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1.
Intern Med ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787693

RESUMEN

We herein report a 50-year-old Chinese woman with Hb Phnom Penh (α117Phe-Ile-α118Thr] showing high or reasonable HbA1c values depending on the type of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. A high HbA1c value of 7.5% (HPLC assay: G9) and a reasonable HbA1c value of 5.2% (assay unknown) were observed. Therefore, the patient was refereed to our hospital; the oral glucose tolerance test showed normal glucose tolerance. The HbA1c values measured by an enzymatic assay, immunoassay, and affinity assay, as well as most HPLC assays were within the reference range, whereas those measured by the Tosoh HPLC systems were high.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6042-6048, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rigor mortis occurs when muscle extension vanishes through the irresistible coupling of actin and myosin by the consumption of adenosine triphosphate as energy. To clarify the cause of the differences in the progression of rigor mortis, seven fish species were used as samples. The superprecipitation reaction and Mg2+ -ATPase activity of actomyosin in dorsal ordinary muscle were measured, and the slope of the regression line between these two variables was calculated for each fish specimen. The fiber types of the dorsal ordinary muscle in each sample fish were discriminated by the stability of actomyosin ATPase at acid and alkaline preincubations. RESULT: Positive correlations were found between Mg2+ -ATPase activity and the superprecipitation reaction of actomyosin in all 27 fish specimens. The slopes of the regression lines were different not only between fish species but also in fish specimens within the same species. The area ratios of pink muscle fibers and the IIa and/or IIb subtypes of white muscle fibers in the dorsal ordinary muscle were also different between fish species, as well as in specimens within the same fish species. A positive correlation was found between the area ratios of pink muscle fibers in dorsal ordinary muscle and the slopes of the regression line. CONCLUSION: It was suggested that the differences in characteristics of rigor-mortis-related actomyosin of fish might have been caused by the differences in the interposition ratio of muscle fiber types, especially of the pink muscle fiber type, in the dorsal ordinary muscle. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Actomiosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peces/metabolismo , Peces/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Rigor Mortis/metabolismo , Actomiosina/química , Animales , Proteínas de Peces/química , Peces/clasificación , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/química
3.
J Dermatol ; 46(9): 791-793, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245862

RESUMEN

Cutaneous gnathostomiasis (CG) is a disease caused by ingestion of third-stage Gnathostoma larva in raw snakes, freshwater fish or frogs. The common causative organisms of CG in Japan include G. nipponicum, G. spinigerum, G. doloresi, G. binucleatum and G. hispidum. We report two cases of CG after eating many raw Japanese icefishes (Salangichthys microdon). In both cases, linear itchy eruptions on the trunk developed after eating many S. microdon. We performed genetic analysis in the first case, which revealed G. nipponicum. Of note, this is the first case of CG diagnosed based on genetic analysis in Japan. In Japan, eating whole small raw freshwater fish is common. The most popular types of raw small freshwater fish consumed in Japan are S. microdon (shirauo in Japanese) and Leucopsarion petersii (shirouo in Japanese). Usually, S. microdon are born in rivers, but live in both the sea and rivers. They feed on small fish and freshwater water fleas and spawn in rivers in the spring. On the other hand, L. petersii are born in rivers, but move to the sea soon after hatching. They feed on plankton such as copepod in the sea. They do not feed on anything when they return to rivers to spawn in the spring. Therefore, we hypothesize that S. microdon are more easily parasitized by G. nipponicum.


Asunto(s)
Peces/parasitología , Gnathostomiasis/diagnóstico , Alimentos Crudos/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/diagnóstico , Zoonosis/diagnóstico , Anciano , Animales , Femenino , Gnathostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Gnathostomiasis/parasitología , Gnathostomiasis/transmisión , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Piel/parasitología , Piel/patología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/parasitología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/transmisión , Adulto Joven , Zoonosis/parasitología , Zoonosis/transmisión
4.
J Med Invest ; 66(1.2): 81-85, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064961

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: p-Cresol concentrations are high in the blood of hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, its organ distribution has not yet been investigated in detail. We herein report the distribution of p-cresolin HD patients from forensic autopsy cases. METHODS: p-Cresol was measured in the blood, urine, lungs, liver, and kidneys from 4 HD and 4 non-HD cases. Samples were extracted with p-cresol-d8 (internal standard), derivatized,and injected on the GC-MS. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The total urinary p-cresol/Cr was 79.73 ng/ml in HD cases,which was 16-fold higher than that in non-HD cases. p-Cresol in the blood and kidneys were 30-fold higher or more at 11.92 and 13.08 µg/mL(g), respectively. p-Cresol in the liver and lungs were approximately 20-fold higher at 4.82 and 9.99 µg/g, respectively. p-Cresol was markedly increased in not only the blood, but also the urine and organs of HD cases. The distribution of p-cresol in the blood, urine, and organs differed between HD and non-HD cases. In HD cases, the percentages of conjugated (C) and protein-bound conjugated (PC) urinary p-cresol were 57 and 41%, respectively. C and PC p-cresol was 66% and 25% in the kidneys, respectively, and similar results were obtained in the lungs. J. Med. Invest. 66 : 81-85, February, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Cresoles/farmacocinética , Diálisis Renal , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Creatinina/orina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución Tisular
5.
J Texture Stud ; 50(4): 325-331, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838657

RESUMEN

We examined the influence of blood deposition on flesh quality of ordinary muscle in yellowtail. This study compared the flesh quality changes in upper and under-sides of yellowtails killed by two different methods: spinal-cord destruction (SCD) with blood removal and suffocation in air without blood removal (SA). The under-sides of the SA group showed the highest values for a*, cathepsin B and B + L activities, the lowest value in breaking strength and the greatest degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) among the four groups. However, the values of the SCD-upper group indicated the best flesh quality. In addition, the white blood cells presented the highest cathepsin B and B + L activities among the blood components. These results indicate that blood has the tendency to deposit downward in accordance with the direction of placement. This phenomenon influences the distribution of white blood cells which contain enzymes that accelerate the deterioration of flesh quality. The texture of fish muscle is an important part of the flesh quality. In captured fishery (purse-seine fishery and dragnet fishery), it is impossible to immediately and completely remove blood. Therefore, suffocation in air is the common method after the fish is caught. The commercial value of fish is decreased and the price varies greatly when these fish enter market circulation. In our study, we examined the influence of blood deposition on the flesh quality of yellowtail during storage. The degradation of structural proteins accelerated in the deposited blood which contain proteases. The movement and deposition of blood caused the difference of quality on both sides, which seriously affected the quality of fish during preservation. Our study has some theoretical guidance for muscle softening and give a better understanding of the adverse effect of blood during preservation.

6.
Neurosci Lett ; 701: 71-76, 2019 05 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794821

RESUMEN

Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) plays important roles in the metabolism of catecholamines and modulates adrenergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic signaling. A polymorphic promoter variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) locus (MAOA-uVNTR) is located approximately 1.2 kb upstream from MAOA exon 1. Functional studies revealed that MAOA-uVNTR affects gene expression. In the present study, we examined the frequencies of MAOA-uVNTR alleles in Japanese autopsy cases, in which amphetamines or psychotropic drugs were not detected. In total, 87 males and 35 females were evaluated and investigated for the possible effect of MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) catecholamine concentrations. In males, there was no significant association between MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and CSF adrenaline (Adr), noradrenaline (Nad), or dopamine (DA) levels. In contrast, females who were homozygous for the 3-repeat allele (i.e., 3/3 genotype carriers) had higher CSF levels of Adr (p = 0.024) and DA (p = 0.035) than individuals who were heterozygous or homozygous for the 4-repeat allele (3/4 and 4/4, respectively). We found no significant association between MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and CSF Nad levels in females. Thus, the results of the present study indicated that MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism influences CSF Adr and DA levels in females.


Asunto(s)
Catecolaminas/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Repeticiones de Minisatélite , Monoaminooxidasa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alelos , Autopsia , Niño , Femenino , Ciencias Forenses , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Adulto Joven
8.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 34: 27-35, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103078

RESUMEN

In some forensic autopsy cases there are high concentrations of p-cresol in the blood. In vivo, p-cresol is the only isomer yielded by intestinal bacteria and is excreted into urine. We investigated the diagnostic meaning of p-cresol in the blood of forensic autopsy cases. Blood samples from 110 autopsy cases within 48 h of the postmortem interval (PMI) and 10 healthy adults were examined. Blood with p-cresol-d8 as an internal standard was analyzed using a GC-MS/MS method. Using acid and heat deproteinization, free (F) and conjugated (non-protein bound: C; protein bound: PC) p-cresol were individually analyzed. The p-cresol concentrations were 1.39 ±â€¯0.86 µg/ml [mean ±â€¯SD] and 1.18 (0.19-18.80) µg/ml [median (range)] in healthy adults and autopsy cases, respectively. The p-cresol showed no significant relationship to age, sex, fasting duration, survival duration, or PMI. No significant differences were found between causes of death. Significantly higher levels of C p-cresol were found in cases with atherosclerosis in the basilar or renal arteries, or stenosis in the coronary artery. Significantly higher levels of p-cresol except F were found in cases with hyalinosis of the kidney. Cases with low BMI also showed significantly higher p-cresol concentrations. The 22 cases of abnormally high total p-cresol were investigated. It was considered that high concentrations of p-cresol could be an indicator of certain diseases and physical conditions that effect the production, absorption, metabolism, circulation, and excretion of p-cresol. Measuring the levels of p-cresol may provide valuable information about the antemortem physical conditions.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia , Cresoles/sangre , Medicina Legal , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Aterosclerosis/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estenosis Coronaria/diagnóstico , Ayuno , Femenino , Glomeruloesclerosis Focal y Segmentaria/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cambios Post Mortem , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
9.
J Int Med Res ; 46(10): 4167-4180, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157689

RESUMEN

Objective This study was performed to evaluate the association of the serum level of angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) with circulating inflammatory markers and oxidized and modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as evaluated by lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 ligand containing apolipoprotein B (LAB) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study included 70 patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for glycemic control and 9 control subjects. Results The serum level of ANGPTL2 was significantly higher in the patients with type 2 diabetes than in the healthy controls. There was a significant positive correlation between ANGPTL2 and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and LAB levels and a significant negative correlation between ANGPTL2 and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Conclusions These results suggest that the serum ANGPTL2 level has a close positive association with inflammatory markers, especially fibrinogen and oxidized and modified LDL as evaluated by LAB. The data also suggest that the serum ANGPTL2 level is influenced by renal function as reflected by the eGFR.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Similares a la Angiopoyetina/sangre , Apolipoproteínas B/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Receptores Depuradores de Clase E/sangre , Anciano , Biomarcadores/sangre , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Femenino , Fibrinógeno/análisis , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Ligandos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 289: e9-e14, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908646

RESUMEN

A female in her late teens purposely ingested alcohol fuel containing methanol to commit suicide, which she admitted on social media. She was found in distress by her parents and died at the hospital some hours later. Autopsy revealed swelling of the brain and edematous and congestive lungs. No other trauma or unusual findings were revealed at autopsy. Methanol was detected upon routine screening for alcohols by headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. To confirm the presence of methanol and its metabolite formic acid, a method with detection by mass spectrometry was used. Methanol and formic acid were quantitated in body fluids and tissues by headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. Formic acid was converted to isopropyl formate by reaction with isopropanol and concentrated sulfuric acid. Acetonitrile was used as the internal standard. The methanol and formic acid concentrations were analyzed in peripheral blood, heart blood, cerebrospinal fluid, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, lung, muscle, and fat. Successful confirmation and quantitation of methanol and formic acid, a methanol metabolite, in postmortem specimens was achieved on an uncommon case of suicide by methanol ingestion.


Asunto(s)
Metanol/envenenamiento , Solventes/envenenamiento , Suicidio , Tejido Adiposo/química , Femenino , Formiatos/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Riñón/química , Hígado/química , Pulmón/química , Metanol/análisis , Músculo Esquelético/química , Páncreas/química , Solventes/análisis , Bazo/química , Adulto Joven
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 289: 33-39, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843110

RESUMEN

Methamphetamine (MA) is an illicit stimulant that affects the central nervous system. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) plays an important role in MA metabolism. Numerous allelic variants confer substantial variation in CYP2D6 activity among individuals. In the present study, we examined the frequencies of CYP2D6 alleles, including CYP2D6*1, *2, *4, *5, *10, *14A, *14B, *18, and *36, and multiplication, in 82 forensic autopsy cases of MA abusers and 567 autopsy cases in which MA was not detected (controls). Ultrarapid metabolizer (UM), extensive metabolizer (EM), intermediate metabolizer (IM), and poor metabolizer (PM) phenotypes were predicted from CYP2D6 genotypes. Of MA abusers, 64 subjects were predicted to be EM, 17 were IM, and 1 was UM. No MA abuser had the predicted PM phenotype. No significant differences in CYP2D6 phenotype frequencies were found between MA abusers and controls. MA and amphetamine (AMP) concentrations were measured in the right heart blood, left heart blood, peripheral external iliac blood, urine, pericardial fluid, and bone marrow of MA abusers. MA concentrations in urine and bone marrow were significantly higher in IM than in EM. AMP concentration was not associated with CYP2D6 phenotype in any body fluid. These results suggest that the MA concentration in body fluids is influenced by CYP2D6 phenotypes in the Japanese population.


Asunto(s)
Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Metanfetamina/análisis , Narcóticos/análisis , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Trastornos Relacionados con Anfetaminas , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Médula Ósea/química , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Líquido Pericárdico/química , Fenotipo , Adulto Joven
12.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 32: 113-119, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665525

RESUMEN

Detection of body fluid-specific mRNAs, such as those specific for blood, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a useful tool in forensic science. Blood stains often contain PCR inhibitors that may be co-extracted with RNA and adversely affect PCR. The effects of inhibitors on the detection of mRNA markers for blood identification, namely, hemoglobin beta (HBB) and actin beta, were examined herein. Inhibitors were added to a real-time PCR mix, reverse transcription mix, and blood samples before RNA extraction, and the following parameters: Ct, delta Ct (dCt), and melting temperature (Tm) values, were monitored. Hematin, humic acid, indigo carmine, and tannic acid were used as PCR inhibitors. The results showed that Ct values for HBB in samples containing inhibitors in their real-time PCR mix increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and were undetectable at higher concentrations. Moreover, Ct values for HBB in tannic acid-spiked samples reached a maximum once, and inhibition decreased at higher concentrations. dCt values increased in hematin-spiked samples, but decreased in tannic acid-spiked samples. Tm values decreased following the addition of each inhibitor. The reverse transcription reaction was scarcely inhibited at concentrations that markedly affected real-time PCR. The complete removal of inhibitors added to blood was difficult. However, the observed inhibitory effects were weaker than those when inhibitors were added to the PCR cocktail. PCR inhibition was effectively reduced by repurification of complimentary DNA with DNA extraction kits. These results will assist examiners in deducing contaminating inhibitors and selecting an appropriate method to remove them.


Asunto(s)
Manchas de Sangre , Dermatoglifia del ADN , ARN Mensajero/análisis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Genética Forense , Hemina , Humanos , Sustancias Húmicas , Carmin de Índigo , Taninos
13.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 33: 6-9, 2018 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702335

RESUMEN

Dopamine D2 receptor/ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2/ANKK1) gene polymorphisms have been associated with responses to psychotropic drugs and addiction. We analyzed two DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphisms, Taq1A and -141C Ins/Del, in 37 fatal methamphetamine (MA) intoxication cases and 235 control cases in which MA and psychotropic drugs were not detected. The association among polymorphism, cause of death, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dopamine concentration was evaluated. The Taq1A polymorphism distribution in the fatal MA intoxication cases differed from in the controls (P = 0.030) with a significantly high A1/A1 + A1/A2 genotype frequency. No significant associations were observed between -141C Ins/Del polymorphisms and MA intoxication cases or between DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphisms and CSF dopamine concentrations. Our findings suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to fatal MA intoxication.

14.
J Clin Med Res ; 10(4): 358-362, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511426

RESUMEN

We describe a 58-year-old man with a malignant melanoma metastasis to the liver. After initiation of nivolumab therapy, he developed destructive thyroiditis and subsequently simultaneous isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency and severe hypercalcemia. Although isolated ACTH deficiency and hypercalcemia due to nivolumab therapy are both rare occurrences, these conditions can often cause a severe clinical course accompanied by a disturbance of consciousness. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to these possible side effects of nivolumab if the patients have clinical symptoms, such as fatigue and a disturbance of consciousness.

15.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 32: 43-47, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518652

RESUMEN

Based on a prospective case-control study of forensic autopsies, the causes of cocaine (COC)-related sudden death (SD) are cardiovascular events in 62.0% of cases, cerebrovascular events in 14.0%, and others. A forensic autopsy of a male in his early forties revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the base of the brain. A cerebral arterial aneurysm was not detected even though hemorrhage was clearly observed in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) bifurcation area. The brain weighed 1488 g and was edematous. We histopathologically examined the left-ACA, right-ACA, and anterior communicating artery (Acom). Thickening of the internal vessel wall was observed as a pathological change. The internal elastic lamina of the right-ACA, near the peripheral part of Acom, was meandered with a jagged appearance. A toxicology examination detected COC and its metabolites, particularly benzoylecgonin, in blood and urine samples. Therefore, the present case was regarded as a non-fatal intoxication case, but also a COC-related death. Ethanol was also detected, indicating that COC was taken in combination with alcohol. The cause of COC-related death in the present case was SAH. COC use is known to induce aneurysmal SAH; however, whether an aneurysm had formed in the present case was unclear. Meander, extension, and degeneration of the internal elastic lamina of the right-ACA were observed near the bifurcation from the Acom. This area corresponded macroscopically with that considered to be the bleeding point from the blood vessel. Therefore, the present case was diagnosed as COC-related SD.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Cocaína , Cocaína/envenenamiento , Muerte Súbita/etiología , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/complicaciones , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/patología , Acetaldehído/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Autopsia , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Humanos , Japón , Masculino
16.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 1228-1235, 2018 02 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323878

RESUMEN

In a metal/molecule hybrid system, unavoidable electrical mismatch exists between metal continuum states and frontier molecular orbitals. This causes energy loss in the electron conduction across the metal/molecule interface. For efficient use of energy in a metal/molecule hybrid system, it is necessary to control interfacial electronic structures. Here we demonstrate that electrical matching between a gold substrate and π-conjugated molecular wires can be obtained by using monatomic foreign metal interlayers, which can change the degree of d-π* back-donation at metal/anchor contacts. This interfacial control leads to energy level alignment between the Fermi level of the metal electrode and conduction molecular orbitals, resulting in resonant electron conduction in the metal/molecule hybrid system. When this method is applied to molecule-modified electrocatalysts, the heterogeneous electrochemical reaction rate is considerably improved with significant suppression of energy loss at the internal electron conduction.

17.
J Anal Toxicol ; 42(4): 276-283, 2018 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300899

RESUMEN

Suvorexant (Belsomra®) is a relatively new insomnia medication that has been available in USA and Japan since 2014. It is a dual orexin receptor antagonist that promotes sleep by inhibiting the binding of orexin neurons to the OX1R and OX2R receptors. In this report, we describe the detection and quantitation of suvorexant from the postmortem specimens of three separate autopsy cases handled by our department. Suvorexant was identified by fast gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during routine screening, and quantitated by a fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy method. Quantitation was achieved by positive electrospray ionization in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Monitored transitions were m/z 451 > 186 for quantitation and m/z 451 > 104 for qualification. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of suvorexant being quantitated from actual autopsy cases. It is likely that this compound will be encountered more often by the forensic toxicology community going forward.


Asunto(s)
Azepinas/farmacocinética , Toxicología Forense , Triazoles/farmacocinética , Adulto , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Autopsia , Azepinas/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Distribución Tisular , Triazoles/análisis
18.
Neuropathology ; 38(2): 185-191, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29139152

RESUMEN

A man in his late thirties was found in a supine position in the hallway of his house. He had been diagnosed with epilepsy at approximately 20 years old. Since stopping treatment, epileptic events occurred more frequently and his condition deteriorated in the past 2 years. Autopsy revealed that head injuries were found on the left side of his head. A fracture from the left parietal bone to the anterior cranial fossa was also detected. A subdural hemorrhage (hematoma) spanned a wide range. A subarachnoid hemorrhage was also identified in the left parietal region. His brain weighed 1603 g, was edematous, and showed right uncal herniation. In the right cerebral hemisphere, a thick, enlarged blood vessel ran from the sagittal sinus. An egg-sized tumorous lesion of blood vessels was found on the bottom of the frontal lobe. This vascular lesion had formed between the sagittal sinus and right anterior cerebral artery. Pathologically, veins and arteries were found together, and, thus, this case was diagnosed as an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). No other pathological and toxicological findings were observed. Subdural hematoma, the cause of death, occurred from the fall to the floor. An epileptic seizure may have been the cause of the fall. AVM on his brain was considered to be the focal lesion of epileptic seizures.


Asunto(s)
Fístula Arteriovenosa/complicaciones , Fístula Arteriovenosa/patología , Epilepsia/etiología , Malformaciones Arteriovenosas Intracraneales/complicaciones , Malformaciones Arteriovenosas Intracraneales/patología , Convulsiones/etiología , Adulto , Edema Encefálico/complicaciones , Edema Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagen , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/etiología , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/patología , Hematoma/complicaciones , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Hematoma Subdural/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Lóbulo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagen , Lóbulo Parietal/lesiones , Hemorragia Subaracnoidea/patología
19.
J Clin Med Res ; 9(9): 782-787, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811856

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Betatrophin is a hormone mainly secreted by the liver that influences lipid metabolisms. The main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of canagliflozin (a sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor) on circulating betatrophin levels, and to investigate the correlation of various markers associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms with betatrophin in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Patients were randomly divided into a control group (n = 15) and a canagliflozin-treated group (n = 15). After hospitalization, the canagliflozin-treated group took 100 mg/day of canagliflozin for 3 days. Blood tests were performed at baseline and after 3 days of treatment. RESULTS: Canagliflozin treatment for 3 days did not significantly change fasting and postprandial serum betatrophin levels. On the other hand, betatrophin levels had a significant positive correlation with hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that short-term treatment by canagliflozin does not influence circulating betatrophin levels, and that betatrophin is positively associated with markers of glycemic control and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

20.
J Clin Med Res ; 9(9): 802-808, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811859

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The goal of the current study was to investigate the long-term effects (after 3 years or more) of alogliptin on glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the effect of alogliptin on glycemic control in the patients with type 2 diabetes who had participated in our previous 3-month study and who continued to take alogliptin for at least 36 months. RESULTS: The mean duration of alogliptin treatment was 42.8 ± 2.2 months. In all 39 patients, a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels was noted between the baseline and final visit: 7.8±0.6% to 7.2±1.0% (P = 0.0001). A significant reduction in HbA1c levels was found in a subgroup of patients who did not change their anti-diabetic drugs or did decrease the dose of their sulfonylureas (SUs) or did change to a lower strength repaglinide (n = 32): 7.7±0.6% to 7.2±1.0% (P = 0.0005). A significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels was observed in all of the patients that had LDL-C levels determined (P = 0.0406) (n = 37), and in a subgroup of patients who had not taken either statins, fibrates, or pioglitazone, or who had taken one or more of these drugs but the doses were not changed during the observation period (P = 0.0250) (n = 27). CONCLUSION: The current study found that alogliptin performed well for glycemic control when evaluated by HbA1c levels in a long-term observation period exceeding 3 years in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Alogliptin may also decrease circulating LDL-C levels with long-term use.

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