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1.
J Epidemiol ; 28(8): 347-352, 2018 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553059

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Relatively little evidence exists for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prediction models from long-term follow-up studies in East Asians. This study aims to develop a point-based prediction model for 10-year risk of developing T2DM in middle-aged Japanese men. METHODS: We followed 3,540 male participants of Aichi Workers' Cohort Study, who were aged 35-64 years and were free of diabetes in 2002, until March 31, 2015. Baseline age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, medication for dyslipidemia, diabetes family history, and blood levels of triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were examined using Cox proportional hazard model. Variables significantly associated with T2DM in univariable models were simultaneously entered in a multivariable model for determination of the final model using backward variable selection. Performance of an existing T2DM model when applied to the current dataset was compared to that obtained in the present study's model. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 12.2 years, 342 incident T2DM cases were documented. The prediction system using points assigned to age, BMI, smoking status, diabetes family history, and TG and FBG showed reasonable discrimination (c-index: 0.77) and goodness-of-fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.22). The present model outperformed the previous one in the present subjects. CONCLUSION: The point system, once validated in the other populations, could be applied to middle-aged Japanese male workers to identify those at high risk of developing T2DM. In addition, further investigation is also required to examine whether the use of this system will reduce incidence.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 79(2): 157-165, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626251

RESUMEN

Non-communicable diseases have been recognized as a serious threat to public health in Palau. To tackle the problem, different strategies might be necessary for populations with different ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to find the differences in the prevalence of metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases between Palauans and Filipinos living in Palau, and examine possible determinants of the differences. We selected data of 2,032 participants, including native Palauans and Filipinos, from the Palau STEPS Survey 2011-2013 for this study. Logistic regression models were used to inspect the association of each metabolic risk factor with ethnicity by calculating odds ratios adjusted for potential confounding factors. Palauans had higher age-standardized prevalence of overweight or obesity (84% vs. 45%), hypertension (50% vs. 38%) and diabetes (19% vs. 13%) than Filipinos. However, after adjusting for BMI and various lifestyle related factors, there are no statistical significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes between these two ethnic groups. Palauan men were less likely to have elevated total cholesterol, especially after adjusting for BMI (odds ratio=0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.91), while Palauan women were more likely to have elevated triglycerides than their Filipino counterparts (odds ratio=1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.06). Our findings suggested that Palauans' higher BMI distribution might be able to explain their higher prevalence of hypertension and partially explain their higher diabetes prevalence. Palauans were not consistently more likely to have all metabolic risk factors, namely dyslipidemia were less likely to be observed in Palauan men.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Islas del Pacífico/epidemiología , Palau/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
3.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 79(2): 229-239, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626258

RESUMEN

Although one of the most important missions of end-of-life education is to ensure proper inter-professional education (IPE), in Japan, end-of-life care IPE has not been given enough attention especially in community settings. This study aims at developing an effective workshop facilitator training program on end-of-life care IPE and acquiring the know-how to set up and efficiently run administrative offices. We first developed a tentative facilitation training program and conducted it in five cities nationwide. The training strategy was as follows: (1) participating in the workshop, (2) attending a lecture on facilitation, (3) conducting a preparatory study, (4) attending one workshop session as a facilitator, and (5) reflecting on one's attitude as a facilitator based on workshop participants' questionnaire, peer-feedback, and video recording. A total of 10 trainees completed the training program. We assessed the level of improvement in the trainees' facilitation skills and the efficacy of the training course using a qualitative approach. This formative study helped us identify several aspects needing improvement, especially in the areas of information technology and social media. Progress in these areas may have a positive impact on the education of community health care professionals whose study hours are limited, helping provide continued facilitation training.


Asunto(s)
Educación , Cuidado Terminal , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Interdisciplinarios , Persona de Mediana Edad
4.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 78(2): 163-73, 2016 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27303103

RESUMEN

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable , Beijing , China , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Población Rural , Capital Social
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