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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389555

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the implementation strategy of a recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) clinical decision support (CDS) intervention in community pharmacy workflow to increase second-dose vaccination rates. SETTING: The level of analysis was the unit (e.g., pharmacy). The participants were selected from across approximately 2200 pharmacies in 37 states on the basis of criteria believed to affect implementation success (e.g., size, location) using a sampling matrix. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Large supermarket pharmacy chain. PRACTICE INNOVATION: Vaccine-based CDS intervention in community pharmacy workflow. EVALUATION: A mixed-methods contextual inquiry approach explored the implementation of a new RZV CDS workflow intervention. Data collection involved key informant, semistructured interviews and an electronic, Web-based survey. The survey was based on a validated instrument and was made available to all pharmacists nationwide within the study organization to assess views of the implementation's appropriateness, acceptability, and feasibility during early implementation. Afterward, a series of semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted until a point of saturation was reached. The interview guide was based on selected constructs of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. RESULTS: A total of 1128 survey responses were collected. Survey respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the implementation was acceptable (78.34%), appropriate (79.92%), and feasible (80.53%). Twelve pharmacist participants were interviewed via telephone. Five themes emerged from the interviews, revealing facilitators and barriers that affected implementation of the intervention: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of individuals, and process. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the RZV CDS "nudge" intervention was welcomed, suitable, and operable in the community pharmacy setting to meet the needs of the organization, employees, and patients. The contextual factors identified during the implementation process of this CDS intervention in a community pharmacy setting may be used in scaling this and future CDS interventions for public health initiatives aimed at pharmacists in this setting.

2.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 11(12): 1296-1302, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836156

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Graduates from the pediatric degree option program (PDOP) were tracked to identify confidence with pediatric pharmacotherapy and categorize initial employment following graduation. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The PDOP was established in 2011 and requires 16 credits of pediatric-focused didactic coursework and advanced pharmacy practice experiences. Thirty PDOP graduates completed a 30-item questionnaire to assess confidence in pediatric pharmacotherapy knowledge and skill statements and employment position following graduation. Responses were compared between those completing post-graduate pediatric pharmacy training and those who did not. FINDINGS: Nineteen (63.3%) graduates responded. All expressed "very high" or "high" confidence with dose calculations, first-line treatment selection for otitis media, and counseling caregivers on medications. However, <75% expressed "very high" or "high" confidence with identification of pharmacokinetic differences in neonates vs. children, utilization of growth charts, and counseling children. Ten (52.6%) respondents completed post-graduate training, and the remainder had an initial position in community or hospital pharmacy. There were no significant differences in pharmacotherapy skill and knowledge statements between those completing residency vs. those who did not. The most beneficial experiences reported were gaining clinical experience in pediatric pharmacy and medication safety. SUMMARY: Overall, PDOP graduates noted high confidence in pediatric pharmacotherapy skills and knowledge. Most felt that the PDOP influenced their initial career plans and made them more competitive for their initial position following graduation. The PDOP was well received and provided an opportunity for additional knowledge and skill development for students interested in pediatrics.

3.
J Pediatr Intensive Care ; 8(4): 226-232, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673458

RESUMEN

This retrospective study compared the continuous infusions prescribed for obese and nonobese children. Ninety-five (13.2%) received an infusion. A greater percentage of obese ( n = 42/168) versus nonobese (53/552) children received infusions, p < 0.01. No difference was noted in the median number of infusions between the obese and nonobese groups, 2 versus 2, p = 0.975. The top 20 prescribed infusions included ten (50%) for sedation/analgesia or neuromuscular blockade and six (30%) for hemodynamic support. A literature search was performed for these 20 agents to determine pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing in obese children and revealed six studies evaluating fentanyl ( n = 2), midazolam ( n = 1), and propofol ( n = 3).

4.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(6): 6875, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507285

RESUMEN

Objective. To assess the impact of pharmacy school characteristics on the pass rates of students taking the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) for the first time. Methods. A retrospective review of NAPLEX first-time pass rates, pharmacy school characteristics and percent of total graduating class who matched for a first postgraduate year (PGY1) residency was performed for 2014, 2015, and 2016. All US colleges of pharmacy accredited as of July 2017 were included. Independent samples t tests, paired samples t tests, correlational analysis, and multiple linear regression were conducted. Results. The first-time pass rates on the NAPLEX were significantly higher for the following: schools located within an academic health center; schools established before 2000, and public schools. The 2016 NAPLEX first-time pass rate was significantly higher for schools with a traditional four-year program structure versus an accelerated three-year structure. Also, a school's first-time pass rate on the NAPLEX was positively, significantly correlated with percentage of fourth-year students who matched for a PGY1 residency and being located within an academic health center. The NAPLEX first-time pass rate for the previous year and percent of the total graduating class that matched for a PGY1 residency were significant predictors in the final regression models for 2015 and 2016 NAPLEX first-time pass rates. Conclusion. While differences in certain program characteristics was coorelated with NAPLEX pass rate, many of these factors are not modifiable. Programs can proactively and critically evaluate their educational programs and the readiness of their students to sit for the NAPLEX.

5.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 24(3): 183-193, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093017

RESUMEN

An increasing number of pediatric clinical pharmacists are pursuing careers in academia. Once in an academic position, questions, challenges and benefits related to the processes of academic evaluation and advancement unique to pediatric academia often arise. This is the second article in a 2-part series that attempts to demystify pediatric faculty positions and address gaps in the literature regarding careers in pediatric-focused academic positions. The purpose of this article is to review key aspects pertaining to academic evaluation and the preparation for and process of academic advancement/promotion. A question and answer format is used to discuss common questions related to these processes and tips for success are provided. This article is primarily intended to be used as a helpful guide for junior faculty members as well as mid-level individuals seeking advancement; however, it will also benefit students, trainees, and practicing pharmacists seeking increased knowledge of pediatric academic career paths.

6.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 24(2): 79-89, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019400

RESUMEN

Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing and evolving field with an increasing number of pediatric clinical pharmacists in academia. In 2017, pediatric practice faculty members represented approximately 7.6% of all pharmacy practice faculty in the United States. The benefits of practicing in an academic environment are many, including, but not limited to, the ability to shape the future of pharmacy practice through the training of the next generation of pharmacists, contributing to science through research and scholarly activities for the care of pediatric patients, and positively impacting patient care for the most vulnerable of patients. Part one of this two-part series describes careers in academic pediatric pharmacy, as well as faculty roles and responsibilities, and provides information and advice related to the preparation and transition into careers in academic pediatric pharmacy.

7.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 10(5): 627-636, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986823

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To describe the development of a Pediatric Degree Option program and its impact on pediatric-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and faculty scholarly productivity. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY: The Pediatric Degree Option program was established in 2011 and requires 16 h of didactic coursework and APPEs. The number of pediatric-focused APPEs and mean number of APPEs per pediatric faculty per year was compared pre- (2005-2010) and post-implementation (2011-2016). In addition, the median number of scholarship activities per student pre- and post-implementation was compared. The initial position obtained by graduates completing the degree option was collected. FINDINGS: Thirty students have completed the program. There were 146 pediatric-focused APPEs for the pre-implementation period and 259 post-implementation. However, there was an increase in pediatric faculty during the post-implementation, so there was no difference in the mean number of pediatric-focused APPEs per pediatric faculty in the pre- versus post-implementation period, 8.4 + 2.7 versus 6.9 +1.0, p = .224. A significant increase in the median number of pediatric-focused scholarly activities per student was observed pre-versus post-implementation, 3 (2-5) versus 5 (3-7), p = .005. Twenty-six (86.7%) students in the post-implementation period participated as a research assistant or coauthor in an original research or manuscript writing project. Students accepted a variety of positions after graduation including twelve (40%) accepting a PGY1 residency and eight (36.7%) as community pharmacists. SUMMARY: Although the number of pediatric-focused APPEs increased in the post-implementation, this did not result in an increase in the mean number of mean pediatric-focused APPEs per pediatric faculty member. However, it did allow a unique opportunity for 30 students with interest in pediatrics and allowed for content and skill development. The Pediatric Degree Option program allowed students to gain experience with pediatric-focused scholarly activities that also enhanced faculty productivity in scholarship and research.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Pediatría/educación , Acreditación/métodos , Acreditación/tendencias , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Humanos , Oklahoma , Pediatría/métodos , Pediatría/tendencias , Desarrollo de Programa/métodos , Comunicación Académica/tendencias
8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(6): 966-971, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233393

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study quantifies and describes student self-assessment approaches in colleges of pharmacy across the United States. METHODS: Faculty members identified as assessment directors from college websites at U.S. colleges of pharmacy were electronically surveyed. Prior to distribution, feedback and question validation was sought from select assessment directors. Surveys were distributed and recorded, via Qualtrics® survey software and analyzed in Microsoft Excel®. RESULTS: Responses were received from 49 colleges of pharmacy (n = 49/134, 37% response rate). The most commonly used strategies were reflective essays (n = 44/49, 90%), portfolios (n = 40/49, 82%), student self-evaluations (n = 35/49, 71%) and questionnaires/surveys/checklists (n = 29/49, 59%). Out of 49 submitted surveys, 35 programs noted students received feedback on self-assessment. Feedback came most commonly from faculty (n = 31/35, 88%). Thirty-four programs responded regarding self-assessment integration including fifteen colleges (n = 15/34, 44%) that integrated self-assessment both into the curriculum and co-curricular activities, while 14 (n = 14/34, 41%) integrated self-assessment exclusively into the curriculum, and five (n = 5/34, 15%) used self-assessment exclusively in co-curricular activities. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Student self-assessment is a critical first step of the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) process. Colleges and schools of pharmacy use a wide variety of methods to develop this skill in preparing future practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Autoevaluación , Curriculum/normas , Curriculum/tendencias , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Humanos , Facultades de Farmacia/organización & administración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/tendencias
10.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 22(4): 286-292, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943824

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with unrounded doses ordered via a computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) system among children during a 1-week reference period. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study included children younger than 18 years admitted during a 7-day period. An unrounded dose was defined as an unrounded actual dose (eg, dose calculated to the tenths place for non-neonatal intensive care (non-NICU) patients and dose calculated to the hundredth place for NICU patients) or unrounded volume per dose [eg, <0.1 mL for non-NICU patients and <0.01 mL for NICU patients]. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to determine the prevalence and factors associated with unrounded doses via a CPOE system with adjustment for clustering effects. RESULTS: A total of 395 patients were admitted with 391 receiving medications. The overall prevalence of unrounded doses was 30% among the 2426 doses administered. Patients on the NICU team had the highest prevalence of unrounded doses. The odds of an unrounded dose were 4% (adjusted odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-0.98) lower with each additional kilogram increase in weight after controlling for age, route, scheduled versus as-needed administration, and cluster effects. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of unrounded doses was higher than in previous studies. It was higher in smaller children after controlling for age, medication-related variables, and clustering. Future studies should focus on the role of CPOE in preventing unrounded and unmeasurable doses and if these strategies affect clinical outcomes (eg, adverse drug events).

12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 73(16): 1243-9, 2016 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27354039

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Inpatient admissions and the top 25 medications for obese pediatric patients at two academic hospitals were assessed. METHODS: Children age 2-17 years were included if they were obese and admitted to either hospital on or after January 1, 2011, and discharged before December 31, 2011. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of ≥95th percentile for age and sex. The objectives of this study were to determine the percentage of hospital admissions involving obese children and compile a list of medications prescribed to these patients. The top 25 medications prescribed were further evaluated to determine their pharmacokinetic disposition in obese patients. RESULTS: Obese children accounted for 18.8% of the 15,119 admissions for children age 2-17 years at the two study hospitals. No significant difference was noted in the number of obese pediatric children admitted between institutions. A total of 28,234 medications were ordered for this population, with a median number of 8 medications prescribed per admission. Sixteen of the same medications (64.0%) ranked in the top 25 at each facility. The most commonly prescribed medications for these patients included analgesics, antimicrobials, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and gastrointestinal agents. CONCLUSION: Obese children accounted for 18.8% of admissions for patients age 2-17 years at two academic hospitals over a 1-year period. The most commonly prescribed medications for these children included analgesics, antimicrobials, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and gastrointestinal agents. The literature guiding the dosing of these medications in this population was limited to seven studies, representing just three medications.


Asunto(s)
Centros Médicos Académicos/tendencias , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Admisión del Paciente/tendencias , Adolescente , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Fármacos Gastrointestinales/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 21(1): 66-74, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26997930

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study compared vancomycin trough concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters in pediatric cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) patients versus those in controls receiving 20 mg/kg/dose, intravenously, every 8 hours. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in children <18 years of age, following CTS, versus an age-and sex-matched control group. The primary objective was to determine differences in trough concentrations between groups. Secondary objectives included comparisons of pharmacokinetics between groups and development of vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as a doubling in serum creatinine from baseline. Also dosing projections were developed to target an area-under-the-curve-to-minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC:MIC) ratio of ≥400. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients in each group were evaluated. Mean trough concentrations were significantly different between groups (CTS: 18.4 mg/L; control: 8.8 mg/L; p < 0.01). Vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury AKI was significantly higher in the CTS group than in controls (25.9% versus 0%, respectively, p<0.01). There were significant differences in vancomycin elimination rates, with a high degree of variability, but no statistical differences in other parameters. Based on dosing projections, CTS patients would require 21 to 88 mg/kg/day, with a dosage interval determined by the child's glomerular filtration rate to achieve the target AUC:MIC ≥400. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin dosage of 20 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 8 hours achieved significantly higher trough concentrations in CTS patients than in controls. Pharmacokinetic parameters were highly variable in CTS patients, indicating more individualization of dosage is needed. A future prospective study is needed to determine whether the revised dosage projections achieve the AUC:MIC target and to determine whether these regimens are associated with less vancomycin-associated AKI.

14.
SAGE Open Med ; 4: 2050312116682128, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28348735

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacy has become a major access point for several types of vaccinations. Despite the success of vaccination programs like influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster, the rates of human papillomavirus vaccination continue to lag. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to describe and report on the impact of a multimodal series of pharmacist-led educational interventions on human papillomavirus vaccination rates in a community pharmacy setting. The primary outcome of this study was change in pharmacist-delivered human papillomavirus vaccination throughout a corresponding 8-week period in 2014 and 2015. METHODS: A single-center, quasi-experimental interrupted time series mixed-methods pilot study was used to investigate a pharmacist-led, multimodal educational intervention approach to improve human papillomavirus vaccination rates in the community. RESULTS: During the 2014 control period, there were no human papillomavirus vaccines dispensed or administered according to the internal prescription dispensing software. In 2015, a total of 10 patients indicated that they were vaccinated, with 9 patients receiving their first dose and 1 patient receiving his or her second dose at the pharmacy. Pharmacist recommendation was the most reported education method for increasing patient awareness of the human papillomavirus vaccine (n = 10). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates pharmacist designed, educational interventions may impact human papillomavirus vaccination rates in the community. Further community-based research with larger sample sizes is warranted to verify these results. Due to the unique barriers to human papillomavirus vaccination, a multimodal and inter-professional approach such as the one presented here is warranted.

15.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 22(3): 496-510, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26126501

RESUMEN

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, a complication occurring early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, is a concern for clinicians. There are no guidelines to direct clinicians on the optimal way to prevent and treat this disease. Newer data show that defibrotide is a promising drug both for prevention and treatment, although it is not yet FDA approved.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/efectos adversos , Enfermedad Veno-Oclusiva Hepática/prevención & control , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/normas , Adulto , Niño , Fibrinolíticos/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Veno-Oclusiva Hepática/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Veno-Oclusiva Hepática/etiología , Humanos , Polidesoxirribonucleótidos/administración & dosificación , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos
16.
J Opioid Manag ; 11(4): 295-303, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26312956

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Intrathecal (IT) morphine improves pain control and decreases opioid requirements in children following thoracic and abdominal surgery. However, studies in children report variable durations of analgesia following IT morphine. The purpose of this study is to describe the duration of analgesia in children undergoing surgical correction of idiopathic scoliosis. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Pediatric hospital within a tertiary care academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-four pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis who received IT morphine following posterior spinal fusion (PSF). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Mean opioid exposure 0-12 hours and 13-24 hours post-IT morphine. RESULTS: Mean opioid exposure was significantly increased during the 13-24-hour compared to the 0-12-hour time period (23.0 ± 12.5 mg parenteral morphine vs 15.9 ± 1.7 mg; p = 0.0006). The only factors significantly associated with morphine exposure during the 0-12-hour period included the median pain score (0-12 hours) (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.033-3.80; p = 0.046) and total acetaminophen dose (OR, 0.003; 95% CI, 0.0008-0.005; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients experienced improved analgesia for at least 12 hours following IT morphine. Increased use of adjuvant analgesics such as acetaminophen may reduce opioid requirements following PSF procedures. More studies are needed to investigate the combination of adjuvants and IT morphine to reduce postoperative pain in this population.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos no Narcóticos/administración & dosificación , Morfina , Dolor Postoperatorio , Escoliosis/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/efectos adversos , Acetaminofén/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Niño , Esquema de Medicación , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Inyecciones Espinales/métodos , Masculino , Morfina/administración & dosificación , Morfina/farmacocinética , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Dimensión del Dolor , Dolor Postoperatorio/diagnóstico , Dolor Postoperatorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos
17.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 71(17): 1462-8, 2014 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25147170

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The results of a study to determine the frequency of pseudohyperphosphatemia in a sample of pediatric patients treated with i.v. liposomal amphotericin B are reported. METHODS: A single-site retrospective study was conducted to identify evidence of pseudohyperphosphatemia in the medical records of patients 18 years of age or younger who received at least five doses of amphotericin B liposome; the maximum dose was calculated for each regimen and categorized as either ≤5 or >5 mg/kg/day. The primary objective was to ascertain the rate of pseudohyperphosphatemia (i.e., abnormally high serum phosphate without elevated serum calcium). The secondary objective was to compare rates of pseudohyperphosphatemia at the higher and lower amphotericin B dosage levels. A multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used to identify potential predictors of pseudohyperphosphatemia. RESULTS: Data were collected on 72 courses of amphotericin B liposome administered during a 13-month period to 47 patients; based on a review of chart notations and clinical data, it was determined that 36 regimens (50%) involved pseudohyperphosphatemia. The GEE model revealed no significant association between pseudohyperphosphatemia and any evaluated variable, including age, weight, duration of therapy, and concurrent use of medications known to alter serum phosphorus. CONCLUSION: In children receiving amphotericin B liposome, half of the regimens were associated with pseudohyperphosphatemia. Although no factors were found to predict pseudohyperphosphatemia, on average, patients who developed the abnormality were significantly older and heavier and received a significantly higher absolute initial dosage of amphotericin B liposome than those who did not develop the condition.


Asunto(s)
Anfotericina B/efectos adversos , Antifúngicos/efectos adversos , Hiperfosfatemia/inducido químicamente , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/sangre , Hiperfosfatemia/diagnóstico , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Fósforo/sangre , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Pharmacotherapy ; 34(5): e38-44, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24877188

RESUMEN

The American College of Clinical Pharmacy 2013 Educational Affairs Committee was charged with developing recommendations for the minimum qualifications required for clinical pharmacy practice faculty in United States colleges and schools of pharmacy with respect to education, postgraduate training, board certification, and other experiences. From a review of the literature, the committee recommends that clinical pharmacy practice faculty possess the following minimum qualifications, noting that, for some positions, additional qualifications may be necessary. Clinical pharmacy practice faculty should possess the Doctor of Pharmacy degree from an Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education­accredited institution. In addition, faculty should have completed a postgraduate year one (PGY1) residency or possess at least 3 years of direct patient care experience. Faculty who practice in identified areas of pharmacotherapy specialization, as identified by American Society of Health-System Pharmacists postgraduate year two (PGY2) residency guidelines, should have completed a PGY2 residency in that area of specialty practice. Alternatively, faculty should have completed a minimum of a PGY1 residency and 1 additional year of practice, with at least 50% of time spent in their area of specialization, which is documented in a portfolio, or 4 years of direct patient care in their area of specialization, which is documented in a portfolio. Fellowship training or a graduate degree (e.g., Ph.D.) should be required for research-intensive clinical faculty positions. All faculty should obtain structured teaching experience during or after postgraduate training, preferably through a formal teaching certificate program or through activities documented in a teaching portfolio. A baseline record of scholarship should be obtained before hire as clinical pharmacy practice faculty through exposure in postgraduate programs or previous employment. Faculty should be board certified before hire or attain board certification within 2 years of hire through the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) or, if appropriate for the practice area, through a nonBPS-certifying agency. If no certification exists in the area of specialty, the faculty member should develop a portfolio with evidence of excellence in clinical practice, teaching, and scholarship.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/normas , Educación de Postgrado en Farmacia/normas , Farmacéuticos/normas , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital , Consejos de Especialidades , Residencias en Farmacia , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/normas , Sociedades Farmacéuticas , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
19.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 54(3): 295-301, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24728511

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the design and implementation of influenza vaccination clinics across campus, assess participant satisfaction with the pharmacist-led clinics, and educate and increase visibility of the role of pharmacists as vaccinators. SETTING: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC), a comprehensive health sciences center. PRACTICE INNOVATION: The College of Pharmacy on the OUHSC campus developed and implemented a vaccination program to increase influenza vaccination of OUHSC employees. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of employees receiving influenza vaccination, employee satisfaction with the pharmacist-led clinics, and employee awareness of the pharmacist's role in vaccination. RESULTS: Reported OUHSC employee influenza vaccination rates increased from approximately 35% before implementation of the pharmacy-based program to 54% in 2012 after implementation. The increase was attributed to maintaining no out-of-pocket costs for employees, offering various clinic locations, and using media resources to educate employees about influenza infection and vaccination. Employees reported high satisfaction with the influenza vaccination clinics and with receiving vaccinations from pharmacists and student pharmacists. In the first 2 years of the program, the percentage of surveyed employees "very familiar" with the pharmacist's role in vaccinations increased from 23% to 66%. CONCLUSION: A college of pharmacy on a large health sciences center developed and successfully implemented an influenza vaccination program, providing an accessible and convenient route for influenza prevention to employees, as well as enhanced the visibility of pharmacists as vaccination providers.

20.
Ann Pharmacother ; 48(2): 187-95, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24259650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Methadone is commonly prescribed for children with opioid abstinence syndrome (OAS) as a taper schedule over several days to weeks. The Medication Taper Complexity Score (MTCS) was developed to evaluate outpatient methadone tapers. OBJECTIVE: To further validate the MTCS and determine if it is a reliable tool for clinicians to use to assess the complexity of methadone tapers for OAS. METHODS: An expert panel of pediatric clinical pharmacists was convened. Panel members were provided 9 methadone tapers (ie, "easy," "medium," and "difficult") to determine construct and face validity of the MTCS. The primary objective was to further establish reliability and construct/face validity of the MTCS. The secondary objective was to assess the reliability of the MTCS within and between tapers. Instrument reliability was assessed using a Pearson correlation coefficient; with 0.8 as the minimum acceptable coefficient. Construct (divergent) validity was assessed via a repeated-measures ANOVA analysis (Bonferroni post hoc analyses) of the mean scores provided by panel members. RESULTS: Six panel members were recruited from various geographical locations. Panel members had 18.3 ± 5.5 years of experience, with practice expertise in general pediatrics, hematology/oncology, and the pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit. The MTCS had a reliability coefficient of .9949. There was vivid discrimination between the easy, medium, and difficult tapers; P = .001. The panel recommended minor modifications to the MTCS. CONCLUSIONS: The MTCS was found to be a reliable and valid tool. Overall, the panel felt that the MTCS was easy to use and had potential applications in both practice and research.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Metadona/administración & dosificación , Síndrome de Abstinencia Neonatal/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Esquema de Medicación , Humanos , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
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