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Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 759-767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884277


The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency of international concern and has affected management plans of many autoimmune disorders. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies are pivotal in the management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), potentially placing patients at an increased risk of contracting infections such as COVID-19. The optimal management strategy of NMOSD during the COVID-19 era remains unclear. Here, however, we examined the evidence of NMOSD disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) use during the present period and highlighted different scenarios including treatment of relapses as well as initiation and maintenance of DMTs in order to optimize care of NMOSD patients in the COVID-19 era.

Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 651-662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801722


The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health challenge of global concern since December 2019, when the virus was recognized in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China and epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic. Given the novelty of COVID-19 and the lack of specific anti-virus therapies, the current management is essentially supportive. There is an absence of consensus on guidelines or treatment strategies for complex disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the risk of infections is higher than in the general population. This is due to the overall impairment of the immune system typical of autoimmune diseases, in addition to accumulation of disabilities, and the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and the recommended disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). DMTs have different modes of action, but all modulate and interfere with the patient's immune response, thereby raising concerns about adverse effects, such as an increased susceptibility to infections. In this review, we analyze the evidence for use of DMTs during the current critical period and ratify an algorithmic approach for management to optimize care between keeping DMTs, with their infection hazards, or coming off them, with the risk of disease activation. We also provide an algorithmic approach to the management of breakthrough activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Pain Res ; 13: 537-545, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210609


Background: Studies have shown that interferon-beta (IFN-ß) treatment is associated with headaches in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Headaches can affect quality of life and overall function of patients with MS. We examined the frequency, relationships, patterns, and characteristics of headaches in response to IFN-ß in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective, longitudinal analysis with 1-year follow-up. The study comprised 796 patients with RRMS treated with IFN-ß (mean age 30.84±8.98 years) at 5 tertiary referral center outpatient clinics in Egypt between January 2015 and December 2017. Headaches were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-3 (beta version), and data were collected through an interviewer-administered Arabic-language-validated questionnaire with an addendum specifically designed to investigate the temporal relationship between commencement of interferon treatment, and headache onset and characteristics. Results: Two hundred seventy-six patients had pre-existing headaches, and 356 experienced de novo headaches. Of 122 patients who experienced headaches before IFN-ß treatment, 55 reported headaches that worsened following onset of IFN-ß treatment. In patients with post-IFN-ß headaches, 329 had headaches that persisted for >3 months, 51 had chronic headaches, and 278 had episodic headaches, and 216 of these patients required preventive therapies. Univariate analysis showed a >6- and an approximately 5-fold increased risk of headache among those treated with intramuscular (IM) INF-ß-1a (OR 6.51; 95% CI: 3.73-10.01; P-value <0.0001) and 44 µg of SC INF-ß-1a (OR 5.44; 95% CI: 3.15-9.37; P-value <0.0001), respectively, compared with that in patients who received 22 µg of SC INF-ß-1a. Conclusion: Interferon-ß therapy aggravated pre-existing headaches and caused primary headaches in patients with MS. Headache risk was greater following treatment with IM INF-ß-1a and 44 µg SC INF-ß-1a.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 14: 631-640, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503547


Introduction: Although the frequency of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has increased in recent decades, it is still highly uncommon, which creates a need for the involvement of more registries from various clinical centers. Objective: To characterize the demographic, clinical, and paraclinical features of Egyptian patients with POMS. Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review study was undertaken on 237 Egyptian patients with demyelinating events which started before the age of 18 years who attended one of five tertiary referral centers in Cairo, Egypt. Results: Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed in 186 patients, 47 (25.27%) patients had disease onset before the age of 12 years; "early-onset pediatric multiple sclerosis (EOPMS)". The mean age of disease onset was (14.13±2.49 years), with a female:male ratio of 1.62:1, none of the enrolled patients had a primary progressive course (PPMS), whereas 10 patients (5.38%) had a secondary progressive form. Approximately two-thirds of the patients had monofocal disease onset, and less than 10% presented with encephalopathy; most of them had EOPMS. Motor weakness was the presenting symptom in half of the patients, whereas cerebellar presentation was detected in 34.95%, mainly in EOPMS. Seizures (not related to encephalopathy) were more frequent in those with EOPMS. Initial brain magnetic resonance images were positive in all patients, with detected atypical lesions in 29.03%, enhanced lesions in 35.48%, black holes in 13.98%, and infratentorial in 34.41%. Cervical cord involvement was found in 68.28%. More than two-thirds of the patients received either immunomodulatory or immunosuppressant (IS) treatment throughout their disease course, and about half of them received their treatment within the first year from symptoms onset, with a more favorable outcome, and patients with highly active disease received natalizumab, fingolimod, or other IS. Conclusion: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries. Immunomodulatory therapies in POMS are well tolerated and efficacious and they can improve the long-term outcome in children.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 13: 1895-1903, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765711


BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease with a heterogeneous presentation and diverse disease course. Recent studies indicate a rising prevalence of MS in the Middle East. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics and disease features of Egyptian patients attending four tertiary referral MS centers in Cairo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study on 1,581 patients between 2001 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed and data were identified and extracted in a standardized electronic registry. RESULTS: The mean age of disease onset was 26.6±7.8 years, with the majority being female (2.11:1). Relapsing-remitting MS was the most common type (75.1%). The main presenting symptom was motor weakness (43.9%), which was also the most frequent symptom during the disease course. Family history of MS was found in 2.28%. Higher initial Expanded Disability Status Scale score, black holes, and infratentorial lesions on initial magnetic resonance imaging were independent factors for disease progression by univariate analysis (OR 3.87 [95% CI 1.84-6.51], 4.14 [95% CI 3.08-5.58], 4.07 [95% CI 3.21-4.99], respectively); however, in multivariate analysis, only infratentorial lesions were an independent risk for disease progression (OR 6, 95% CI 2.99-12.02; P=0.0005). CONCLUSION: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries with slight differences.

J Headache Pain ; 10(1): 27-34, 2009 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19030947


Several clinical trials suggest that botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) may be an effective treatment option for patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH); however, controversy remains as to how the botulinum toxin optimally should be used for treating headache and which patient's profile fits this treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of BTX-A for the prophylactic treatment of CCTH in Egyptian patients. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study of BTX-A for the treatment of patients aged 25-50 years old with CCTH. Following a 30-day screening, headache parameters and severity assessed by the standard visual analogue scale (VAS), and the 25-item Henry Ford Hospital Headache Disability Inventory (HDI) were recorded as a baseline. Then, injection was done with either BTX-A or with saline by a combination of two methods for detecting injection sites (the fixed-site approach and follow-the-pain approach). Our study showed significant improvement after 1 month of BTX-A injection regarding headache days/month, severity measured by VAS and HDI in headache severity. There was significant reduction of prophylactic medications, and there were minor complications, but these reversed spontaneously without further treatment. BTX-A was an effective and well-tolerated prophylactic treatment in Egyptian patients with CCTH.

Analgésicos no Narcóticos/uso terapéutico , Toxinas Botulínicas/uso terapéutico , Cefalea de Tipo Tensional/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Analgésicos no Narcóticos/administración & dosificación , Toxinas Botulínicas/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Crónica , Egipto , Femenino , Humanos , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Método Simple Ciego , Cefalea de Tipo Tensional/fisiopatología , Resultado del Tratamiento