence was associated with the use of threats/intimidation to coerce partners into sex (27% vs 3%; p = 0.03), although absolute numbers were small. We describe a 22% curable STI prevalence among a priority population at higher risk for transmission to partners and neonates. STI screening and treatment as a part of comprehensive sexual and reproductive healthcare should be integrated into HIV care to maximize the health of men, women, and children.

3.
Lancet HIV ; 8(3): e130-e137, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662265

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for preventing HIV acquisition. However, adherence among young women (aged 18-24 years) has been challenging. SMS reminders have been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in some contexts, including in combination with real-time adherence monitoring. We aimed to determine the effect of SMS reminders on PrEP adherence among young women in Kenya over a 2-year period. METHODS: The monitoring PrEP among young adult women (MPYA) study was an open label randomised controlled trial involving young adult women at high risk of HIV in Thika and Kisumu, Kenya. Participants were recruited from colleges, vocational institutions, informal settlements, and community-based organisations supporting young women. Women had to be aged 18-24 years and at high risk of HIV acquisition (defined as a VOICE risk score of 5 or higher, or being in a serodiscordant relationship). Study staff randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive either SMS reminders (SMS reminder group) or no reminders (no SMS reminder group). Study group assignment was known to trial staff but masked to investigators. Reminders were initially sent daily and participants could switch to as-needed reminders (ie, sent only if they missed opening the monitor as expected) after 1 month. Study visits occurred at 1 month, 3 months, and then quarterly (ie, every 3 months). The primary outcome was PrEP adherence over 24 months measured with a real-time electronic monitor and assessed by negative binomial models adjusted for the study site and quarter among participants who collected PrEP. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02915367. FINDINGS: Of 642 women initially approached, 348 eligible women were enrolled between Dec 21, 2016, and Feb 5, 2018. Participants were randomly assigned to either the SMS reminder group (n=173) or the no SMS reminder group (n=175). The median age was 21 years (IQR 19-22) and 228 (66%) of the 348 participants reported condomless sex in the month before baseline. 24 (14%) of the 173 participants assigned to receive daily SMS reminders later opted for as-needed reminders. 69 291 (97%) of 71 791 SMS reminders were sent as planned. Among participants collecting PrEP (thus potentially suggesting a desire for HIV protection), electronically monitored adherence averaged 26·8% over 24 months and was similar by study group (27·0% with SMS, 26·6% without SMS, adjusted incidence rate ratio 1·16 [95% CI 0·93-1·45], p=0·19). There were no serious adverse events related to trial participation; five social harms occurred in each study group, primarily related to PrEP use. INTERPRETATION: SMS reminders were ineffective in promoting PrEP adherence among young Kenyan women. Given the overall low adherence in the trial, additional interventions are needed to support PrEP use in this population. FUNDING: US National Institute of Mental Health.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/estadística & datos numéricos , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , Sexo Inseguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Kenia , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Riesgo , Tenofovir/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
4.
AIDS ; 35(7): 1083-1089, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635845

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Dolutegravir (DTG) is now a preferred component of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, prevalence data on natural resistance to integrase inhibitors [integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs)] in circulating non-subtype B HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Our objective is to report prevalence of pre-treatment integrase polymorphisms associated with resistance to INSTIs in an ART-naive cohort with diverse HIV-1 subtypes. DESIGN: We retrospectively examined HIV-1 integrase sequences from Uganda. METHODS: Plasma samples were derived from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) cohort, reflecting enrollment from 2002 to 2010, prior to initiation of ART. HIV-1 integrase was amplified using nested-PCR and Sanger-sequenced (HXB2 4230-5093). Stanford HIVdb v8.8 was used to infer clinically significant INSTI-associated mutations. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing was performed for all study participants. RESULTS: Plasma samples from 511 ART-naive individuals (subtype: 48% A1, 39% D) yielded HIV-1 integrase genotyping results. Six out of 511 participants (1.2%) had any major INSTI-associated mutations. Of these, two had E138T (subtype A1), three had E138E/K (subtype D), and one had T66T/I (subtype D). No participants had mutations traditionally associated with high levels of INSTI resistance. HLA genotypes A∗02:01/05/14, B∗44:15, and C∗04:07 predicted the presence of L74I, a mutation recently observed in association with long-acting INSTI cabotegravir virologic failure. CONCLUSION: We detected no HIV-1 polymorphisms associated with high levels of DTG resistance in Uganda in the pre-DTG era. Our results support widespread implementation of DTG but careful monitoring of patients on INSTI with virologic failure is warranted to determine if unique mutations predict failure for non-B subtypes of HIV-1.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 124, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579213

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality during childbirth globally. Despite increases in facility-based childbirth, gaps in quality of care at facilities have limited reductions in maternal deaths. Infrequent physiologic monitoring of women around childbirth is a major gap in care that leads to delays in life-saving interventions for women experiencing complications. METHODS: We will conduct a type-2 hybrid effectiveness-implementation study over 12 months to evaluate using a wireless physiologic monitoring system to detect and alert clinicians of abnormal vital signs in women for 24 h after undergoing emergency cesarean delivery at a tertiary care facility in Uganda. We will provide physiologic data (heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature and blood pressure) to clinicians via a smartphone-based application with alert notifications if monitored women develop predefined abnormalities in monitored physiologic signs. We will alternate two-week intervention and control time periods where women and clinicians use the wireless monitoring system during intervention periods and current standard of care (i.e., manual vital sign measurement when clinically indicated) during control periods. Our primary outcome for effectiveness is a composite of severe maternal outcomes per World Health Organization criteria (e.g. death, cardiac arrest, jaundice, shock, prolonged unconsciousness, paralysis, hysterectomy). Secondary outcomes include maternal mortality rate, and case fatality rates for postpartum hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and sepsis. We will use the RE-AIM implementation framework to measure implementation metrics of the wireless physiologic system including Reach (proportion of eligible women monitored, length of time women monitored), Efficacy (proportion of women with monitoring according to Uganda Ministry of Health guidelines, number of appropriate alerts sent), Adoption (proportion of clinicians utilizing physiologic data per shift, clinical actions in response to alerts), Implementation (fidelity to monitoring protocol), Maintenance (sustainability of implementation over time). We will also perform in-depth qualitative interviews with up to 30 women and 30 clinicians participating in the study. DISCUSSION: This is the first hybrid-effectiveness study of wireless physiologic monitoring in an obstetric population. This study offers insights into use of wireless monitoring systems in low resource-settings, as well as normal and abnormal physiologic parameters among women delivering by cesarean. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04060667 . Registered on 08/01/2019.

6.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389324

RESUMEN

HIV status disclosure remains one of the major challenges to effective HIV prevention. Given the complexities and low rates of disclosure, new innovative strategies are needed. Since electronic adherence monitoring (EAM) are unique mobile devices that light up when transmitting data, those who see them often want to know more about them, which can potentially result in HIV status disclosure. We conducted a qualitative study to explore patient experiences with EAM for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda with a goal of understanding potential ethical concerns, including disclosure. Unexpectedly, several participants reported intentionally using EAM to facilitate HIV status disclosure to others in order to get social support, encourage HIV testing, and create awareness about HIV. Although researchers and clinicians need to be mindful of the potential for unintended HIV status disclosure through the use of EAM, they should also recognize the potential of this approach to support intended disclosure.

7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(5): 562-567, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351529

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adoption of "Treat All" policies has increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in sub-Saharan Africa; however, unexplained early losses continue to occur. More information is needed to understand why treatment discontinuation continues at this vulnerable stage in care. METHODS: The Monitoring Early Treatment Adherence Study involved a prospective observational cohort of individuals initiating ART at early-stage versus late-stage disease in South Africa and Uganda. Surveys and HIV-1 RNA levels were performed at baseline, 6, and 12 months, with adherence monitored electronically. This analysis included nonpregnant participants in the first 6 months of follow-up; demographic and clinical factors were compared across groups with χ2, univariable, and multivariable models. RESULTS: Of 669 eligible participants, 91 (14%) showed early gaps of ≥30 days in ART use (22% in South Africa and 6% in Uganda) with the median time to gap of 77 days (interquartile range: 43-101) and 87 days (74, 105), respectively. Although 71 (78%) ultimately resumed care, having an early gap was still significantly associated with detectable viremia at 6 months (P ≤ 0.01). Multivariable modeling, restricted to South Africa, found secondary education and higher physical health score protected against early gaps [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2 to 0.8 and (aOR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.0), respectively]. Participants reporting clinics as "too far" had double the odds of early gaps (aOR 2.2: 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.1). DISCUSSION: Early gaps in ART persist, resulting in higher odds of detectable viremia, particularly in South Africa. Interventions targeting health management and access to care are critical to reducing early gaps.

8.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(13): 1263-1271, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998640

RESUMEN

Women who have a prevention mindset may opt for concurrent use of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and all forms of contraception; we therefore assessed how contraception may influence PrEP use or vice versa. We analyzed data from Kenyan and Ugandan HIV-uninfected non-pregnant women in sero-discordant partnerships who were participating in the Partners Demonstration Project. Using multivariable generalized estimating equation models, we estimated the associations between effective contraceptive use and 1) PrEP dispensation 2) high effective PrEP use. Among the 311 women (93.1% of all those followed in the Partners Demonstration Project) median age was 29 years (interquartile range [IQR] 24.0-35.0) and 115 (37.0%) reported using effective contraception at baseline. All the women initiated PrEP during the study and moderately high PrEP adherence was recorded at 73.1% of visits over an average 7.5 months following PrEP dispensation. Women (14.8%) consistently used an effective contraceptive throughout study follow-up. PrEP dispensation was more frequent among those concurrently using effective contraception, (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.32) and contraceptive use was more common among those on PrEP (aRR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.18-2.25). Among East African women at high risk of HIV infection, PrEP dispensation was more frequent among women using effective contraception, indicating that family planning outlets may be efficient locations to deliver PrEP.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241399, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112907

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Scale-up of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention in Uganda began with serodiscordant couples (SDC) and has expanded to other most at-risk populations (MARPs). We explored knowledge, acceptability, barriers and facilitators of PrEP use among potential PrEP users in four MARPs (SDC; men who have sex with men [MSM]; female sex workers [FSW], and fisher folk). METHODS: We administered quantitative surveys to potential PrEP users in multiple settings in Central Uganda at baseline and approximately 9 months after healthcare worker (HCW) training on PrEP. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 250 potential PrEP users at baseline and 125 after HCW training; 55 completed both surveys. For these 250 participants, mean age was 28.5 years (SD 6.9), 47% were male and 6% were transgender women, with approximately even distribution across MARPs and recruitment locations (urban, peri-urban, and rural). Most (65%) had not heard about PrEP. After HCW training, 24% of those sampled were aware of PrEP, and the proportion of those who accurately described PrEP as "antiretrovirals to be used before HIV exposure" increased from 54% in the baseline survey to 74% in the second survey (p<0.001). The proportion of participants who reported HCW as a source of PrEP information increased after training (59% vs 91%, p<0.001). In both surveys, nearly all participants indicated they were willing to take PrEP if offered. The most common anticipated barriers to PrEP were stigma, transportation, accessibility, busy schedules, and forgetfulness. Closeness to home was a common facilitator for all participant categories. CONCLUSIONS: Initial awareness of PrEP was low, but PrEP knowledge and interest increased among diverse MARPs after HCW training. Demand creation and HCW training will be critical for increasing PrEP awareness among key populations, with support to overcome barriers to PrEP use. These findings should encourage the acceleration of PrEP rollout in Uganda.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1621, 2020 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115478

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: PrEP use should be aligned with periods of risk for HIV acquisition. For HIV serodiscordant couples, PrEP can be used as a bridge until the partner living with HIV takes antiretroviral therapy (ART) long enough to achieve viral suppression (the "PrEP as a Bridge to ART" strategy). However, adherence to this strategy is unknown. METHODS: In a demonstration project in Kenya and Uganda, HIV-uninfected partners of serodiscordant couples were advised to take PrEP until the partner living with HIV took ART for ≥ 6 months. PrEP discontinuation was then recommended unless there were concerns about ART adherence, immediate fertility intentions, or outside partners with unknown HIV/ART status. Electronic adherence monitoring and socio-behavioral questionnaire data were used in logistic regression models to explore completion of this strategy and continuation of PrEP beyond recommendations to stop its use. RESULTS: Among 833 serodiscordant couples, 436 (52%) HIV-uninfected partners completed ≥ 6 months of PrEP as a bridge to ART. Strategy completion was associated with older age (aOR per 5 years = 1.1; p = 0.008) and having fewer children (aOR = 0.9; p = 0.019). Of the 230 participants encouraged to stop PrEP according to strategy recommendations, 170 (74%) did so. PrEP continuation among the remaining 60 participants was associated with more education (aOR = 1.1; p = 0.029), a preference for PrEP over ART (aOR = 3.6; p = 0.026), comfort with managing their serodiscordant relationship (aOR = 0.6; p = 0.046), and believing PrEP makes sex safe (aOR = 0.5; p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Half of participants completed the PrEP as a bridge to ART strategy and the majority stopped PrEP as recommended. These findings suggest that targeting PrEP to periods of risk is a promising approach; however, tailoring counseling around aligning PrEP use and HIV risk will be important for optimal strategy implementation.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240918, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108396

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of retention and viral suppression among adolescents living with perinatally-acquired HIV who remained in pediatric care compared to those who transitioned to adult care. METHODS: We evaluated a natural experiment involving adolescents living with perinatally-acquired HIV who were attending a government-supported antiretroviral clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Prior to 2011, all adolescents transitioned to adult care at 12 years of age. Due to a policy change, all adolescents were retained in pediatric care after 2011. We analyzed adolescents two years before and two years after this policy change. Outcomes were retention in care and HIV viral suppression one year after transition to adult care or the 13th birthday if remaining in pediatric care. RESULTS: In the natural experiment, 180 adolescents who turned 12 years old between 2011 and 2014 were evaluated; 35 (20%) transitioned to adult care under the old policy and 145 (80%) remained in pediatric care under the new policy. Adolescents who transitioned to the adult clinic had lower rates of retention in care (49%; 17/35) compared to adolescents remaining in the pediatric clinic (92%; 134/145; p<0.001). Retention in care was lower (ARR 0.59; 95%CI 0.43-0.82; p = 0.001) and viral suppression was similar (ARR = 1.06, 95%CI 0.89-1.26; p = 0.53) for adolescents who transitioned to adult care compared to adolescents remaining in pediatric care. CONCLUSION: Adolescents living with perinatally-acquired HIV appear to have higher retention in care when cared for in pediatric clinics compared to adult clinics. Longer-term follow-up is needed to fully assess viral suppression.

12.
Drugs ; 80(18): 1881-1888, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040323

RESUMEN

Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) co-formulated with emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC) is recommended as an additional prevention option for persons at substantial risk of HIV infection by both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). The WHO and PEPFAR consider 3TC clinically interchangeable with FTC for PrEP given comparable pharmacologic equivalence, resistance and toxicity patterns, and indirect clinical trial evidence from TDF-containing studies. Globally, FTC/TDF has been widely used in clinical trials, open-label extension studies and demonstration projects. Thus, most PrEP efficacy and safety data are based on FTC/TDF use in heterosexual women and men, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs. However, generic 3TC/TDF is less expensive than FTC/TDF, is already available in supply chains for HIV drugs, and has 60-70% of the global adult market share, making it particularly appealing in settings with limited availability or affordability of FTC/TDF. Compelling indirect evidence suggests that scaling up use of 3TC/TDF is potentially cost saving for HIV programs in settings where restricting drug choice to FTC/TDF would delay PrEP implementation. Guideline committees and public health decision-makers in countries should encourage flexibility in PrEP drug selection, support off-label use of 3TC/TDF, and approve use of generic formulations to decrease the cost of PrEP medications and accelerate PrEP delivery through the public and private sectors.

13.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(8): e25586, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820622

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a cohort study to understand patterns of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence during pregnancy, postpartum and non-pregnancy follow-up among women initiating ART in public clinics offering Option B+ in rural Uganda and urban South Africa. METHODS: We collected survey data, continuously monitored ART adherence (Wisepill), HIV-RNA and pregnancy tests at zero, six and twelve months from women initiating ART in Uganda and South Africa, 2015 to 2017. The primary predictor of interest was follow-up time categorized as pregnant (pregnancy diagnosis to pregnancy end), postpartum (pregnancy end to study exit) or non-pregnancy-related (neither pregnant nor postpartum). Fractional regression models included demographics and socio-behavioural factors informed by the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations. We evaluated HIV-RNA at 12 months by ever- versus never-pregnant status. RESULTS: In Uganda, 247 women contributed 676, 900 and 1274 months of pregnancy, postpartum and non-pregnancy-related follow-up. Median ART adherence was consistently ≥90%: pregnancy, 94% (interquartile range [IQR] 78,98); postpartum, 90% (IQR 70,97) and non-pregnancy, 90% (IQR 80,98). Poorer adherence was associated with younger age (0.98% [95% CI 0.33%, 1.62%] average increase per year of age) and higher CD4 cell count (1.01% [0.08%, 1.94%] average decrease per 50 cells/mm3 ). HIV-RNA was suppressed among 91% (N = 135) ever-pregnant and 86% (N = 85) never-pregnant women. In South Africa, 190 women contributed 259, 624 and 1247 months of pregnancy, postpartum and non-pregnancy-related follow-up. Median adherence was low during pregnancy, 74% (IQR 31,96); postpartum, 40% (IQR 4,65) and non-pregnancy, 77% (IQR 47,92). Poorer adherence was associated with postpartum status (22.3% [95%CI 8.6%, 35.4%] average decrease compared to non-pregnancy-related follow-up) and less emotional support (1.4% [0.22%, 2.58%] average increase per unit increase). HIV-RNA was suppressed among 57% (N = 47) ever-pregnant and 86% (N = 93) never-pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Women in rural Uganda maintained high adherence with 91% of ever-pregnant and 86% of never-pregnant women suppressing HIV-RNA at 12 months. Women in urban South Africa struggled with adherence, particularly during postpartum follow-up with median adherence of 40% and 57% of women with HIV-RNA suppression at one year, suggesting a crisis for postpartum women with HIV in South Africa. Findings suggest that effective interventions should promote emotional support.

14.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e16634, 2020 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: 99DOTS is a cell phone-based strategy for monitoring tuberculosis (TB) medication adherence that has been rolled out to more than 150,000 patients in India's public health sector. A considerable proportion of patients stop using 99DOTS during therapy. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand reasons for variability in the acceptance and use of 99DOTS by TB patients and health care providers (HCPs). METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with individuals taking TB therapy in the government program in Chennai and Vellore (HIV-coinfected patients) and Mumbai (HIV-uninfected patients) across intensive and continuation treatment phases. We conducted interviews with HCPs who provide TB care, all of whom were involved in implementing 99DOTS. Interviews were transcribed, coded using a deductive approach, and analyzed with Dedoose 8.0.35 software (SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC). The findings of the study were interpreted using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, which highlights 4 constructs associated with technology acceptance: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions. RESULTS: We conducted 62 interviews with patients with TB, of whom 30 (48%) were HIV coinfected, and 31 interviews with HCPs. Acceptance of 99DOTS by patients was variable. Greater patient acceptance was related to perceptions of improved patient-HCP relationships from increased phone communication, TB pill-taking habit formation due to SMS text messaging reminders, and reduced need to visit health facilities (performance expectancy); improved family involvement in TB care (social influences); and from 99DOTS leading HCPs to engage positively in patients' care through increased outreach (facilitating conditions). Lower patient acceptance was related to perceptions of reduced face-to-face contact with HCPs (performance expectancy); problems with cell phone access, literacy, cellular signal, or technology fatigue (effort expectancy); high TB- and HIV-related stigma within the family (social influences); and poor counseling in 99DOTS by HCPs or perceptions that HCPs were not acting upon adherence data (facilitating conditions). Acceptance of 99DOTS by HCPs was generally high and related to perceptions that the 99DOTS adherence dashboard and patient-related SMS text messaging alerts improve quality of care, the efficiency of care, and the patient-HCP relationship (performance expectancy); that the dashboard is easy to use (effort expectancy); and that 99DOTS leads to better coordination among HCPs (social influences). However, HCPs described suboptimal facilitating conditions, including inadequate training of HCPs in 99DOTS, unequal changes in workload, and shortages of 99DOTS medication envelopes. CONCLUSIONS: In India's government TB program, 99DOTS had high acceptance by HCPs but variable acceptance by patients. Although some factors contributing to suboptimal patient acceptance are modifiable, other factors such as TB- and HIV-related stigma and poor cell phone accessibility, cellular signal, and literacy are more difficult to address. Screening for these barriers may facilitate targeting of 99DOTS to patients more likely to use this technology.

15.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 17(5): 529-546, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776179

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed interventions to improve uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in African countries in the Treat All era. RECENT FINDINGS: ART initiation can be improved by facilitated rapid receipt of first prescription, including community-based linkage and point-of-care strategies, integration of HIV care into antenatal care and peer support for adolescents. For people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART, scheduled SMS reminders, ongoing intensive counselling for those with viral non-suppression and economic incentives for the most deprived show promise. Adherence clubs should be promoted, being no less effective than facility-based care for stable patients. Tracing those lost to follow-up should be targeted to those who can be seen face-to-face by a peer worker. Investment is needed to promote linkage to initiating ART and for differentiated approaches to counselling for youth and for those with identified suboptimal adherence. More evidence from within Africa is needed on cost-effective strategies to identify and support PLHIV at an increased risk of non-adherence across the treatment cascade.

16.
Lancet HIV ; 7(8): e582-e592, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763221

RESUMEN

Pregnancy is a high-risk period for HIV acquisition in African women, and pregnant women who become acutely infected with HIV account for up to a third of vertical HIV transmission cases in African settings. To protect women and eliminate vertical transmission, WHO recommends offering oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) based on tenofovir to HIV-negative pregnant and post-partum women with a substantial risk of HIV acquisition. PrEP implementation for pregnant and post-partum women lags behind implementation for other high-risk populations. Unique considerations for PrEP implementation arise during pregnancy and post partum, including the integration of provider training with clinical delivery and monitoring of PrEP exposure and outcomes within existing maternal health systems, yet scarce implementation data are available to generate evidence in this context.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Implementación de Plan de Salud , Humanos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Masculino , Atención Posnatal , Embarazo
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e18038, 2020 09 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687473

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High, sustained adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for achieving viral suppression, which in turn leads to important individual health benefits and reduced secondary viral transmission. Electronic adherence monitors record a date-and-time stamp with each opening as a proxy for pill-taking behavior. These monitors can be combined with interventions (eg, data-informed adherence counseling, SMS-based adherence support, and/or alarms) and have been shown to improve adherence in multiple settings. Their use, however, has largely been limited to the research context. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the research was to use the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to understand factors relevant for implementing a low-cost electronic adherence monitor and associated interventions for routine HIV clinical care in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with health care administrators, clinicians, and ART clients about likes and dislikes of the features and functions of electronic adherence monitors and associated interventions, their potential to influence HIV care, suggestions on how to measure their value, and recommendations for their use in routine care. We used an inductive, content analysis approach to understand participant perspectives, identifying aspects of CFIR most relevant to technology implementation in this setting. RESULTS: We interviewed 34 health care administrators/clinicians and 15 ART clients. Participants largely saw the monitors and associated interventions as favorable and beneficial for supporting adherence and improving clinical outcomes through efficient, differentiated care. Relevant outside factors included structural determinants of health, international norms around supporting adherence, and limited funding that necessitates careful assessment of costs and benefits. Within the clinic, the adherence data were felt likely to improve the quality of counseling and thereby morale, as well as increase the efficiency of care delivery. Existing infrastructure and care expenditures and the need for proper training were other noted considerations. At the individual level, the desire for good health and a welcomed pressure to adhere favored uptake of the monitors, although some participants were concerned with clients not using the monitors as planned and the influence of poverty, stigma, and need for privacy. Finally, participants felt that decisions around the implementation process would have to come from the Ministry of Health and other funders and would be influenced by sustainability of the technology and the target population for its use. Coordination across the health care system would be important for implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Low-cost electronic adherence monitoring combined with data-informed counseling, SMS-based support, and/or alarms have potential for use in routine HIV care in Uganda. Key metrics of successful implementation will include their impact on efficiency of care delivery and clinical outcomes with careful attention paid to factors such as stigma and cost. Further theory-driven implementation science efforts will be needed to move promising technology from research into clinical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03825952; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03825952.

18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e19552, 2020 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673262

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are becoming more common in low-income countries. Existing research often overlooks implementation challenges associated with the design and technology requirements of mHealth interventions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the challenges that we encountered in the implementation of a complex mHealth intervention in Uganda. METHODS: We customized a commercial mobile survey app to facilitate a two-arm household-randomized, controlled trial of home-based tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation. We incorporated digital fingerprinting for patient identification in both study arms and automated SMS messages in the intervention arm only. A local research team systematically documented challenges to implementation in biweekly site visit reports, project management reports, and minutes from biweekly conference calls. We then classified these challenges using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). RESULTS: We identified challenges in three principal CFIR domains: (1) intervention characteristics, (2) inner setting, and (3) characteristics of implementers. The adaptability of the app to the local setting was limited by software and hardware requirements. The complexity and logistics of implementing the intervention further hindered its adaptability. Study staff reported that community health workers (CHWs) were enthusiastic regarding the use of technology to enhance TB contact investigation during training and the initial phase of implementation. After experiencing technological failures, their trust in the technology declined along with their use of it. Finally, complex data structures impeded the development and execution of a data management plan that would allow for articulation of goals and provide timely feedback to study staff, CHWs, and participants. CONCLUSIONS: mHealth technologies have the potential to make delivery of public health interventions more direct and efficient, but we found that a lack of adaptability, excessive complexity, loss of trust among end users, and a lack of effective feedback systems can undermine implementation, especially in low-resource settings where digital services have not yet proliferated. Implementers should anticipate and strive to avoid these barriers by investing in and adapting to local human and material resources, prioritizing feedback from end users, and optimizing data management and quality assurance procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan-African Clinical Trials Registration PACTR201509000877140; https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=877.

19.
AIDS Behav ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638220

RESUMEN

Adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV in South Africa face significant barriers to successful transition from pediatric to adult care. We performed in-depth qualitative interviews with 41 adolescents living with HIV and 18 of their caregivers to investigate modifiable factors to improve engagement in care prior to transition to adult care. Based on dyadic, inductive content analysis, findings suggest that HIV status disclosure, social support, and mental health are targets for improvement in engagement in care. Early disclosure and a sense of belonging facilitated engagement in care, while barriers included delayed or inadequate disclosure, denial, and lack of disclosure to others. Adherence support improved by having a biological mother as a direct supervisor. Barriers to care included changing caregivers, abandonment, undiagnosed mental health problems and learning difficulties. Despite these factors, the majority of adolescents showed resilience and remained engaged in care despite difficult circumstances.

20.
AIDS Behav ; 24(7): 2227-2228, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542475

RESUMEN

The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error. The authors would like to correct the error with this erratum.

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