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1.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-14, 2021 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230875

RESUMEN

Aim: Non-pharmaceutical interventions such as lockdowns have played a critical role in preventing the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic, but may increase psychological burden. This study sought to examine emotions reflected in social media discourse following the introduction of social contact restrictions in Central Europe. Subjects and methods: German-language Twitter posts containing '#corona' and '#covid-19' were collected between 2020/03/18 - 2020/04/24. A total of 79,760 tweets were included in the final analysis. Rates of expressions of positive emotion, anxiety, sadness and anger were compared over time. Bi-term topic models were applied to extract topics of discussion and examine association with emotions. Results: Rates of anxiety, sadness and positive emotion decreased in the period following the introduction of social contact restrictions. A total of 16 topics were associated with emotions, which related to four general themes: social contact restrictions, life during lockdown, infection-related issues, and impact of the pandemic on public and private life. Several unique patterns of association between topics and emotions emerged. Conclusion: Results suggest decreasing polarity of emotions among the public following the introduction of social contact restrictions. Monitoring of social media activity may prove beneficial for an adaptive understanding of changing public concerns during the Covid-19 pandemic.

2.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(5): 899-911, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We summarize research on the public stigmatization of persons with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in comparison with other mental health conditions and embed the results into a conceptual framework of the stigma process. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search using Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed and PsycINFO (via Ovid), and Web of Science for population-based studies on the public stigma in AUD and at least 1 other mental health condition, published between October 1, 2010 and December 20, 2020, thus including all studies published since the last systematic review on this topic. The study is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020173054). RESULTS: We identified 20,561 records, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria, reporting results from 16 unique studies conducted in 9 different countries. Compared to substance-unrelated mental disorders, persons with AUD were generally less likely to be considered mentally ill, while they were perceived as being more dangerous and responsible for their condition. Further, the public desire for social distance was consistently higher for people with AUD. We found no consistent differences in the public stigma toward persons with AUD in comparison with other substance use disorders. CONCLUSION: The stigmatization of persons with AUD remains comparatively high and is distinct from that of other substance-unrelated disorders.

3.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(6): 825-831, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136727

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) may experience psychological burden from living with a chronic medical condition, which has been identified as the most important risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate rates of depression and anxiety in a large sample of patients with BE. METHODS: A total of 794 patients with endoscopically and histologically confirmed diagnosis of BE completed validated screening instruments for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7). Screening rates in the study sample were compared to general population estimates. Multivariable regression analyses were used to model associations between outcome variables and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, BE-related symptom load and incidence of inpatient treatment due to BE in the last 12 months. RESULTS: Rates of positive screens were 14.2% for depression and 9.9% for anxiety. For several age by sex subgroups, rates of depression and anxiety were about three to five times higher in the study sample than in the general population. BE-related reflux and pain symptoms showed strong associations with higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, while the effect of treatment was small. CONCLUSION: Study results indicate that a relevant proportion of patients with BE is at an increased risk for depression and anxiety, compared to general population controls. Lacking information on patients' disease characteristics limited generalizability of results.


Asunto(s)
Esófago de Barrett , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Esófago de Barrett/diagnóstico , Esófago de Barrett/epidemiología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
4.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(6): 599-608, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538656

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Masculinity ideologies have been associated with negative mental health outcomes. However, little is known regarding the link between masculinity ideologies and posttraumatic stress (PTS). This review aims to provide insight into this association by synthesizing available empirical research. METHOD: The databases Web of Science, PsycINFO, and PubPsych were systematically searched for quantitative studies published up to 2018 in English language reporting on the association between masculinity ideologies and PTS. Results were narratively reviewed and synthesized in a multilevel meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included in the narrative review, while 10 studies provided effect sizes that were included in the meta-analysis. Samples mainly consisted of male veterans. The weighted mean effect size of the association between masculinity ideologies and PTS was r = .22. Studies including a clearly identifiable sample of trauma survivors reported a significantly smaller association than studies that did not specify the occurrence of a traumatic event. A narrative review of results showed that masculinity ideologies prescribing restrictive emotionality were more strongly associated with PTS relative to other masculine norms. Findings were limited regarding the influence of race and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that interventions aimed at trauma survivors may benefit from addressing deficits in emotion regulation resulting from masculinity ideologies. However, more research is needed to understand how masculinity ideologies and PTS interact with conditions such as trauma type, gender, or race. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Masculinidad , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 80(1): 84-94, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949323

RESUMEN

Introduction The legal status of abortion has changed in the regions of former East Germany after reunification due to the adoption of restrictive West German abortion policies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on attitudes towards abortion and the associated health care implications in Western and Eastern Germany. Materials and Methods Nationally representative data on public support for legally restricting abortion access were taken from the German General Social Survey and included the surveys 1992, 1996, 2000, 2006 and 2012 (N = 14 459). Two indicators of barriers to access to abortion care were calculated for each federal state, based on the number of abortion facilities and the proportion of women seeking abortion outside their state of residency. Data were analysed using latent class analysis. Results Results suggested that abortion attitudes could be classified into three distinct subgroups: 1) support for abortion access independent of women's reason; 2) support on the basis of maternal or foetal health reasons but not for socio-economic reasons (e.g. financial restrictions); and 3) no support. The size of subgroups in favour of partial or complete restriction on abortion access increased in both regions over the study period and this trend could not be explained by changes in socio-demographic characteristics. Respondents living in a federal state with more barriers to access to abortion care were more likely to hold restrictive abortion attitudes. Conclusion Negative attitudes towards abortion have increased in Western and Eastern Germany during the two decades following reunification and may harm women by limiting acceptability and accessibility of abortion care. Abortion policies, public discourse and provision of abortion care should be informed by international guidelines protecting women's health and rights.

6.
Nervenarzt ; 90(7): 733-739, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643956

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11, Version 2018) differ with respect to the diagnostic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated the implications of these differences for the classification of PTSD within a sample of German survivors of various traumatic events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 341 trauma survivors who participated in a multicenter study were classified according to DSM-5 and ICD-11 and the results were compared. The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) was used to diagnose PTSD. The ICD-11 PTSD cases were identified using a "restrictive" and a "wide" operationalization of re-experiencing symptoms (i. e. with and without intrusive memories). Depression and the level of trauma-related impairment were also assessed. RESULTS: The diagnosis rate using ICD-11 was significantly lower than under DSM-5 (DSM-5 64.5%, ICD-11 54.0%, p < 0.001) using a restrictive operationalization of re-experiencing symptoms but differences disappeared when using a wide operationalization. Rates of comorbidity with depression were reduced under ICD-11. Individuals with high and low levels of trauma-related impairment were equally likely to receive a PTSD diagnosis under ICD-11. DISCUSSION: Differences in the diagnosis rates between ICD-11 and DSM-5 depend on the operationalization of the specific ICD-11 re-experiencing requirements. Precise diagnostic guidelines are necessary to avoid inconsistent diagnoses.


Asunto(s)
Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Comorbilidad , Depresión/complicaciones , Alemania , Humanos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/complicaciones , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Sobrevivientes/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197986, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894474

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of fetal anomaly is a significant life event and social stigma can negatively impact on the well-being of women opting for an abortion. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a measure of stigma among women who had had an abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly in a German setting. METHODS: The Individual Level Abortion Stigma (ILAS) scale was translated into German. Psychometric properties of the ILAS scale were examined among 130 women with a history of an abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly. Individual and situational factors associated with stigma in the context of an abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly were explored. RESULTS: Factor analysis suggested a four-dimensional structure of the German version of the Individual Level Abortion Stigma scale (Cronbach's α, .83-.91), corresponding to the subscales of the original scale. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for the worries about judgment subscale, the self-judgment subscale, and the community condemnation subscale, but less convincing for the isolation subscale. Associations between the subscales and measures of depression, self-esteem and secrecy were found in directions consistent with theory. Women who did not perceive their fetus to have a low survival chance and women whose fetus was at higher gestational age reported higher levels of stigma, whereas higher perceived partner support was associated with lower levels of stigma. LIMITATION: Generalizability of study results was limited, as participants were recruited from one clinic in Germany and the study had a response rate of 46.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The ILAS subscales are largely reliable and valid measures to assess stigma among women who have had an abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly. Suggestions for improving the assessment of stigma experienced in this population are outlined. The scales can be useful in research aiming at investigating psychological outcomes of abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly and improving care structures.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/psicología , Enfermedades Fetales/diagnóstico , Psicometría , Estigma Social , Adulto , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Análisis Multivariante , Embarazo , Análisis de Regresión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 78(2): 160-166, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479112

RESUMEN

Introduction: Diagnosis of fetal anomaly and the difficult circumstances involved in the decision to terminate an affected pregnancy can go along with severe psychological distress. However, little is known about women's help-seeking for emotional problems following an abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly. Methods: 148 women who had been treated for abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly at the University Hospital Leipzig responded to self-report questionnaires 1 to 7 years after the event. Main outcomes were help-seeking intentions and actual help-seeking behavior. Logistic regression was used to explore the associations between participants' sociodemographic characteristics and help-seeking intentions. Results: Most women reported that they would seek help from their partner (91.7%), friends/family (82.8%) or the internet (62.2%). With regard to health services, 50.0% of women would seek help from gynecologists and between 43.8 and 47.9% from counseling services and mental health professionals. Intentions to seek help from support groups were lowest (21.7%). Age, income, region, and religion were associated with help-seeking intentions. Among participants with elevated levels of current psychological distress, 23.8% indicated that they had not discussed their emotional problems with a health service ever. Conclusion: Gynecologists are among the most preferred health professionals for women to discuss psychological problems in the aftermath of an abortion after diagnosis of fetal anomaly. They should be actively involved in screening, diagnostic assessment, and referral of affected women.

9.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 21(4): 391-399, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288285

RESUMEN

Termination of pregnancy after diagnosis of fetal anomaly (TOPFA) is a contested issue and stigma may negatively impact affected women's psychological reactions. This study examined the influence of perceived and internalized stigma on women's long-term adjustment to a TOPFA. One hundred forty-eight women whose TOPFA dated back 1 to 7 years responded to self-report questionnaires. The associations between perceived stigma at the time of the TOPFA, current internalized stigma and symptoms of grief, trauma and depression were modeled using multiple linear regression. The proportion of participants reporting scores above the cutoffs on the respective scale was 17.6% for grief, 18.9% for posttraumatic stress, and 10.8% for depression. After controlling for time since the TOPFA, pre-TOPFA mental health and obstetric variables, higher levels of current internalized stigma were related to higher levels of grief, trauma, and depression. Mediation analyses suggested that the effect of perceived stigma at the time of the TOPFA on symptoms of grief and trauma was mediated by current internalized stigma, but the cross-sectional design limited causal interpretation of results. Internalized stigma is associated with long-term psychological distress following a TOPFA. Perceived stigma at the time of the TOPFA may contribute to increased trauma and grief symptomatology, but results need to be validated in longitudinal studies. Health care providers and public initiatives should aim at reducing stigma among affected women.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Eugénico/psicología , Depresión/etiología , Feto/anomalías , Pesar , Diagnóstico Prenatal/psicología , Estigma Social , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 52(5): 572-579, 2017 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541449

RESUMEN

Aims: 1. To quantify barriers to alcohol screening among hypertensive patients reported by primary healthcare professionals. 2. To examine whether education and screening frequency measures are associated with stigma-related barriers. Methods: A web survey was conducted among 3081 primary healthcare professionals from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Participants were asked about perceived barriers to alcohol screening as free-text response. The replies were independently categorized by two raters. Stigma-related barriers were predicted by logistic regressions with education, knowledge on alcohol as risk factor and frequency of alcohol screening. Results: In France and Italy, almost half of the reported barriers were stigma-related, whereas time constraints were cited most commonly in Spain and the UK. In Germany, nearly half of respondents rated the importance of alcohol screening for hypertension as low. Perception that regular screening is inappropriate or associated with too much effort, beliefs that screening is unnecessary, and insufficient knowledge of screening tools were cited as further barriers. Professional education on alcohol use was consistently rated to be poorer than the equivalent education on hypertension, and only a minority of respondents perceived alcohol as important risk factor for hypertension. Stigma-related barriers could not be significantly predicted by education, knowledge or screening frequency in most models. Conclusions: Overall, regular alcohol screening among hypertensive patients seems to be widely accepted, but further education (Germany) and structural support (Spain, UK) could contribute to increase screening rates. In France and Italy, screening uptake could be improved by addressing stigma. Short Summary: Alcohol screening among hypertensive patients was largely accepted among general practitioners from five different European countries. Reported screening barriers varied between countries and included time constraints, stigma and underrated importance of alcohol. Results did not indicate a positive impact of education and screening frequency on perception of stigma as barrier to screening.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Hipertensión , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estigma Social , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/psicología , Europa (Continente) , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162688, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27657887

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: considerable proportion of the population experiences major life disruptions after losing a loved one to suicide. Social stigma attached to suicide survivors adds to complications occurring in the course of suicide bereavement. Despite its known risks, stigma related to suicide survivors has been sparsely investigated. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycInfo and PsyArticles, of studies indexed up through August 2015. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they addressed experiences of stigma in suicide survivors, compared them to other bereavement populations, or investigated stigmatizing attitudes within the public. The search was restricted to English-language studies. RESULTS: 25 records matched inclusion criteria. Study designs were heterogeneous, making comparisons difficult. Results demonstrated that suicide survivors experience stigma in the form of shame, blame, and avoidance. Suicide survivors showed higher levels of stigma than natural death survivors. Stigma was linked to concealment of the death, social withdrawal, reduced psychological and somatic functioning, and grief difficulties. Only one study investigated stigmatizing attitudes towards suicide survivors among the general population. LIMITATIONS: Internal and external validity of the studies was restricted by a lack of valid measures and selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: More methodologically sound research is needed to understand the impact of stigma on suicide survivors' grief trajectories and to separate it from other grief aspects. Clinicians and grief-counselors as well as the public should be educated about the persistent stigma experienced by suicide survivors.

13.
Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 48(4): 169-177, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27037848

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. METHODS: A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma* ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. RESULTS: Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. CONCLUSION: More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Autoimagen , Estigma Social , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Opinión Pública
14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 154: 93-9, 2015 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26130336

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identification of risky substance users by general practitioners (GPs) is important for providing brief interventions or to refer cases to specialized care, but detection rates of risky users are low, with alcohol users being identified less frequently than smokers. METHODS: We compared GPs' assessment and patient self-report concerning tobacco use, number of cigarettes smoked daily, alcohol use, alcohol use disorder, and different risky use definitions of 8476 primary care patients from six European countries. Further, we carried out a logistic regression predicting the GPs perception of the patients' alcohol problems. RESULTS: GPs identified 88.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 87.1-89.6%; κ=0.84, 95% CI: 0.83-0.86) of all self-reported smokers but only 64.6% (95% CI: 63.2-65.9%; κ=0.35, 95% CI: 0.33-0.37) of all current drinkers, while they were unable to judge the drinking status of every ninth patient. The GPs' estimation of number of cigarettes smoked daily was slightly lower than the self-report (Δ=0.23 cigarettes/day, p<.001) but both measures were correlated with each other. Of all risky drinkers, defined as having alcohol-related problems or showing risky drinking patterns, 28.7% (95% CI: 25.9-31.4%; κ=0.34, 95% CI: 0.31-0.37) were perceived as having problems with alcohol by the GPs. Patients' self-reported health and social consequences, as well as drinking patterns predicted the GPs' perception of alcohol problems. CONCLUSIONS: GPs were more accurate in identifying smokers than drinkers. Concerning risky drinkers, GPs failed to diagnose a sizeable proportion but were able to detect other drinkers whom common recognition approaches had not recognized.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Médicos Generales , Asunción de Riesgos , Fumar , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Autoinforme , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico
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