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2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(7): 677-687, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581299

RESUMEN

Governments around the world have implemented measures to manage the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While the majority of these measures are proving effective, they have a high social and economic cost, and response strategies are being adjusted. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that communities should have a voice, be informed and engaged, and participate in this transition phase. We propose ten considerations to support this principle: (1) implement a phased approach to a 'new normal'; (2) balance individual rights with the social good; (3) prioritise people at highest risk of negative consequences; (4) provide special support for healthcare workers and care staff; (5) build, strengthen and maintain trust; (6) enlist existing social norms and foster healthy new norms; (7) increase resilience and self-efficacy; (8) use clear and positive language; (9) anticipate and manage misinformation; and (10) engage with media outlets. The transition phase should also be informed by real-time data according to which governmental responses should be updated.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Participación de la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Gobierno , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus , Comunicación , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Autoeficacia , Normas Sociales , Estigma Social , Confianza
3.
Vaccine ; 38(27): 4252-4262, 2020 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409138

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Germany, vaccination gaps exist mainly among adolescents and adults. Family physicians (FPs) administer adult vaccines. FPs strongly influence the vaccination behavior and attitudes of their patients, so their own vaccination-related attitudes and behaviors are critical to achieve high vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of FPs' own vaccination uptake and their recommendation behavior. METHOD: 700 FPs participated in a random sampled telephone survey. Respondents were interviewed in both their roles as vaccine recipients and vaccine providers. Thus, participants indicated their own vaccination status and recommendation behavior as primary outcomes. Primary determinants were the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination. In addition, participants indicated demographic data and other barriers towards vaccination. Association between outcome and determinants were examined using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Around 60% of physicians reported to be vaccinated against influenza, pertussis and hepatitis B, and the majority claimed to recommend vaccines to patients. Own vaccination status was significantly associated with the recommendation of vaccines. Of the psychological determinants confidence in the safety of vaccines was associated with own vaccination and recommendation behavior. Collective responsibility, constraints and complacency were associated with own vaccination status. Being from western Germany and being a homeopathic FP were independently associated with lower own vaccination behavior. Vaccine shortages (52.5%) and cost coverage problems (25.6%) were reported frequently as system-related barriers. There was a perception that the National Immunization Technical Advisory Group was influenced by other interests (14.8%) and that people are vaccinated against too many diseases (8%). Around 40% had implemented an office-based reminder system. DISCUSSION: FPs' vaccination behaviors are associated with various psychological determinants and additional barriers. In particular, confidence can leverage FPs' vaccination behaviors. Promoting office-based reminder systems, reducing system-related barriers, and building trust in official recommendations are additional measures to improve adult vaccination in Germany.

4.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(5): 986-992, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460309

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A large measles outbreak started in Romania in 2016. Current study aimed to (i) clarify who was affected by the outbreak, (ii) identify their barriers and drivers to vaccination and (iii) explore variation by population group. METHODS: This was a two-component study. Outbreak surveillance data for 6743 measles cases were reviewed to identify key characteristics. A survey was administered via telephone to 704 caregivers of measles cases (520 respondents) to explore capability, opportunity and motivation barriers to vaccination. Data were summarized descriptively for respondent characteristics and statements. Differences by population group (education, household income, ethnicity, setting and mobility) were explored using χ2 tests, Fisher's exact tests or regression models. RESULTS: Most cases were unvaccinated and lived in low coverage areas. Ethnic minorities were disproportionally affected. Most caregivers felt welcome at health facilities. Some were less satisfied with the waiting time and had found the vaccine out of stock. Not everybody knew that vaccines were free of charge. Less than half knew the child's next vaccination date, some had not been informed and did not know where to seek this information. Some said their peers did not vaccinate. Beliefs were generally supportive of vaccination; but many were concerned about vaccine safety and found they had not received good information about this. Conclusions varied greatly between minorities and less educated groups, compared with people with higher education levels. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying characteristics of the population affected and underlying factors can inform a strategy to avoid future outbreaks and further research to obtain deeper insights.

5.
Vaccine ; 38(8): 1906-1914, 2020 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980190

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccination coverage in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been declining over recent years. A World Health Organization Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP) project is underway to gain insights into the underlying reasons for this, to develop tailored interventions. As part of TIP, this study aimed to investigate the views of health workers on their barriers and drivers to positive childhood vaccination practices. METHODS: Face-to-face qualitative interviews explored 38 health workers' views on vaccination coverage, their vaccination attitudes, and system, programme and institutional influences on their vaccination practices. The data were analysed using content analysis and organised by the COM (Capability, Opportunity and Motivation) factors. FINDINGS: Very few differences in barriers and drivers were evident between high and low coverage primary care centres or across different professional roles. Capability: Drivers included awareness of the risks of low vaccination coverage, regular use of the Rulebook and Order, knowledge of how to advise parents on mild side effects and recognition of the importance of good communication with parents. Key barriers were the use of false contraindications to postpone vacination and poor skills in tailoring communication with parents. Opportunity: Drivers were sufficient time for adminstering vaccination and good availability of vaccines. Several barriers were evident: lack of implementation of mandatory vaccination, no uniform recall and reminder system or system for detecting under-vaccinated children, staff shortages and lack of time to discuss vaccination with parents. MOTIVATION: Drivers were a belief in the value, safety and effectiveness of vaccination and seeing that they have an important role to play. Barriers were a tendency to blame external factors e.g. anti-vax movement and a fear of being blamed for adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified complex and inter-related barriers and drivers to health worker positive vaccination practices. These insights will now inform a process to identify and prioritize interventions.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802154

RESUMEN

Vaccination saves millions of lives, and the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region celebrated record high coverage in 2018. Still, national or sub-national coverage is insufficient to stop the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases. Health authorities are increasingly aware of the need to prioritize the "demand" side of vaccination. Achieving high and equitable vaccination uptake in all population groups is not a quick-fix; it requires long-term investment in multifaceted interventions, informed by research with the target groups. The WHO focuses on both individual and context determinants of vaccination behaviours. Individual determinants include risk perceptions, (dis)trust and perceived constraints; insights from psychology help us understand these. Context determinants include social norms, socioeconomic status and education level, and the way health systems are designed, operate and are financed. The WHO recommends using a proven theoretical model to understand vaccination behaviours and has adapted the "COM­B model" for their Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP) approach. This adapted model is described in the article. Informed by insights into the factors affecting vaccination behaviours, interventions and policies can be planned to increase vaccination uptake. Some evidence exists on proven methods to do this. At the individual level, some interventions have been seen to increase vaccination uptake, and experimental studies have assessed how certain messages or actions affect vaccination perceptions. At the context level, there is more documentation for effective strategies, including those that focus on making vaccination the easy, convenient and default behaviour and that focus on the interaction between caregivers and health workers.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas , Cuidadores , Alemania , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Vacunación
8.
Euro Surveill ; 24(2)2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646979

RESUMEN

In the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region, differences in uptake rates of routine childhood immunisation persist within and among countries, with rates even falling in some areas. There has been a tendency among national programmes, policymakers and the media in recent years to attribute missed vaccinations to faltering demand or refusal among parents. However, evidence shows that the reasons for suboptimal coverage are multifactorial and include the social determinants of health. At the midpoint in the implementation of the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020 (EVAP), national immunisation programmes should be aware that inequity may be a factor affecting their progress towards the EVAP immunisation targets. Social determinants of health, such as individual and household income and education, impact immunisation uptake as well as general health outcomes - even in high-income countries. One way to ensure optimal coverage is to make inequities in immunisation uptake visible by disaggregating immunisation coverage data and linking them with already available data sources of social determinants. This can serve as a starting point to identify and eliminate underlying structural causes of suboptimal uptake. The WHO Regional Office for Europe encourages countries to make the equitable delivery of vaccination a priority.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Cobertura de Vacunación/organización & administración , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Niño , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Inmunización , Vacunación
9.
Vaccine ; 36(31): 4687-4692, 2018 07 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945834

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Due to regular vaccine preventable disease outbreaks and sub-optimal immunisation uptake in the London borough of Hackney, home to the largest Charedi Orthodox Jewish community in Europe, it was decided, in consultation with the community, to implement the WHO Tailoring Immunization Programmes approach (TIP). DESIGN: The WHO Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP) approach was used. TIP provides a framework based on behavioural insights methodology to identify populations susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases, diagnose supply and demand side barriers and enablers to vaccination and recommend evidence-informed responses to improve vaccination coverage. RESULTS: The results of the formative research and behavioural analysis challenged the assumption that a cultural or religious anti-vaccination sentiment existed within the community. Critical issues related to access to and convenience of immunisation services. Service providers in the area have challenges due to having to deliver immunisation services to the large numbers of children without additional resource. Where mothers were choosing to delay or refuse vaccinations their reasons were broadly similar to the wider population. The behavioural analysis identified potential categorisation of subgroups within the community enabling a more tailored approach to addressing concerns and meeting parents' needs. CONCLUSION: The TIP approach was an effective way of investigating factors linked to sub-optimal immunisation within the Charedi community. The use of behavioural insights enabled the categorisation of subgroups so that more targeted interventions could be developed. The comprehensive stakeholder engagement which is a key pillar of the TIP approach ensured a deeper understanding of the barriers and enablers to vaccination as well as increasing the level of ownership in the community. TIP should be considered as a useful approach to identify main facilitators and barriers to vaccination in communities with suboptimal immunisation uptake.


Asunto(s)
Esquemas de Inmunización , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Cobertura de Vacunación , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Judíos , Londres , Masculino , Padres , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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