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1.
Anat Cell Biol ; 55(1): 92-99, 2022 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759067

RESUMEN

The liver is the largest gland of the gastrointestinal tract having both exocrine and endocrine functions. Developmentally it arises as a ventral outgrowth from the gut endoderm during 3rd week of intrauterine life. The foetal liver is very important because of its synthetic and hemopoietic potential. The present work aimed to see the detailed histogenesis and development of the foetal liver by cytological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. The liver tissue of nine aborted foetuses of various gestational age were studied. For cytology: special stains like Masson trichrome, periodic acid Schiff and reticulin were used, immunohistochemical staining was performed with triple antibodies (c-myc, Ki-67 and Ber-H2), and for ultrastructure: aluminium mounted specimens were coated with gold and argon gas and observed under scanning electron microscopy (EM). Cytology and immunohistochemistry showed the development of duct patterns and hemopoietic patterns in all stages of fetogenesis. The ductal plate was marked by the layer of dark brown staining cells at the edge of two portal tracts. The haemopoietic cells with sinusoids and aggregation of hepatocytes were observed in the early weeks of gestation. EM showed tree-like branching of a portal canal depicting hepatic segmentation of foetal liver. The organizational changes in lobular pattern, duct pattern, and microstructure of liver during fetogenesis are very crucial to achieve the adult morphology in feature. Histogenesis of the foetal liver follows a multistep process depending upon the gestational age, any deviation from normalcy may lead to structural and functional abnormality later in life.

2.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18911, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820226

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The spleen is a fist-sized largest lymphoid organ located in the left hypochondrium. It has a unique location, embryological and histological structure that differs significantly from other lymphoid organs. The present work was undertaken to study the microscopic and ultramicroscopic histogenesis patterns of the spleen in relation to gestational age. METHODS: The splenic tissue of nine aborted fetuses of various gestational ages was studied. For cytology study, special stains like Masson's trichrome, Periodic Acid-Schiff, and Reticulin were used; immunohistochemical staining was performed with triple antibodies (C-myc, Ki-67, and Ber-H2); and for ultrastructure study, aluminum mounted specimens coated with gold and argon gas were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Microscopy and immunohistochemistry showed the developmental changes in the spleen from the emergence of the primordium to the end of the embryonic period in all stages of fetogenesis. The spleen primordium of a fetus at the developmental stage of the primary vascular reticulum was seen in the first trimester fetuses. The primordium is comprised mainly of mesenchymal tissue; numerous lymphocytes invading the area surrounding the central artery forming the periarterial lymphoid sheaths (PALS) were seen surrounded by venous sinuses in the early second trimester fetuses. CONCLUSION: The organizational changes in the reticuloendothelial system and microstructure of the spleen during fetogenesis are very crucial to achieving adult morphology in the future. Histogenesis of the fetal spleen follows a multistep process depending upon the gestational age. Any deviation from normalcy may lead to structural and functional abnormality later in life.

3.
Maedica (Bucur) ; 16(4): 656-662, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261668

RESUMEN

Aim: To study the ultrastructural, histochemical, cytological features of retina in aborted fetuses of different gestational age and its probable implication in the disease process of retinitis pigmentosa. Methodology: This is a prospective randomized cross sectional study that has been carried out in AIIMS Bhubaneswar from June 2017 to May 2019, jointly by the Department of Anatomy and Obstetrics and Gynaecology, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, India, after proper institutional approval. Three fetuses from each trimester were taken into the present study; their retina was collected and subsequently sent for cytological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural explorations. Detailed information from all explorations were collected and properly documented. Results:Fetuses whose retinas that have been shown to contain very few to no rod cells and short-sized cone cells might tend to develop retinitis pigmentosa after birth. Moreover, those cone cells have been shown to contain melanolysosome, phagosomes, autophagic vacuoles, and membranous whorls.

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