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1.
Prev Med ; 136: 106104, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353574

RESUMEN

Unintentional non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data on UNFR CO poisoning can help monitor changes in the magnitude of this burden, particularly through comparisons of multiple countries, and to identify vulnerable sub-groups of the population which may be more at risk. Here, we collected data on age- and sex- specific number of hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of UNFR CO poisoning in England (2002-2016), aggregated to small areas, alongside area-level characteristics (i.e. deprivation, rurality and ethnicity). We analysed temporal trends using piecewise log-linear models and compared them to analogous data obtained for Canada, France, Spain and the US. We estimated age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants by area-level characteristics using the WHO standard population (2000-2025). We then fitted the Besag York Mollie (BYM) model, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model, to assess the independent effect of each area-level characteristic on the standardized risk of hospitalization. Temporal trends showed significant decreases after 2010. Decreasing trends were also observed across all countries studied, yet France had a 5-fold higher risk. Based on 3399 UNFR CO poisoning hospitalizations, we found an increased risk in areas classified as rural (0.69, 95% CrI: 0.67; 0.80), highly deprived (1.77, 95% CrI: 1.66; 2.10) or with the largest proportion of Asian (1.15, 95% CrI: 1.03; 1.49) or Black population (1.35, 95% CrI: 1.20; 1.80). Our multivariate approach provides strong evidence for the identification of vulnerable populations which can inform prevention policies and targeted interventions.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(Supplement_1): i49-i56, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We have developed an open-source ALgorithm for Generating Address Exposures (ALGAE) that cleans residential address records to construct address histories and assign spatially-determined exposures to cohort participants. The first application of this algorithm was to construct prenatal and early life air pollution exposure for individuals of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the South West of England, using previously estimated particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10) concentrations. METHODS: ALSPAC recruited 14 541 pregnant women between 1991 and 1992. We assigned trimester-specific estimated PM10 exposures for 12 752 pregnancies, and first year of life exposures for 12 525 births, based on maternal residence and residential mobility. RESULTS: Average PM10 exposure was 32.6 µg/m3 [standard deviation (S.D.) 3.0 µg/m3] during pregnancy and 31.4 µg/m3 (S.D. 2.6 µg/m3) during the first year of life; 6.7% of women changed address during pregnancy, and 18.0% moved during first year of life of their infant. Exposure differences ranged from -5.3 µg/m3 to 12.4 µg/m3 (up to 26% difference) during pregnancy and -7.22 µg/m3 to 7.64 µg/m3 (up to 27% difference) in the first year of life, when comparing estimated exposure using the address at birth and that assessed using the complete cleaned address history. For the majority of individuals exposure changed by <5%, but some relatively large changes were seen both in pregnancy and in infancy. CONCLUSIONS: ALGAE provides a generic and adaptable, open-source solution to clean addresses stored in a cohort contact database and assign life stage-specific exposure estimates with the potential to reduce exposure misclassification.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(Supplement_1): i38-i48, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293011

RESUMEN

The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0 (RIF) is a new user-friendly and open-access tool, developed by the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU), to facilitate environment public health tracking (EPHT) or surveillance (EPHS). The RIF is designed to help public health professionals and academics to rapidly perform exploratory investigations of health and environmental data at the small-area level (e.g. postcode or detailed census areas) in order to identify unusual signals, such as disease clusters and potential environmental hazards, whether localized (e.g. industrial site) or widespread (e.g. air and noise pollution). The RIF allows the use of advanced disease mapping methods, including Bayesian small-area smoothing and complex risk analysis functionalities, while accounting for confounders. The RIF could be particularly useful to monitor spatio-temporal trends in mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and chronic lung diseases, or to conduct local or national studies on air pollution, flooding, low-magnetic fields or nuclear power plants.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142356

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Exposure to air pollution during intrauterine development and through childhood may have lasting effects on respiratory health. OBJECTIVES: To investigate lung function at ages 8 and 15 years in relation to air pollution exposures during pregnancy, infancy and childhood in a UK population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Individual exposures to source-specific particulate matter with diameter ≤10µm (PM10) during each trimester, 0-6 months, 7-12 months (1990-1993) and up to age 15 years (1991-2008) were examined in relation to %predicted Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at ages 8(N=5,276) and 15(N=3,446) years, usinglinear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A profile regression model was used to identify sensitive time periods. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We did not find clear evidence for a sensitive exposure period for PM10 from road-traffic: at age 8 years, 1µg/m3 higher exposure during the first trimester was associated with lower %predicted of FEV1(-0.826, 95%CI:-1.357 to -0.296) and FVC(-0.817, 95%CI:-1.357 to -0.276), but similar associations were seen for exposures for other trimesters, 0-6 months, 7-12 months, and 0-7 years. Associations were stronger among boys, children whose mother had a lower education level or smoked during pregnancy. For PM10 from all sources, the third trimester was associated with lower %predicted of FVC (-1.312, 95%CI: -2.100 to -0.525). At age 15 years, no adverse associations were seen with lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to road-traffic PM10 during pregnancy may result in small but significant reductions in lung function at age 8 years.

5.
Environ Res ; 183: 108949, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902481

RESUMEN

Bioaerosols have been associated with adverse respiratory-related health effects and are emitted in elevated concentrations from composting facilities. We used modelled Aspergillus fumigatus concentrations, a good indicator for bioaerosol emissions, to assess associations with respiratory-related hospital admissions. Mean daily Aspergillus fumigatus concentrations were estimated for each composting site for first full year of permit issue from 2005 onwards to 2014 for Census Output Areas (COAs) within 4 km of 76 composting facilities in England, as previously described (Williams et al., 2019). We fitted a hierarchical generalized mixed model to examine the risk of hospital admission with a primary diagnosis of (i) any respiratory condition, (ii) respiratory infections, (iii) asthma, (iv) COPD, (v) diseases due to organic dust, and (vi) Cystic Fibrosis, in relation to quartiles of Aspergillus fumigatus concentrations. Models included a random intercept for each COA to account for over-dispersion, nested within composting facility, on which a random intercept was fitted to account for clustering of the data, with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, tobacco sales (smoking proxy) and traffic load (as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution). We included 249,748 respiratory-related and 3163 Cystic Fibrosis hospital admissions in 9606 COAs with a population-weighted centroid within 4 km of the 76 included composting facilities. After adjustment for confounders, no statistically significant effect was observed for any respiratory-related (Relative Risk (RR) = 0.99; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.96-1.01) or for Cystic Fibrosis (RR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.56-1.83) hospital admissions for COAs in the highest quartile of exposure. Similar results were observed across all respiratory disease sub-groups. This study does not provide evidence for increased risks of respiratory-related hospitalisations for those living near composting facilities. However, given the limitations in the dispersion modelling, risks cannot be completely ruled out. Hospital admissions represent severe respiratory episodes, so further study would be needed to investigate whether bioaerosols emitted from composting facilities have impacts on less severe episodes or respiratory symptoms.

6.
Environ Int ; 134: 104845, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230843

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated congenital anomalies in relation to municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) and results are inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a national investigation into the risk of congenital anomalies in babies born to mothers living within 10 km of an MWI associated with: i) modelled concentrations of PM10 as a proxy for MWI emissions more generally and; ii) proximity of residential postcode to nearest MWI, in areas in England and Scotland that are covered by a congenital anomaly register. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study within 10 km of 10 MWIs in England and Scotland operating between 2003 and 2010. Exposure was proximity to MWI and log of daily mean modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 µm diameter (PM10) concentrations. RESULTS: Analysis included 219,486 births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly of which 5154 were cases of congenital anomalies. Fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) per doubling in PM10 was: 1·00 (95% CI 0·98-1·02) for all congenital anomalies; 0·99 (0·97-1·01) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies. For every 1 km closer to an MWI adjusted OR was: 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies combined; 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies; and, for specific anomaly groups, 1·04 (1·01-1·08) for congenital heart defect sand 1·07 (1·02-1·12) for genital anomalies. DISCUSSION: We found no increased risk of congenital anomalies in relation to modelled PM10 emissions, but there were small excess risks associated with congenital heart defects and genital anomalies in proximity to MWIs. These latter findings may well reflect incomplete control for confounding, but a possible causal effect cannot be excluded.

7.
Environ Int ; 134: 105290, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783238

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence for associations between ambient air pollution and preterm birth and stillbirth is inconsistent. Road traffic produces both air pollutants and noise, but few studies have examined these co-exposures together and none to date with all-cause or cause-specific stillbirths. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and noise at address level during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth and stillbirth. METHODS: The study population comprised 581,774 live and still births in the Greater London area, 2006-2010. Outcomes were preterm birth (<37 completed weeks gestation), all-cause stillbirth and cause-specific stillbirth. Exposures during pregnancy to particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10), ozone (O3), primary traffic air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, PM2.5 from traffic exhaust and traffic non-exhaust), and road traffic noise were estimated based on maternal address at birth. RESULTS: An interquartile range increase in O3 exposure was associated with elevated risk of preterm birth (OR 1.15 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18, for both Trimester 1 and 2), all-cause stillbirth (Trimester 1 OR 1.17 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27; Trimester 2 OR 1.20 95% CI: 1.09, 1.32) and asphyxia-related stillbirth (Trimester 1 OR 1.22 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49). Odds ratios with the other air pollutant exposures examined were null or <1, except for primary traffic non-exhaust related PM2.5, which was associated with 3% increased odds of preterm birth (Trimester 1) and 7% increased odds stillbirth (Trimester 1 and 2) when adjusted for O3. Elevated risk of preterm birth was associated with increasing road traffic noise, but only after adjustment for certain air pollutant exposures. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that exposure to higher levels of O3 and primary traffic non-exhaust related PM2.5 during pregnancy may increase risk of preterm birth and stillbirth; and a possible relationship between long-term traffic-related noise and risk of preterm birth. These findings extend and strengthen the evidence base for important public health impacts of ambient ozone, particulate matter and noise in early life.

8.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285306

RESUMEN

Ambient air pollution increases the risk of respiratory mortality, but evidence for impacts on lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is less well established. The aim was to evaluate whether ambient air pollution is associated with lung function and COPD, and explore potential vulnerability factors.We used UK Biobank data on 303 887 individuals aged 40-69 years, with complete covariate data and valid lung function measures. Cross-sectional analyses examined associations of land use regression-based estimates of particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 and 10 µm: PM2.5 and PM10, respectively; and coarse particles with diameter between 2.5 µm and 10 µm: PMcoarse) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the FEV1/FVC ratio and COPD (FEV1/FVC

9.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(6): e270-e279, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Air pollution in Beijing has been improving through implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (2013-17), but its implications for respiratory morbidity have not been directly investigated. We aimed to assess the potential effects of air-quality improvements on respiratory health by investigating the number of cases of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) advanced by air pollution each year. METHODS: Daily city-wide concentrations of PM10, PM2·5, PMcoarse (particulate matter >2·5-10 µm diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) in 2013-17 were averaged from 35 monitoring stations across Beijing. A generalised additive Poisson time-series model was applied to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs for hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD associated with pollutant concentrations. FINDINGS: From Jan 18, 2013, to Dec 31, 2017, 161 613 hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of COPD were recorded. Mean ambient concentrations of SO2 decreased by 68% and PM2·5 decreased by 33% over this 5-year period. For each IQR increase in pollutant concentration, RRs for same-day hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD were 1·029 (95% CI 1·023-1·035) for PM10, 1·028 (1·021-1·034) for PM2·5, 1·018 (1·013-1·022) for PMcoarse, 1·036 (1·028-1·044) for NO2, 1·019 (1·013-1·024) for SO2, 1·024 (1·018-1·029) for CO, and 1·027 (1·010-1·044) for O3 in the warm season (May to October). Women and patients aged 65 years or older were more susceptible to the effects of these pollutants on hospitalisation risk than were men and patients younger than 65 years. In 2013, there were 12 679 acute exacerbations of COPD cases that were advanced by PM2·5 pollution above the expected number of cases if daily PM2·5 concentrations had not exceeded the WHO target (25 µg/m3), whereas the respective figure in 2017 was 7377 cases. INTERPRETATION: Despite improvement in overall air quality, increased acute air pollution episodes were significantly associated with increased hospitalisations for acute exacerbations of COPD in Beijing. Stringent air pollution control policies are important and effective for reducing COPD morbidity, and long-term multidimensional policies to safeguard public health are indicated. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council.

12.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMEN

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/genética , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/genética
13.
Environ Int ; 122: 151-158, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported associations between municipal waste incinerator (MWI) exposures and adverse birth outcomes but there are few studies of modern MWIs operating to current European Union (EU) Industrial Emissions Directive standards. METHODS: Associations between modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 µm in diameter (PM10) from MWI emissions (as a proxy for MWI emissions) within 10 km of each MWI, and selected birth and infant mortality outcomes were examined for all 22 MWIs operating in Great Britain 2003-10. We also investigated associations with proximity of residence to a MWI. Outcomes used were term birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) at term, stillbirth, neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality, multiple births, sex ratio and preterm delivery sourced from national registration data from the Office for National Statistics. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders including year of birth, sex, season of birth, maternal age, deprivation, ethnicity and area characteristics and random effect terms were included in the models to allow for differences in baseline rates between areas and in incinerator feedstock. RESULTS: Analyses included 1,025,064 births and 18,694 infant deaths. There was no excess risk in relation to any of the outcomes investigated during pregnancy or early life of either mean modelled MWI PM10 or proximity to an MWI. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that exposure to PM10 from, or living near to, an MWI operating to current EU standards was associated with harm for any of the outcomes investigated. Results should be generalisable to other MWIs operating to similar standards.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Desarrollo Fetal/fisiología , Mortalidad Infantil , Embarazo/estadística & datos numéricos , Residuos Sólidos , Mortinato/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
14.
Biostatistics ; 20(1): 1-16, 2019 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136109

RESUMEN

Small area ecological studies are commonly used in epidemiology to assess the impact of area level risk factors on health outcomes when data are only available in an aggregated form. However, the resulting estimates are often biased due to unmeasured confounders, which typically are not available from the standard administrative registries used for these studies. Extra information on confounders can be provided through external data sets such as surveys or cohorts, where the data are available at the individual level rather than at the area level; however, such data typically lack the geographical coverage of administrative registries. We develop a framework of analysis which combines ecological and individual level data from different sources to provide an adjusted estimate of area level risk factors which is less biased. Our method (i) summarizes all available individual level confounders into an area level scalar variable, which we call ecological propensity score (EPS), (ii) implements a hierarchical structured approach to impute the values of EPS whenever they are missing, and (iii) includes the estimated and imputed EPS into the ecological regression linking the risk factors to the health outcome. Through a simulation study, we show that integrating individual level data into small area analyses via EPS is a promising method to reduce the bias intrinsic in ecological studies due to unmeasured confounders; we also apply the method to a real case study to evaluate the effect of air pollution on coronary heart disease hospital admissions in Greater London.


Asunto(s)
Bioestadística/métodos , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Puntaje de Propensión , Análisis de Área Pequeña , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Simulación por Computador , Enfermedad Coronaria/epidemiología , Humanos , Londres , Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 27, 2018 03 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies of potential adverse effects of traffic related air pollution (TRAP) on allergic disease have had mixed findings. Nutritional studies to examine whether fish oil supplementation may protect against development of allergic disease through their anti-inflammatory actions have also had mixed findings. Extremely few studies to date have considered whether air pollution and dietary factors such as fish oil intake may interact, which was the rationale for this study. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) birth cohort, where children were randomised to fish oil supplementation or placebo from early life to age 5 years. We examined interactions between supplementation and TRAP (using weighted road density at place of residence as our measure of traffic related air pollution exposure) with allergic disease and lung function outcomes at age 5 and 8 years. RESULTS: Outcome information was available on approximately 400 children (~ 70% of the original birth cohort). Statistically significant interactions between fish oil supplementation and TRAP were seen for house dust mite (HDM), inhalant and all-allergen skin prick tests (SPTs) and for HDM-specific interleukin-5 response at age 5. Adjusting for relevant confounders, relative risks (RRs) for positive HDM SPT were RR 1.74 (95% CI 1.22-2.48) per 100 m local road or 33.3 m of motorway within 50 m of the home for those randomised to the control group and 1.03 (0.76-1.41) for those randomised to receive the fish oil supplement. The risk differential was highest in an analysis restricted to those who did not change address between ages 5 and 8 years. In this sub-group, supplementation also protected against the effect of traffic exposure on pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that fish oil supplementation may protect against pro-allergic sensitisation effects of TRAP exposure. Strengths of this analysis are that supplementation was randomised and independent of TRAP exposure, however, findings need to be confirmed in a larger experimental study with the interaction investigated as a primary hypothesis, potentially also exploring epigenetic mechanisms. More generally, studies of adverse health effects of air pollution may benefit from considering potential effect modification by diet and other factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry. www.anzctr.org.au Registration: ACTRN12605000042640 , Date: 26th July 2005. Retrospectively registered, trial commenced prior to registry availability.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos/efectos adversos , Asma/fisiopatología , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Contaminación por Tráfico Vehicular/efectos adversos , Asma/inducido químicamente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Nueva Gales del Sur
16.
Environ Int ; 114: 191-201, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518662

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. METHODS: In pooled complete-case sample of the three cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom (N = 355,732), 21,081 incident all CVD cases including 5259 ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 2871 cerebrovascular cases were ascertained between baseline (1993-2010) and end of follow-up (2008-2013) through medical record linkage. Annual mean 24-hour weighted road traffic noise (Lden) and air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm [PM10], ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5] and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) exposure at baseline address was modelled using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU) and European-wide Land Use Regression models. Individual-level covariate data were harmonised and physically pooled across the three cohorts. Analysis was via Cox proportional hazard model with mutual adjustments for both noise and air pollution and potential confounders. RESULTS: No significant associations were found between annual mean Lden and incident CVD, IHD or cerebrovascular disease in the overall population except that the association with incident IHD was significant among current-smokers. In the fully adjusted models including adjustment for Lden, an interquartile range (IQR) higher PM10 (4.1 µg/m3) or PM2.5 (1.4 µg/m3) was associated with a 5.8% (95%CI: 2.5%-9.3%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 0.2%-7.4%) higher risk for all incident CVD respectively. No significant associations were found between NO2 and any of the CVD outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of a possible association between road traffic noise and incident IHD, consistent with current literature. Long-term particulate air pollution exposure, even at concentrations below current European air quality standards, was significantly associated with incident CVD.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Ruido , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología
18.
Environ Int ; 113: 10-19, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421397

RESUMEN

We established air pollution modelling to study particle (PM10) exposures during pregnancy and infancy (1990-1993) through childhood and adolescence up to age ~15 years (1991-2008) for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. For pregnancy trimesters and infancy (birth to 6 months; 7 to 12 months) we used local (ADMS-Urban) and regional/long-range (NAME-III) air pollution models, with a model constant for local, non-anthropogenic sources. For longer exposure periods (annually and the average of birth to age ~8 and to age ~15 years to coincide with relevant follow-up clinics) we assessed spatial contrasts in local sources of PM10 with a yearly-varying concentration for all background sources. We modelled PM10 (µg/m3) for 36,986 address locations over 19 years and then accounted for changes in address in calculating exposures for different periods: trimesters/infancy (n = 11,929); each year of life to age ~15 (n = 10,383). Intra-subject exposure contrasts were largest between pregnancy trimesters (5th to 95th centile: 24.4-37.3 µg/m3) and mostly related to temporal variability in regional/long-range PM10. PM10 exposures fell on average by 11.6 µg/m3 from first year of life (mean concentration = 31.2 µg/m3) to age ~15 (mean = 19.6 µg/m3), and 5.4 µg/m3 between follow-up clinics (age ~8 to age ~15). Spatial contrasts in 8-year average PM10 exposures (5th to 95th centile) were relatively low: 25.4-30.0 µg/m3 to age ~8 years and 20.7-23.9 µg/m3 from age ~8 to age ~15 years. The contribution of local sources to total PM10 was 18.5%-19.5% during pregnancy and infancy, and 14.4%-17.0% for periods leading up to follow-up clinics. Main roads within the study area contributed on average ~3.0% to total PM10 exposures in all periods; 9.5% of address locations were within 50 m of a main road. Exposure estimates will be used in a number of planned epidemiological studies.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Embarazo
19.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 103(3): F264-F270, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780501

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Birth weight is a strong predictor of infant mortality, morbidity and later disease risk. Previous work from the 1980s indicated a shift in the UK towards heavier births; this descriptive analysis looks at more recent trends. METHODS: Office for National Statistics (ONS) registration data on 17.2 million live, single births from 1986 to 2012 were investigated for temporal trends in mean birth weight, potential years of birth weight change and changes in the proportions of very low (<1500 g), low (<2500 g) and high (≥4000 g) birth weight. Analysis used multiple linear and logistic regression adjusted for maternal age, marital status, area-level deprivation and ethnicity. Additional analyses used the ONS NHS Numbers for Babies data set for 2006-2012, which has information on individual ethnicity and gestational age. RESULTS: Over 27 years there was an increase in birth weight of 43 g (95% CI 42 to 44) in females and 44 g (95% CI 43 to 45) in males, driven by birth weight increases between 1986-1990 and 2007-2012. There was a concurrent decreased risk of having low birth weight but an 8% increased risk in males and 10% increased risk in females of having high birth weight. For 2006-2012 the birth weight increase was greater in preterm as compared with term births. CONCLUSIONS: Since 1986 the birth weight distribution of live, single births in England and Wales has shifted towards heavier births, partly explained by increases in maternal age and non-white ethnicity, as well as changes in deprivation levels. Other potential influences include increases in maternal obesity and reductions in smoking prevalence particularly following the introduction of legislation restricting smoking in public places in 2007.


Asunto(s)
Peso al Nacer , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Nacimiento a Término , Gales/epidemiología
20.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(2): 134-173, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133137

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Population growth, increasing food demands, and economic efficiency have been major driving forces behind farming intensification over recent decades. However, biological emissions (bioaerosols) from intensified livestock farming may have the potential to impact human health. Bioaerosols from intensive livestock farming have been reported to cause symptoms and/or illnesses in occupational-settings and there is concern about the potential health effects on people who live near the intensive farms. As well as adverse health effects, some potential beneficial effects have been attributed to farm exposures in early life. The aim of the study was to undertake a systematic review to evaluate potential for adverse health outcomes in populations living near intensive livestock farms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) and bibliographies were searched for studies reporting associations between health outcomes and bioaerosol emissions related to intensive farming published between January 1960 and April 2017, including both occupational and community studies. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Risk of bias was assessed using a customized score. RESULTS: 38 health studies met the inclusion criteria (21 occupational and 1 community study measured bioaerosol concentrations, 16 community studies using a proxy measure for exposure). The majority of occupational studies found a negative impact on respiratory health outcomes and increases in inflammatory biomarkers among farm workers exposed to bioaerosols. Studies investigating the health of communities living near intensive farms had mixed findings. All four studies of asthma in children found increased reported asthma prevalence among children living or attending schools near an intensive farm. Papers principally investigated respiratory and immune system outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The review indicated a potential impact of intensive farming on childhood respiratory health, based on a small number of studies using self-reported outcomes, but supported by findings from occupational studies. Further research is needed to measure and monitor exposure in community settings and relate this to objectively measured health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles/toxicidad , Agricultura , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Salud Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Humanos
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