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1.
Clin Teach ; 16(5): 519-524, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560577

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cancer care is typically delivered by a range of health professionals, and is frequently a uniprofessional pre-registration clinical placement. A workplace-based, 6-hour interprofessional education (IPE) pilot on cancer care, led by clinical tutors, was undertaken in a New Zealand hospital, accompanied by an external evaluation. The pilot involved a cohort of 21 dietetic, medicine, pharmacy, physiotherapy and radiation therapy students. The aim of the evaluation was to determine student and tutor reactions to IPE, and any changes in perceptions and attitudes. METHODS: The evaluation used focus groups to collect data: two student groups and one tutor group. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed; the content was coded and then analysed. RESULTS: Both students and tutors reported benefits from having IPE in the workplace environment, with cancer care seen as a suitable topic. Students reported a better understanding of professional roles, skills and the provision of collaborative care, and suggested other professions should be included in future IPE. Patient selection needed to be better tailored for physiotherapy students to ensure uniform relevance. As a result of competing demands, tutors found that they needed an 18-month lead time to establish the IPE programme. Tutors felt that the programme had gone relatively smoothly and that they had benefitted from forming closer interpersonal relationships, but noted considerable unanticipated and unremunerated preparation time. DISCUSSION: This short workplace-based IPE programme elicited a positive student and tutor response, but highlighted the need for improvements: broadening the topic area, targeted patient selection, including more professions and providing administrative support for tutors. Cancer care was generally seen as a suitable topic.

2.
Liver Int ; 38(9): 1686-1695, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455458

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is limited information regarding patients with AIH outside relatively few large centres. We describe here the presenting features of patients with AIH, collected as part of an audit involving 28 UK hospitals. METHODS: Patients (incident since 1/1/2007 or prevalent since 1/1/2000) were ≥18 years and either met 1999 International AIH Group (IAIHG) diagnostic criteria (n = 1164), or received immunosuppressive therapy for clinically diagnosed AIH (n = 103). RESULTS: Of 1267 patients (80% women, 91% Caucasian, age (median(range)) 55(8-86) years, 0.5% had acute viral hepatitis (CMV/EBV/HEV); 2% were taking Nitrofurantoin and 0.7% Khat. Twenty-one percent had clinical decompensation and/or a MELD score of >15. Time from first abnormal liver tests to diagnosis was ≥1 year in 19% and was longer in jaundiced vs non-jaundiced patients. HBV and HCV serology were undocumented in 4%, serum immunoglobulins in 31% and autoantibodies in 11%-27%. When documented, ≥1 antibody was present in 83%. LKM-1-positive and autoantibody-negative patients had more severe disease. Histological cirrhosis was reported in 23%, interface hepatitis 88%, predominant lymphocytes/plasma cells 75%, rosettes 19% and emperipolesis 0.4%. Only 65% of those meeting 1999 IAIHG criteria also met simplified IAIHG criteria. University Hospitals compared to District General Hospitals, were more likely to report histological features of AIH. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort from across the UK is older than other multicentre AIH cohorts. One-fifth had decompensation or MELD >15. Diagnosis was delayed in 19%, diagnostic testing was incomplete in one-third and rosettes and emperipolesis were infrequently reported.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis Autoinmune/diagnóstico , Hepatitis Autoinmune/epidemiología , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Autoanticuerpos/sangre , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Hígado/patología , Cirrosis Hepática/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
EBioMedicine ; 14: 65-73, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27913155

RESUMEN

High-risk primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), defined by inadequate response at one year to Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is associated with disease progression and liver transplantation. Stratifying high-risk patients early would facilitate improved approaches to care. Using long-term follow-up data to define risk at presentation, 6 high-risk PBC patients and 8 low-risk patients were identified from biopsy, transplant and biochemical archival records. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies taken at presentation were graded (Scheuer and Nakanuma scoring) and gene expression analysed using the NanoString® nCounter PanCancer Immunity 770-gene panel. Principle component analysis (PCA) demonstrated discrete gene expression clustering between controls and high- and low-risk PBC. High-risk PBC was characterised by up-regulation of genes linked to T-cell activation and apoptosis, INF-γ signalling and leukocyte migration and down-regulation of those linked to the complement pathway. CDKN1a, up-regulated in high-risk PBC, correlated with significantly increased expression of its gene product, the senescence marker p21WAF1/Cip, by biliary epithelial cells. Our findings suggest high- and low-risk PBC are biologically different from disease outset and senescence an early feature in high-risk disease. Identification of a high-risk 'signal' early from standard FFPE tissue sections has clear clinical utility allowing for patient stratification and second-line therapeutic intervention.


Asunto(s)
Colangitis/genética , Colangitis/patología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores , Biopsia , Colangitis/metabolismo , Inhibidor p21 de las Quinasas Dependientes de la Ciclina/genética , Inhibidor p21 de las Quinasas Dependientes de la Ciclina/metabolismo , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo
4.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 12(2): 167-73, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26947944

RESUMEN

AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the potential impact of statin and aspirin use on acute toxicity and pathological complete response (pCR) rate in rectal cancer patients receiving neo-adjuvant long-course radiation therapy (LCRT) with concurrent chemotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing neo-adjuvant LCRT for rectal adenocarcinoma at the Regional Cancer Treatment Service between 1 September 2007 and 1 June 2011. Data obtained include demographic details; date and radiological TNM stage at diagnosis; medication taken at time of RT; toxicity during LCRT; and surgical histology to determine if a pCR was obtained following LCRT. RESULTS: Neo-adjuvant LCRT was administered to 142 patients for rectal cancer during this period; concurrent chemotherapy was omitted in 13 due to significant comorbidities. TNM stage was 2 or 3 radiologically at diagnosis in 127 (89.4%) of patients. At the time of LCRT, 23% were taking a statin and 25% were taking aspirin. Of 135 assessable patients, 34 (13%) achieved a pCR at surgery. On logistic regression, pCR was not significantly associated with the use of chemotherapy, statins, aspirin, other NSAIDs, T-stage or N-stage. There was no significant correlation between statin or aspirin use with bladder or rectal toxicity. Actuarial time to maximum rectal toxicity was not different in statin users or nonusers. CONCLUSION: In contrast to other larger retrospective series, this study did not find improvements in toxicity or pCR rate through statin or aspirin use in rectal cancer patients undergoing LCRT. Their potential benefits in this setting would be best studied prospectively in a large randomized trial.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Aspirina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias del Recto/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Recto/radioterapia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias del Recto/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
5.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 9(3): 249-56, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23057561

RESUMEN

AIM: Inequities exist in the outcomes of patients diagnosed with lung cancer in New Zealand, with Maori (the indigenous population) having significantly higher diagnosis rates and poorer survival. We investigated the feasibility of introducing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) testing into New Zealand as one step to address these inequities. METHODS: An anonymous electronic questionnaire was distributed to clinicians from specialties involved in lung cancer management. Questions were grouped around topics including challenges in lung cancer management, EGFR testing, targeted therapy, costs and interest in the development of a national lung tissue bank. RESULTS: In total, 61 clinicians responded and noted that few of their non-small-cell lung cancer patients were tested for EGFR mutations. Most clinicians (84%) would prefer a centralized testing service and 95% would use an overseas laboratory if publicly funded; however 62% did not know or had no preference for test procedures. Under half (46%) had used tyrosine kinase inhibitors with only a small number of patients and 79% supported the development of a lung tissue bank. CONCLUSION: While most respondents had little experience with EGFR testing, clinicians supported its introduction into New Zealand. However, a number of potential issues, including cost, laboratory expertise and the need for improved access to first-line targeted therapies that could be used if tests were mutation positive were also identified. Respondents identified potential cultural sensitivities related to sending tissue samples abroad for genetic tests that would necessitate clinicians discussing this option with individual patients.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/enzimología , Análisis Mutacional de ADN/métodos , Análisis Mutacional de ADN/estadística & datos numéricos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimología , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tasa de Supervivencia
7.
BJU Int ; 95(7): 956-60, 2005 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15839912

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the preliminary clinical outcomes of active surveillance (AS), a new strategy aiming to individualize the management of early prostate cancer by selecting only those men with significant cancers for curative therapy, and illustrate the contrast with a policy of watchful waiting (WW). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty men with early prostate cancer began AS at the authors' institution between 1993 and 2002. Eligibility included histologically confirmed prostatic adenocarcinoma, fitness for radical treatment, clinical stage T1/T2, N0/X, M0/X, a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of < or = 20 ng/mL, and a Gleason score of < or = 7. PSA was measured and a digital rectal examination conducted at 3-6 month intervals. The decision between continued monitoring or radical treatment was informed by the rate of rise of PSA, and was made according to the judgement of each patient and clinician. During the same period, 32 men with localized prostate cancer (any T stage, N0/X, M0/X, any PSA, Gleason score < or = 7) were managed by WW; hormonal treatment was indicated for symptomatic prostate cancer progression. The PSA doubling time (DT) was calculated using linear regression of ln(PSA) against time, using all pretreatment PSA values. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 42 months, 64 (80%) of the 80 patients on AS remained under observation, 11 (14%) received radical treatment and five (6%) died from other causes. No patient developed evidence of metastatic disease, none started palliative hormone therapy, and there were no deaths from prostate cancer. Of the 11 patients who received radical treatment all remained biochemically controlled with no clinical evidence of recurrent disease. The median PSA DT while on AS was 12 years. Twenty (62%) of the 32 patients on WW remained on observation, eight (25%) received palliative hormonal therapy and four (12%) died, including one from prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: AS is feasible in selected men with early prostate cancer. The natural history of this disease often appears extremely indolent, and most men on AS will avoid radical treatment. There is a marked contrast between AS (with radical treatment for biochemical progression) and WW (with palliative treatment for symptomatic progression). Ongoing studies are seeking to optimize the AS protocol, and to compare the long-term outcomes with those of immediate radical treatment.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/sangre , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/uso terapéutico , Protocolos Clínicos , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Estudios de Factibilidad , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangre , Prostatectomía/métodos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/sangre
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