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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 23, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038662

RESUMEN

Pain is a frequent symptom in leprosy patients. It may be predominantly nociceptive, as in neuritis, or neuropathic, due to injury or nerve dysfunction. The differential diagnosis of these two forms of pain is a challenge in clinical practice, especially because it is quite common for a patient to suffer from both types of pain. A better understanding of cytokine profile may serve as a tool in assessing patients and also help to comprehend pathophysiology of leprosy pain. Patients with leprosy and neural pain (n = 22), neuropathic pain (n = 18), neuritis (nociceptive pain) (n = 4), or no pain (n = 17), further to those with diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain (n = 17) were recruited at Souza Araujo Out-Patient Unit (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). Serum levels of IL1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF, CCL-2/MCP-1, IFN-γ, CXCL-10/IP-10, and TGF-ß were evaluated in the different Groups. Impairment in thermal or pain sensitivity was the most frequent clinical finding (95.5%) in leprosy neuropathy patients with and without pain, but less frequent in Diabetic Group (88.2%). Previous reactional episodes have occurred in patients in the leprosy and Pain Group (p = 0.027) more often. Analysis of cytokine levels have demonstrated that the concentrations of IL-1ß, TNF, TGF-ß, and IL-17 in serum samples of patients having leprosy neuropathy in combination with neuropathic or nociceptive pain were higher when compared to the samples of leprosy neuropathy patients without pain. In addition, these cytokine levels were significantly augmented in leprosy patients with neuropathic pain in relation to those with neuropathic pain due to diabetes. IL-1ß levels are an independent variable associated with both types of pain in patients with leprosy neuropathy. IL-6 concentration was increased in both groups with pain. Moreover, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10 levels were higher in patients with diabetic neuropathy over those with leprosy neuropathy. In brief, IL-1ß is an independent variable related to neuropathic and nociceptive pain in patients with leprosy, and could be an important biomarker for patient follow-up. IL-6 was higher in both groups with pain (leprosy and diabetic patients), and could be a therapeutic target in pain control.

2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180579, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970080

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: CD64 (FcγR1) is a high-affinity receptor for monomeric IgG1 and IgG3. Circulating neutrophils express very low amounts of CD64 on their surface. OBJECTIVES: Our primary aim was to investigate the utility of neutrophil CD64 surface expression as a biomarker of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We hypothesised that elevated neutrophil CD64 expression in TB infection would be associated with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) as an inducer of CD64 expression. METHODS: The expression level of CD64 per neutrophil (PMN CD64 index) was quantitatively measured with flow cytometry using a Leuko64 kit in samples from patients with TB and latent TB infection (LTBI) as well as healthy controls, as part of a prospective cohort study in Brazil. FINDINGS: The PMN CD64 index in patients with TB was higher than that in healthy controls and LTBI. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses determined that the PMN CD64 index could discriminate patients with TB from those with LTBI and healthy individuals. PMN CD64 index levels returned to baseline levels after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The positive regulation of CD64 expression in circulating neutrophils of patients with active TB could represent an additional biomarker for diagnosis of active TB and could be used for monitoring individuals with LTBI before progression of TB disease.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis Latente/diagnóstico , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Receptores de IgG/inmunología , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análisis , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Ensayos de Liberación de Interferón gamma , Tuberculosis Latente/inmunología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180579, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002686

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND CD64 (FcγR1) is a high-affinity receptor for monomeric IgG1 and IgG3. Circulating neutrophils express very low amounts of CD64 on their surface. OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to investigate the utility of neutrophil CD64 surface expression as a biomarker of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We hypothesised that elevated neutrophil CD64 expression in TB infection would be associated with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) as an inducer of CD64 expression. METHODS The expression level of CD64 per neutrophil (PMN CD64 index) was quantitatively measured with flow cytometry using a Leuko64 kit in samples from patients with TB and latent TB infection (LTBI) as well as healthy controls, as part of a prospective cohort study in Brazil. FINDINGS The PMN CD64 index in patients with TB was higher than that in healthy controls and LTBI. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses determined that the PMN CD64 index could discriminate patients with TB from those with LTBI and healthy individuals. PMN CD64 index levels returned to baseline levels after treatment. CONCLUSIONS The positive regulation of CD64 expression in circulating neutrophils of patients with active TB could represent an additional biomarker for diagnosis of active TB and could be used for monitoring individuals with LTBI before progression of TB disease.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Biomarcadores/análisis , Tuberculosis Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Latente/inmunología , Citometría de Flujo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos de Liberación de Interferón gamma , Neutrófilos/inmunología
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(6): 1609-1613, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611495

RESUMEN

Neural pain is a frequent symptom in leprosy disease. There is a paucity of data regarding neural pain diagnostics resulting in common prescriptive errors when neuritis is confused with neuropathic or mixed nociceptive-neuropathic pain. The present study identified important demographic, clinical, and neurophysiological features of 42 leprosy neuropathy patients presenting neuropathic pain (NP). During routine evaluations, patients were selected asking if they had ever experienced neural pain. Data analyses of their pain characteristics, clinical examination results, and both the Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questionnaire and Hamilton Depression Scale scores were used to classify these patients. The most common word they used to describe the sensation of pain for 25 (60%) of these patients was "burning." In the early stages of the disease and before leprosy diagnosis, 19 (45%) had already complained about NP and leprosy treatment was unable to prevent its occurrence in 15 (36%). Leprosy reactions, considered NP risk factors, occurred in 32 (76%) cases. Knowledge of typical NP characteristics could be used to develop more effective therapeutic approaches for a notoriously difficult-to-treat pain condition.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/complicaciones , Neuralgia/fisiopatología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/fisiopatología , Lepra Multibacilar/complicaciones , Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Lepra Multibacilar/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Motores/epidemiología , Trastornos Motores/etiología , Conducción Nerviosa/fisiología , Neuralgia/epidemiología , Neuralgia/etiología , Dolor , Dimensión del Dolor , Trastornos de la Sensación/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Sensación/etiología , Adulto Joven
5.
J Infect Dis ; 216(12): 1635-1643, 2017 12 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272525

RESUMEN

Background: Leprosy, the leading infectious cause of disability worldwide, remains a major public health challenge in the most severely affected countries despite the sharp decline in new cases in recent years. The search for biomarkers is essential to achieve a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease. Methods: Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) analyses of sera from 87 leprosy patients with or without reactions were conducted via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In situ identification of PTX3 in skin lesion was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence assays. Results: We found that PTX3 serum levels were higher in multibacillary patients when evaluated before the onset of acute erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) and persistently elevated during reaction. Thalidomide treatment reduced PTX3 in the serum 7 days after starting treatment. In situ analyses have also demonstrated enhancement of PTX3 in ENL lesions and showed that treatment with thalidomide reduced its expression and the prominent neutrophilic infiltrate, a hallmark of the disease. Conclusions: In summary, our study provides in vivo evidence that PTX3 is enhanced during ENL but not in reversal reaction and provides a new molecular target in ENL pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/análisis , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Eritema Nudoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nudoso/patología , Lepra Lepromatosa/diagnóstico , Lepra Lepromatosa/patología , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/análisis , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Proteína C-Reactiva/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Leprostáticos/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/genética , Piel/patología , Talidomida/administración & dosificación , Adulto Joven
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(7): e0005754, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715406

RESUMEN

The pathways that trigger exacerbated immune reactions in leprosy could be determined by genetic variations. Here, in a prospective approach, both genetic and non-genetic variables influencing the amount of time before the development of reactional episodes were studied using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the genetic effect was estimated by the Cox proportional-hazards regression model. In a sample including 447 leprosy patients, we confirmed that gender (male), and high bacillary clinical forms are risk factors for leprosy reactions. From the 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 8 candidate genes genotyped (TNF/LTA, IFNG, IL10, TLR1, NOD2, SOD2, and IL6) we observed statistically different survival curves for rs751271 at the NOD2 and rs2069845 at the IL6 genes (log-rank p-values = 0.002 and 0.023, respectively), suggesting an influence on the amount of time before developing leprosy reactions. Cox models showed associations between the SNPs rs751271 at NOD2 and rs2069845 at IL6 with leprosy reactions (HRGT = 0.45, p = 0.002; HRAG = 1.88, p = 0.0008, respectively). Finally, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were confirmed as high, while IL-10 titers were low in the sera of reactional patients. Rs751271-GT genotype-bearing individuals correlated (p = 0.05) with lower levels of IL-6 in sera samples, corroborating the genetic results. Although the experimental size may be considered a limitation of the study, the findings confirm the association of classical variables such as sex and clinical forms with leprosy, demonstrating the consistency of the results. From the results, we conclude that SNPs at the NOD2 and IL6 genes are associated with leprosy reactions as an outcome. NOD2 also has a clear functional pro-inflammatory link that is coherent with the exacerbated responses observed in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Inflamación/patología , Interleucina-6/genética , Lepra/patología , Proteína Adaptadora de Señalización NOD2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación/genética , Lepra/genética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(5): 1695-1704, 2017 May.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28538938

RESUMEN

Studies have demonstrated that the geographical distribution of leprosy is related to different socioeconomic factors. This article aims to study the geographical distribution of leprosy in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cases of leprosy reported in the 2001-2012 period were mapped according to municipality. Epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were calculated. The ArcMap program was used for the construction of maps and Earth View to calculate the Bayesian rate. It was observed that leprosy is presented in hyper-endemic levels especially in the metropolitan area. However, there is also a reduction of the detection rate in the most recent study period. In municipalities in the metropolitan region and the north western region detection in children under 15 is high, indicating an active transmission situation. In municipalities in the south-central region and especially in the coastal region, there was a high proportion of cases diagnosed with level II disability, reflecting late diagnosis. There was no linear correlation between socioeconomic indicators and leprosy rate. These results contribute to the analysis of the geographical distribution of leprosy, important for the identification of areas for resource allocation, aiming to control and eliminate the disease.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Lepra/epidemiología , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Diagnóstico Tardío , Humanos , Lepra/diagnóstico , Lepra/transmisión , Asignación de Recursos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(5): 1695-1704, Mai. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890327

RESUMEN

Resumo Trabalhos demonstraram que a distribuição geográfica da hanseníase está relacionada a diferentes fatores socioeconômicos. O objetivo deste artigo é estudar a distribuição geográfica da hanseníase no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os casos de hanseníase notificados no período 2001-2012 foram mapeados segundo município. Foram calculados indicadores epidemiológicos e socioeconômicos. Utilizou-se o programa ArcMap para a construção dos mapas e o Terra View para o cálculo de taxa bayesiana. Observou-se que a hanseníase apresenta-se em níveis hiperendêmicos, especialmente na região metropolitana. No entanto, observa-se também uma redução do coeficiente de detecção no período mais recente do estudo. Em municípios da região metropolitana e da região noroeste a detecção em menores de 15 anos é elevada, indicando situação de transmissão ativa. Em municípios da região centro-sul e especialmente na baixada litorânea, observou-se elevada proporção de casos diagnosticados com grau II de incapacidade, refletindo alto índice de diagnóstico tardio. Não foi observada correlação linear entre os indicadores socioeconômicos e a detecção da hanseníase. Esses resultados contribuem para a análise da distribuição geográfica da hanseníase, importante para a identificação de áreas para alocação de recursos, visando controle e eliminação da doença.


Abstract Studies have demonstrated that the geographical distribution of leprosy is related to different socioeconomic factors. This article aims to study the geographical distribution of leprosy in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cases of leprosy reported in the 2001-2012 period were mapped according to municipality. Epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were calculated. The ArcMap program was used for the construction of maps and Earth View to calculate the Bayesian rate. It was observed that leprosy is presented in hyper-endemic levels especially in the metropolitan area. However, there is also a reduction of the detection rate in the most recent study period. In municipalities in the metropolitan region and the north western region detection in children under 15 is high, indicating an active transmission situation. In municipalities in the south-central region and especially in the coastal region, there was a high proportion of cases diagnosed with level II disability, reflecting late diagnosis. There was no linear correlation between socioeconomic indicators and leprosy rate. These results contribute to the analysis of the geographical distribution of leprosy, important for the identification of areas for resource allocation, aiming to control and eliminate the disease.

9.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(5): 1695-1704, maio 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-839970

RESUMEN

Resumo Trabalhos demonstraram que a distribuição geográfica da hanseníase está relacionada a diferentes fatores socioeconômicos. O objetivo deste artigo é estudar a distribuição geográfica da hanseníase no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os casos de hanseníase notificados no período 2001-2012 foram mapeados segundo município. Foram calculados indicadores epidemiológicos e socioeconômicos. Utilizou-se o programa ArcMap para a construção dos mapas e o Terra View para o cálculo de taxa bayesiana. Observou-se que a hanseníase apresenta-se em níveis hiperendêmicos, especialmente na região metropolitana. No entanto, observa-se também uma redução do coeficiente de detecção no período mais recente do estudo. Em municípios da região metropolitana e da região noroeste a detecção em menores de 15 anos é elevada, indicando situação de transmissão ativa. Em municípios da região centro-sul e especialmente na baixada litorânea, observou-se elevada proporção de casos diagnosticados com grau II de incapacidade, refletindo alto índice de diagnóstico tardio. Não foi observada correlação linear entre os indicadores socioeconômicos e a detecção da hanseníase. Esses resultados contribuem para a análise da distribuição geográfica da hanseníase, importante para a identificação de áreas para alocação de recursos, visando controle e eliminação da doença.


Abstract Studies have demonstrated that the geographical distribution of leprosy is related to different socioeconomic factors. This article aims to study the geographical distribution of leprosy in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cases of leprosy reported in the 2001-2012 period were mapped according to municipality. Epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were calculated. The ArcMap program was used for the construction of maps and Earth View to calculate the Bayesian rate. It was observed that leprosy is presented in hyper-endemic levels especially in the metropolitan area. However, there is also a reduction of the detection rate in the most recent study period. In municipalities in the metropolitan region and the north western region detection in children under 15 is high, indicating an active transmission situation. In municipalities in the south-central region and especially in the coastal region, there was a high proportion of cases diagnosed with level II disability, reflecting late diagnosis. There was no linear correlation between socioeconomic indicators and leprosy rate. These results contribute to the analysis of the geographical distribution of leprosy, important for the identification of areas for resource allocation, aiming to control and eliminate the disease.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Lepra/epidemiología , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiología , Diagnóstico Tardío , Lepra/diagnóstico , Lepra/transmisión , Asignación de Recursos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
Fontilles, Rev. leprol ; 31(1): 21-32, ene.-abr. 2017. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-163766

RESUMEN

Antecedentes: El Mycobacterium leprae y el VIH causan enfermedades de tipo infecciosas muy preocupantes para la sanidad mundial. Son especial motivo de preocupación cuando los pacientes se coinfectan con ambos agentes patógenos. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los episodios de reacción de reversión (RR) y el efecto del uso de corticosteroides sobre el tratamiento de pacientes de lepra borderline tuberculoide co-infectados con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Métodos: Este trabajo es un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes en el que se observan las respuestas a la terapia con corticoides y sus manifestaciones clínicas. Se analizan variables durante y después de la multiterapia farmacológica de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) entre el primer y último día de la toma de prednisona, con un máximo de hasta 6 meses posteriores a haber iniciado la terapia corticosteroidea. Resultados: Se incluye un total de 22 casos VIH-positivos y 28 VIH-negativos. La pérdida de sensibilidad y el engrosamiento neural eran estadísticamente significativos mientras que las lesiones ulceradas sólo se detectaron en el grupo coinfectado. La mayoría de pacientes fueron diagnosticados de lepra en fase de leprorreacción RR y seis pacientes manifestaron RR como un síndrome inflamatorio de restitución inmunológica. De promedio, ambos grupos recibieron dosis similares de corticosteroides (diferencia de 0·1 mg/kg/día). Conclusiones: Las manifestaciones clínicas de ambos grupos fueron similares y la mejoría general fue debida a la administración de corticoides. Registro del ensayo: Este trabajo fue presentado y aprobado por el Ethics Committee on Research of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute el 8 de agosto de 2011 (registro 616/11)


Background: Mycobacterium leprae and HIV cause infectious diseases of great concern for the public health care sector worldwide. Both are especially worrisome diseases when patients become co-infected and exhibit the expected clinical exuberance. The objective of this study was to evaluate episodes of reversal reaction (RR) and the effect of the use of corticosteroids on the treatment of borderline tuberculoid leprosy patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study in which the clinical manifestations of the patients and their responses to corticosteroid therapy were observed. Variables were analysed during and after multidrug therapy between the first and last days of prednisone, which occurred up to a maximum of 6 months after initiating corticosteroid therapy. Results: A total of 22 HIV-positive and 28 HIV-negative cases were included. Loss of sensitivity and neural thickening were statistically significant while clinically ulcerated lesions were only observed in the co-infected group. Most patients were diagnosed with leprosy in the presence of RR and six patients manifested RR as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. On average, both groups received similar doses of corticosteroids (difference of 0·1 mg/kg/day).Conclusions: It is of special interest that the clinical manifestations in both groups were found to be similar and that overall improvement occurred as a result of corticosteroid therapy.Trial registration This work was submitted to and approved by the Ethics Committee on Research of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute on August 8, 2011 (registration 616/11)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adolescente , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Lepra Tuberculoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Coinfección/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra Tuberculoide/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidad , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(2): e0005364, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28192426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leprosy remains an important public health problem in Brazil where 28,761 new cases were diagnosed in 2015, the second highest number of new cases detected globally. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a pathogen spread by patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy. This study was designed to identify population groups most at risk for MB disease in Brazil, contributing to new ideas for early diagnosis and leprosy control. METHODS: A national databank of cases reported in Brazil (2001-2013) was used to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of MB leprosy. Additionally, the databank of a leprosy reference center was used to determine factors associated with higher bacillary loads. RESULTS: A total of 541,090 cases were analyzed. New case detection rates (NCDRs) increased with age, especially for men with MB leprosy, reaching 44.8 new cases/100,000 population in 65-69 year olds. Males and subjects older than 59 years had twice the odds of MB leprosy than females and younger cases (OR = 2.36, CI95% = 2.33-2.38; OR = 1.99, CI95% = 1.96-2.02, respectively). Bacillary load was higher in male and in patients aged 20-39 and 40-59 years compared to females and other age groups. From 2003 to 2013, there was a progressive reduction in annual NCDRs and an increase in the percentage of MB cases and of elderly patients in Brazil. These data suggest reduction of leprosy transmission in the country. CONCLUSION: Public health policies for leprosy control in endemic areas in Brazil should include activities especially addressed to men and to the elderly in order to further reduce M. leprae transmission.


Asunto(s)
Lepra Multibacilar/epidemiología , Grupos de Población , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(8): e0004955, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27556927

RESUMEN

Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1) Lepromatous leprosy, (2) Borderline leprosy, (3) Reversal reaction, (4) ENL, and (5) ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates-a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64, presumably contributing to the immunopathogenesis of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Eritema Nudoso/inmunología , Leprostáticos/uso terapéutico , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Receptores de IgG/genética , Talidomida/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Biopsia , Eritema Nudoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nudoso/tratamiento farmacológico , Eritema Nudoso/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra Dimorfa/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra Dimorfa/inmunología , Lepra Dimorfa/microbiología , Lepra Lepromatosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra Lepromatosa/inmunología , Lepra Lepromatosa/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Receptores de IgG/inmunología , Piel/microbiología , Piel/patología , Adulto Joven
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 49-54, Dec. 2012. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-659740

RESUMEN

Contact surveillance is an important strategy to ensure effective early diagnosis and control of leprosy; passive detection may not be as efficient because it is directly tied to the ready availability of heath care services and health education campaigns. The aim of this study was to reinforce that contact surveillance is the most effective strategy for the control of leprosy. The analysed data were obtained from a cohort of contacts and cases diagnosed through a national referral service for leprosy. We analysed data from patients diagnosed between 1987-2010 at the Souza Araújo Ambulatory in Rio de Janeiro. Epidemiological characteristics of leprosy cases diagnosed through contact surveillance and characteristics of passively detected index cases were compared using a conditional logistic regression model. Cases diagnosed by contact surveillance were found earlier in the progression of the disease, resulting in less severe clinical presentations, lower levels of initial and final disability grades, lower initial and final bacterial indices and a lower prevalence of disease reaction. In this respect, contact surveillance proved to be an effective tertiary prevention strategy, indicating that active surveillance is especially important in areas of high endemicity, such as Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Lepra/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Lepra/transmisión , Prevalencia
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 17(9): 2533-41, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22996903

RESUMEN

UNLABELLED: The scope of this study was to compare epidemiological data on leprosy patients living in two cities with different socioeconomic and endemic profiles that were monitored in a single center of reference. A descriptive study was made of data from patients in the Souza Araújo Outpatient facility treated in the period 1986-2008, who were resident in the cities of Rio de Janeiro = 1353) and Duque de Caxias (n = 336). RESULTS: Among patients from Duque de Caxias, in comparison with patients from Rio de Janeiro, there was a higher proportion of cases: below the age of 15 years, multibacillary, higher initial bacilloscopic index (BI) and cases detected through surveillance of contacts. Patients in Duque de Caxias had lower average incomes and education levels. There were no statistically significant differences regarding gender, disability level, reaction in the diagnosis, final BI, bandonment and regularity of treatment. The differences found between the patients monitored in a single center of reference, could be partly related to contextual differences between the municipalities. On the other hand, it was observed that the provision of treatment and monitoring can minimize the effect of different contextual factors on health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Lepra/epidemiología , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Derivación y Consulta , Salud Urbana
15.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 17(9): 2533-2541, set. 2012. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-649915

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar dados epidemiológicos de pacientes de hanseníase residentes em dois municípios com perfil socioeconômico e nível de endemicidade diferentes e que foram acompanhados em um mesmo centro de referência. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos dados de pacientes tratados no ambulatório Souza Araújo, 1986 a 2008, residentes nos municípios do Rio de Janeiro (n = 1353) e Duque de Caxias (n = 336). Entre os pacientes desta cidade, em comparação com os da outra, observou-se maior proporção de casos: com idade inferior a 15 anos, multibalicares, com maior índice baciloscópico (IB) inicial, e detectados através da vigilância de contatos. Os pacientes de Duque de Caxias apresentaram menor renda média e nível de escolaridade. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas quanto ao sexo, grau de incapacidade inicial, reação no diagnóstico, IB final, abandono e regularidade do tratamento. As diferenças encontradas entre os pacientes acompanhados em um mesmo centro de referência poderiam estar, em parte, relacionadas a diferenças contextuais existentes entre os municípios. Por outro lado, observou-se que a oferta de tratamento e acompanhamento podem minimizar o efeito que os fatores contextuais apresentam sobre os desfechos de saúde.


The scope of this study was to compare epidemiological data on leprosy patients living in two cities with different socioeconomic and endemic profiles that were monitored in a single center of reference. A descriptive study was made of data from patients in the Souza Araújo Outpatient facility treated in the period 1986-2008, who were resident in the cities of Rio de Janeiro = 1353) and Duque de Caxias (n = 336). Results: Among patients from Duque de Caxias, in comparison with patients from Rio de Janeiro, there was a higher proportion of cases: below the age of 15 years, multibacillary, higher initial bacilloscopic index (BI) and cases detected through surveillance of contacts. Patients in Duque de Caxias had lower average incomes and education levels. There were no statistically significant differences regarding gender, disability level, reaction in the diagnosis, final BI, bandonment and regularity of treatment. The differences found between the patients monitored in a single center of reference, could be partly related to contextual differences between the municipalities. On the other hand, it was observed that the provision of treatment and monitoring can minimize the effect of different contextual factors on health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Derivación y Consulta , Salud Urbana
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 107 Suppl 1: 49-54, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23283453

RESUMEN

Contact surveillance is an important strategy to ensure effective early diagnosis and control of leprosy; passive detection may not be as efficient because it is directly tied to the ready availability of heath care services and health education campaigns. The aim of this study was to reinforce that contact surveillance is the most effective strategy for the control of leprosy. The analysed data were obtained from a cohort of contacts and cases diagnosed through a national referral service for leprosy. We analysed data from patients diagnosed between 1987-2010 at the Souza Araújo Ambulatory in Rio de Janeiro. Epidemiological characteristics of leprosy cases diagnosed through contact surveillance and characteristics of passively detected index cases were compared using a conditional logistic regression model. Cases diagnosed by contact surveillance were found earlier in the progression of the disease, resulting in less severe clinical presentations, lower levels of initial and final disability grades, lower initial and final bacterial indices and a lower prevalence of disease reaction. In this respect, contact surveillance proved to be an effective tertiary prevention strategy, indicating that active surveillance is especially important in areas of high endemicity, such as Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Lepra/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/transmisión , Masculino , Prevalencia
17.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 16(12): 4777-4786, dez. 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-606603

RESUMEN

Drug users (DU) are a marginalized group and at risk for viral hepatitis, who seldom access health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 111 DU with chronic HBV/HCV and 15 in-depth interviews with health professionals/policymakers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Most interviewees were male, non-white, with a low educational background, unemployed and/or living on less than $245 a month (minimun wage). In the last 6 months, 61.8 percent of interviewees snorted cocaine, 64.7 percent at least once a week. Half of the interviewees had a stable partner and 38.3 percent of those with occasional partners never/almost never using condoms. Addiction treatment seeking was found to be associated with: being white (OR:5.5), high-school degree (OR:8.7), and employment (OR:5.7). Hepatitis treatment seeking was high (80.9 percent), and access to low-threshold, user-friendly health services was key for treatment seeking behaviors (OR:3.6). Missed opportunities for hepatitis treatment seem to be associated with structural (uneven political/financial support to hepatitis programs) and patient-related barriers (severe addiction and non-adherence). Those most in need were less likely to access treatment, calling for renewed strategies, in order to curb hepatitis among impoverished drug users and their sexual partners.


Usuários de drogas (UD) são uma população marginalizada e sob risco para hepatites virais que raramente acessam tratamento. Foi utilizado inquérito com 110 UD com Hepatite crônica e 15 entrevistas em profundidade com profissionais e gestores de saúde. A maioria dos entrevistados é homem, não branco, com baixa escolaridade, desempregado e com renda < salário mínimo. Nos últimos 6 meses, 61,8 por cento usaram cocaína inalada e 64,7 por cento uma vez por semana ou mais. Dos participantes, 50 por cento tiveram relações sexuais com parceiros estáveis e 38,3 por cento com parceiros ocasionais nunca/quase nunca usando preservativos. Preditores de busca por tratamento para dependência química incluem: raça/cor branca (OR:5.5), ter ensino médio (OR:8.7) e estar empregado (OR:5.7). 80,9 por cento dos participantes buscou tratamento para hepatite, o acesso a serviços mais acolhedores é determinante para esse comportamento (OR:3.6). Oportunidades perdidas para tratamento de hepatite estão associadas a barreiras estruturais (inadequado apoio político/financeiro aos programas) e barreiras individuais (dependência química severa e baixa aderência). Aqueles que mais precisam de tratamento possuem menor chance de obtê-lo, salientando a importância de renovar estratégias para responder à epidemia de hepatite entre usuários de drogas empobrecidos e seus parceiros sexuais.


Asunto(s)
Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Hepatitis B Crónica/terapia , Hepatitis C Crónica/terapia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Salud Urbana
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 16(12): 4777-86, 2011 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22124917

RESUMEN

Drug users (DU) are a marginalized group and at risk for viral hepatitis, who seldom access health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 111 DU with chronic HBV/HCV and 15 in-depth interviews with health professionals/policymakers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Most interviewees were male, non-white, with a low educational background, unemployed and/or living on less than $245 a month (minimun wage). In the last 6 months, 61.8% of interviewees snorted cocaine, 64.7% at least once a week. Half of the interviewees had a stable partner and 38.3% of those with occasional partners never/almost never using condoms. Addiction treatment seeking was found to be associated with: being white (OR:5.5), high-school degree (OR:8.7), and employment (OR:5.7). Hepatitis treatment seeking was high (80.9%), and access to low-threshold, user-friendly health services was key for treatment seeking behaviors (OR:3.6). Missed opportunities for hepatitis treatment seem to be associated with structural (uneven political/financial support to hepatitis programs) and patient-related barriers (severe addiction and non-adherence). Those most in need were less likely to access treatment, calling for renewed strategies, in order to curb hepatitis among impoverished drug users and their sexual partners.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Hepatitis B Crónica/terapia , Hepatitis C Crónica/terapia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Urbana
19.
J Clin Virol ; 44(3): 200-6, 2009 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19195927

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Injecting drug users (IDU) have a key role in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) epidemiology. Young/short-term IDUs constitute a target group for preventive/harm reduction interventions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate HCV transmission among young/short-term (ST) and long-term (LT) IDUs, from the perspective of epidemiology and molecular biology. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study assessing the prevalence of HCV infection/genotypes, as well as risk behaviours/practices among IDUs from Rio de Janeiro. Phylogenetic analyses were performed and the extent of segregation between sequences was quantified by the Association Index. RESULTS: ST were more likely to engage into needle-sharing (p=.021) and LT to attend Needle Exchange Programs (p=.006). HCV prevalence was 10.1% vs. 23.4% among initiates and LT, respectively (p<.001). Older age vs. imprisonment and longer duration of IDU career were independent predictors for HCV infection among ST and LT, respectively. Among the latter, NEP attendance was inversely associated with viral infection. HCV3a infections were the most prevalent. A moderate extent of phylogenetic segregation between sequences was found, suggestive of transmission between IDU subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The lower HCV prevalence among young/short-term IDUs cannot be viewed with complacency, due to their frequent engagement into direct/indirect sharing practices and the ongoing transmission between IDU subsets. To avert new infections, preventive/harm reduction policies must be tailored to empirical findings.


Asunto(s)
Consumidores de Drogas , Hepacivirus/clasificación , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/transmisión , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/complicaciones , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hepacivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis C/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Adulto Joven
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2006. vi,104 p. mapas, tab, graf.
Tesis en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-490871

RESUMEN

A epidemia de AIDS no Brasil vem se disseminando dos maiores centros urbanos para municípios de médio e pequeno porte, onde a disponibilização e monitoramento de intervenções preventivas e tratamento constituem desafios relevantes. Os usuários de drogas injetáveis (UDI) desempenham um papel relevante na epidemia de HIV/AIDS no Brasil e em diversos outros países. Os UDI funcionariam como uma (ponte) na disseminação do HIV para outras populações, por estarem duplamente expostos à transmissão parenteral e sexual e devido à sua estreita interação com não-usuários. A importância dos determinantes econômicos e sociais vem sendo reconhecida, e têm recebido atenção em estudos epidemiológicos relativos à distribuição e determinantes da dinâmica do HIV e demais infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. Considerando a grande heterogeneidade da epidemia brasileira, as desigualdades sociais, as desigualdades no acesso e infra-estrutura médica nas diferentes regiões do Brasil, faz-se oportuno identificar indicadores relacionados aos diferenciais de magnitude e extensão da epidemia de AIDS nos diferentes municípios brasileiros, ao longo do tempo. A análise dos casos de AIDS registrados entre UDI nos municípios brasileiros (1984 - 2000) identificou os indicadores (número de médicos por habitante) e (distância-padrão da capital do respectivo estado) como associados à taxa de incidência de AIDS entre UDI, evidenciando que os casos de AIDS entre UDI parecem se concentrar em municípios mais ricos e bem equipados. Na análise dos casos de AIDS registrados entre heterossexuais nos municípios da região Sul do país os indicadores (Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano) (IDH) e a (Proporção de moradores que tem acesso a instalações sanitárias) se mostraram inversamente associados à taxa de AIDS entre heterossexuais. A taxa de incidência de AIDS entre UDI se mostrou positivamente associada à taxa de AIDS entre heterossexuais. Os achados demonstram a importância do papel da desigualdade/pobreza...


Asunto(s)
Indicadores y Reactivos , Sistemas de Información , Gobierno Local , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Acceso Universal a los Servicios de Salud , Brasil , Incidencia
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