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1.
Microb Ecol ; 84(1): 182-197, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406445

RESUMEN

Keystone species or ecological engineers are vital to the health of an ecosystem; however, often, their low abundance or biomass present challenges for their discovery, identification, visualization and selection. We report the development of fluorescent in situ hybridization of transcript-annealing molecular beacons (FISH-TAMB), a fixation-free protocol that is applicable to archaea and bacteria. The FISH-TAMB method differs from existing FISH methods by the absence of fixatives or surfactants in buffers, the fast hybridization time of as short as 15 min at target cells' growth temperature, and the omission of washing steps. Polyarginine cell-penetrating peptides are employed to deliver molecular beacons (MBs) across prokaryotic cell walls and membranes, fluorescently labeling cells when MBs hybridize to target mRNA sequences. Here, the detailed protocol of the preparation and application of FISH-TAMB is presented. To demonstrate FISH-TAMB's ability to label intracellular mRNA targets, differentiate transcriptional states, detect active and rare taxa, and keep cell viability, labeling experiments were performed that targeted the messenger RNA (mRNA) of methyl-coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) expressed in (1) Escherichia coli containing a plasmid with a partial mcrA gene of the methanogen Methanosarcina barkeri (E. coli mcrA+); (2) M. barkeri; and (3) an anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) enrichment from a deep continental borehole. Although FISH-TAMB was initially envisioned for mRNA of any functional gene of interest without a requirement of prior knowledge of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based taxonomy, FISH-TAMB has the potential for multiplexing and going beyond mRNA and thus is a versatile addition to the molecular ecologist's toolkit, with potentially widespread application in the field of environmental microbiology.


Asunto(s)
Metano , Microbiota , Archaea , ADN de Archaea/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ/métodos , Metano/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Filogenia , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/metabolismo
2.
Anim Microbiome ; 3(1): 65, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598739

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics alter the diversity, structure, and dynamics of host-associated microbial consortia, including via development of antibiotic resistance; however, patterns of recovery from microbial imbalances and methods to mitigate associated negative effects remain poorly understood, particularly outside of human-clinical and model-rodent studies that focus on outcome over process. To improve conceptual understanding of host-microbe symbiosis in more naturalistic contexts, we applied an ecological framework to a non-traditional, strepsirrhine primate model via long-term, multi-faceted study of microbial community structure before, during, and following two experimental manipulations. Specifically, we administered a broad-spectrum antibiotic, either alone or with subsequent fecal transfaunation, to healthy, male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), then used 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to longitudinally track the diversity, composition, associations, and resistomes of their gut microbiota both within and across baseline, treatment, and recovery phases. RESULTS: Antibiotic treatment resulted in a drastic decline in microbial diversity and a dramatic alteration in community composition. Whereas microbial diversity recovered rapidly regardless of experimental group, patterns of microbial community composition reflected long-term instability following treatment with antibiotics alone, a pattern that was attenuated by fecal transfaunation. Covariation analysis revealed that certain taxa dominated bacterial associations, representing potential keystone species in lemur gut microbiota. Antibiotic resistance genes, which were universally present, including in lemurs that had never been administered antibiotics, varied across individuals and treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term, integrated study post antibiotic-induced microbial imbalance revealed differential, metric-dependent evidence of recovery, with beneficial effects of fecal transfaunation on recovering community composition, and potentially negative consequences to lemur resistomes. Beyond providing new perspectives on the dynamics that govern host-associated communities, particularly in the Anthropocene era, our holistic study in an endangered species is a first step in addressing the recent, interdisciplinary calls for greater integration of microbiome science into animal care and conservation.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12336, 2021 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117335

RESUMEN

Observations of trace methane (CH4) in the Martian atmosphere are significant to the astrobiology community given the overwhelming contribution of biological methanogenesis to atmospheric CH4 on Earth. Previous studies have shown that methanogenic Archaea can generate CH4 when incubated with perchlorates, highly oxidizing chaotropic salts which have been found across the Martian surface. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this remain completely unexplored. In this study we performed comparative transcriptomics on the methanogen Methanosarcina barkeri, which was incubated at 30˚C and 0˚C with 10-20 mM calcium-, magnesium-, or sodium perchlorate. Consistent with prior studies, we observed decreased CH4 production and apparent perchlorate reduction, with the latter process proceeding by heretofore essentially unknown mechanisms. Transcriptomic responses of M. barkeri to perchlorates include up-regulation of osmoprotectant transporters and selection against redox-sensitive amino acids. Increased expression of methylamine methanogenesis genes suggest competition for H2 with perchlorate reduction, which we propose is catalyzed by up-regulated molybdenum-containing enzymes and maintained by siphoning diffused H2 from energy-conserving hydrogenases. Methanogenesis regulatory patterns suggest Mars' freezing temperatures alone pose greater constraints to CH4 production than perchlorates. These findings increase our understanding of methanogen survival in extreme environments and confers continued consideration of a potential biological contribution to Martian CH4.

4.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 171, 2019 08 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438845

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diversity at the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is critical to health and fitness, such that MHC genotype may predict an individual's quality or compatibility as a competitor, ally, or mate. Moreover, because MHC products can influence the components of bodily secretions, an individual's body odors may signal its MHC composition and influence partner identification or mate choice. Here, we investigated MHC-based signaling and recipient sensitivity by testing for odor-gene covariance and behavioral discrimination of MHC diversity and pairwise dissimilarity in a strepsirrhine primate, the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). METHODS: First, we coupled genotyping of the MHC class II gene, DRB, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of genital gland secretions to investigate if functional genetic diversity is signaled by the chemical diversity of lemur scent secretions. We also assessed if the chemical similarity between individuals correlated with their MHC-DRB similarity. Next, we assessed if lemurs discriminated this chemically encoded, genetic information in opposite-sex conspecifics. RESULTS: We found that both sexes signaled overall MHC-DRB diversity and pairwise MHC-DRB similarity via genital secretions, but in a sex- and season-dependent manner. Additionally, the sexes discriminated absolute and relative MHC-DRB diversity in the genital odors of opposite-sex conspecifics, suggesting that lemur genital odors function to advertise genetic quality. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, genital odors of ring-tailed lemurs provide honest information about an individual's absolute and relative MHC quality. Complementing evidence in humans and Old World monkeys, we suggest that reliance on scent signals to communicate MHC quality may be important across the primate lineage.


Asunto(s)
Cadenas beta de HLA-DR/genética , Lemur/genética , Animales , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Femenino , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Lemur/clasificación , Lemur/psicología , Masculino , Odorantes/análisis , Feromonas , Transducción de Señal , Olfato
5.
Am J Primatol ; 81(10-11): e22974, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932230

RESUMEN

Research on animal microbiomes is increasingly aimed at determining the evolutionary and ecological factors that govern host-microbiome dynamics, which are invariably intertwined and potentially synergistic. We present three empirical studies related to this topic, each of which relies on the diversity of Malagasy lemurs (representing a total of 19 species) and the comparative approach applied across scales of analysis. In Study 1, we compare gut microbial membership across 14 species in the wild to test the relative importance of host phylogeny and feeding strategy in mediating microbiome structure. Whereas host phylogeny strongly predicted community composition, the same feeding strategies shared by distant relatives did not produce convergent microbial consortia, but rather shaped microbiomes in host lineage-specific ways, particularly in folivores. In Study 2, we compare 14 species of wild and captive folivores, frugivores, and omnivores, to highlight the importance of captive populations for advancing gut microbiome research. We show that the perturbational effect of captivity is mediated by host feeding strategy and can be mitigated, in part, by modified animal management. In Study 3, we examine various scent-gland microbiomes across three species in the wild or captivity and show them to vary by host species, sex, body site, and a proxy of social status. These rare data provide support for the bacterial fermentation hypothesis in olfactory signal production and implicate steroid hormones as mediators of microbial community structure. We conclude by discussing the role of scale in comparative microbial studies, the links between feeding strategy and host-microbiome coadaptation, the underappreciated benefits of captive populations for advancing conservation research, and the need to consider the entirety of an animal's microbiota. Ultimately, these studies will help move the field from exploratory to hypothesis-driven research.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Lemuridae/microbiología , Microbiota , Glándulas Odoríferas/microbiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped , Madagascar , Masculino , Filogenia
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533830

RESUMEN

Metagenomic sequencing of fracture fluid from South Africa recovered a nearly complete "Candidatus Bathyarchaeota" archaeon genome. The metagenome-assembled genome of BE326-BA-RLH contains genes involved in methane metabolism and dissimilatory nitrate reduction. This study presents the first genomic evidence for potential anaerobic methane oxidation in the phylum "Ca. Bathyarchaeota."

7.
Astrobiology ; 18(8): 1081-1091, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074400

RESUMEN

Chloride-bearing deposits and phyllosilicates-bearing units are widely distributed in the southern highlands of Mars, but these phases are rarely found together in fluviolacustrine environments. The study of the coexistence of these minerals can provide important insights into geochemistry, water activity, and ultimately the climate and habitability of early Mars. Here we use high-resolution compositional and morphological orbiter data to identify and characterize the context of diverse minerals in a Noachian fluviolacustrine environment west of Knobel crater (6.7°S, 226.8°W). The chlorides in this region are likely formed through the evaporation of brines in a closed topographic basin. The formation age of chlorides is older than 3.7 Ga, based on stratigraphic relationships identified and previously obtained crater retention ages. The timing of the alteration of basaltic materials to iron-magnesium smectites in relation to the chloride formation in this location is enigmatic and is unable to be resolved with currently available remote sensing data. Importantly, we find that this close relationship between these key minerals revealed by the currently available data details a complex and intimate history of aqueous activity in the region. Of critical importance are the evaporitic deposits as analogous terrestrial deposits have been shown to preserve ancient biosignatures and possibly even sustain microbial communities for hundreds of millions of years. These salts could have protected organic matter from ultraviolet radiation, or even allow modern habitable microenvironments in the shallow subsurface through periodic deliquescence. The high astrobiology potential of this site makes it a good candidate for future landed and sample return missions (e.g., the Chinese 2020 Mars mission).


Asunto(s)
Exobiología , Medio Ambiente Extraterrestre , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Marte , Cloruros/análisis , Rayos Infrarrojos
8.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1235, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973918

RESUMEN

Metatranscriptomics has recently been applied to investigate the active biogeochemical processes and elemental cycles, and in situ responses of microbiomes to environmental stimuli and stress factors. De novo assembly of RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) data can reveal a more detailed description of the metabolic interactions amongst the active microbial communities. However, the quality of the assemblies and the depiction of the metabolic network provided by various de novo assemblers have not yet been thoroughly assessed. In this study, we compared 15 de novo metatranscriptomic assemblies for a fracture fluid sample collected from a borehole located at 1.34 km below land surface in a South African gold mine. These assemblies were constructed from total, non-coding, and coding reads using five de novo transcriptomic assemblers (Trans-ABySS, Trinity, Oases, IDBA-tran, and Rockhopper). They were evaluated based on the number of transcripts, transcript length, range of transcript coverage, continuity, percentage of transcripts with confident annotation assignments, as well as taxonomic and functional diversity patterns. The results showed that these parameters varied considerably among the assemblies, with Trans-ABySS and Trinity generating the best assemblies for non-coding and coding RNA reads, respectively, because the high number of transcripts assembled covered a wide expression range, and captured extensively the taxonomic and metabolic gene diversity, respectively. We concluded that the choice of de novo transcriptomic assemblers impacts substantially the taxonomic and functional compositions. Care should be taken to obtain high-quality assemblies for informing the in situ metabolic landscape.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9882, 2018 06 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959333

RESUMEN

Honesty is crucial in animal communication when signallers are conveying information about their condition. Condition dependence implies a cost to signal production; yet, evidence of such cost is scarce. We examined the effects of naturally occurring injury on the quality and salience of olfactory signals in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Over a decade, we collected genital secretions from 23 (13 male, 10 female) adults across 34 unique injuries, owing primarily to intra-group fights. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we tested for differences in the chemical composition of secretions across pre-injury, injury and recovery, in animals that did and did not receive antibiotics. Lemur genital secretions were significantly dampened and altered during injury, with patterns of change varying by sex, season and antibiotics. Using behavioural bioassays (excluding odorants from antibiotic-treated animals), we showed that male 'recipients' discriminated injury status based on scent alone, directing more competitive counter marking towards odorants from injured vs. uninjured male 'signallers.' That injured animals could not maintain their normal signatures provides rare evidence of the energetic cost to signal production. That conspecifics detected olfactory-encoded 'weakness' suggests added behavioural costs: By influencing the likelihood of intra- or inter-sexual conflict, condition-dependent signals could have important implications for socio-reproductive behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Lemur/lesiones , Lemur/metabolismo , Odorantes/análisis , Comunicación Animal , Animales , Secreciones Corporales/química , Femenino , Masculino , Estaciones del Año , Heridas y Lesiones
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(49): E7927-E7936, 2016 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872277

RESUMEN

Subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystems (SLiMEs) under oligotrophic conditions are typically supported by H2 Methanogens and sulfate reducers, and the respective energy processes, are thought to be the dominant players and have been the research foci. Recent investigations showed that, in some deep, fluid-filled fractures in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa, methanogens contribute <5% of the total DNA and appear to produce sufficient CH4 to support the rest of the diverse community. This paradoxical situation reflects our lack of knowledge about the in situ metabolic diversity and the overall ecological trophic structure of SLiMEs. Here, we show the active metabolic processes and interactions in one of these communities by combining metatranscriptomic assemblies, metaproteomic and stable isotopic data, and thermodynamic modeling. Dominating the active community are four autotrophic ß-proteobacterial genera that are capable of oxidizing sulfur by denitrification, a process that was previously unnoticed in the deep subsurface. They co-occur with sulfate reducers, anaerobic methane oxidizers, and methanogens, which each comprise <5% of the total community. Syntrophic interactions between these microbial groups remove thermodynamic bottlenecks and enable diverse metabolic reactions to occur under the oligotrophic conditions that dominate in the subsurface. The dominance of sulfur oxidizers is explained by the availability of electron donors and acceptors to these microorganisms and the ability of sulfur-oxidizing denitrifiers to gain energy through concomitant S and H2 oxidation. We demonstrate that SLiMEs support taxonomically and metabolically diverse microorganisms, which, through developing syntrophic partnerships, overcome thermodynamic barriers imposed by the environmental conditions in the deep subsurface.


Asunto(s)
Desnitrificación , Ecosistema , Metano/biosíntesis , Microbiota , Azufre/metabolismo , Procesos Autotróficos , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Sudáfrica
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 8: 658, 2015 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701692

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of disease exposure risk are frequently based on observational, cross-sectional data, and use statistical approaches as crucial tools for formalising causal processes and making predictions of exposure risks. However, an acknowledged limitation of traditional models is that the inferred relationships are correlational, cannot easily distinguish direct from indirect determinants of disease risk, and are often considerable simplifications of complex interrelationships. This may be particularly important when attempting to infer causality in patterns of co-infection through pathogen-facilitation. METHODS: We describe analyses of cross-sectional data using structural equation models (SEMs), a contemporary advancement on traditional regression approaches, based on our study system of feline gammaherpesvirus (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats. RESULTS: SEMs strongly supported a latent (host phenotype) variable associated with FcaGHV1 exposure and co-infection risk, suggesting these individuals are simply more likely to become infected with multiple pathogens. However, indications of pathogen-covariance (potential facilitation) were also variably detected: potentially among FcaGHV1, Bartonella spp and Mycoplasma spp. CONCLUSIONS: Our models suggest multiple exposures are primarily driven by host phenotypic traits, such as aggressive male phenotypes, and secondarily by pathogen-pathogen interactions. The results of this study demonstrate the application of SEMs to understanding epidemiological processes using observational data, and could be used more widely as a complementary tool to understand complex cross-sectional information in a wide variety of disciplines.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Coinfección/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Virosis/veterinaria , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/transmisión , Bartonella/aislamiento & purificación , Bioestadística , Gatos , Estudios Transversales , Gammaherpesvirinae/aislamiento & purificación , Mycoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Medición de Riesgo , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/transmisión
12.
Bioscience ; 65(7): 651-666, 2015 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26955081

RESUMEN

Understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. We propose a mechanistic understanding of human-reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. Crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. We found that disease cases were greatest in arid states and declined exponentially with increasing precipitation. Within arid environments, relatively rare climatic conditions (e.g., El Niño) are associated with increased rainfall and reservoir abundance, producing more frequent virus transmission and host dispersal. We suggest that deer mice increase their occupancy of peridomestic structures during spring-summer, amplifying intraspecific transmission and human infection risk. Disease incidence in arid states may increase with predicted climatic changes. Mechanistic approaches incorporating reservoir behavior, reservoir-human interactions, and pathogen spillover could enhance our understanding of global hantavirus ecology, with applications to other directly transmitted zoonoses.

13.
Neuropharmacology ; 79: 634-41, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24467844

RESUMEN

Low dose amphetamine (AMPH) and methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin(®)) are the most widely prescribed and most effective pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Certain low, clinically relevant doses of MPH improve sustained attention and working memory in normal rats, in contrast to higher doses that impair cognitive ability and induce locomotor activity. However, the effects of AMPH of MPH on sustained attention and behavioral inhibition remain poorly characterized. The present experiments examined the actions of AMPH (0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg) and MPH (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) in a rat model of 1) sustained attention, where signal and blank trials were interspersed randomly and occurred at unpredictable times, and 2) behavioral inhibition, using a differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedule. In a signal detection paradigm, both 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg MPH and 0.25 mg/kg AMPH improve sustained attention, however neither AMPH nor MPH improve behavioral inhibition on DRL. Taken together with other recent studies, it appears that clinically-relevant doses of AMPH and MPH may preferentially improve attention-related behavior while having little effect on behavioral inhibition. These observations provide additional insight into the basic behavioral actions of low-dose psychostimulants and further suggest that the use of sustained attention tasks may be important in the development of novel pharmacological treatments for ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Anfetamina/farmacología , Atención/efectos de los fármacos , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/farmacología , Inhibición Psicológica , Metilfenidato/farmacología , Psicotrópicos/farmacología , Animales , Masculino , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Esquema de Refuerzo , Detección de Señal Psicológica/efectos de los fármacos
14.
Chem Senses ; 37(9): 819-36, 2012 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22871649

RESUMEN

The short-beaked echidna is believed to use olfactory cues from a cloacal scent gland to attract and locate mates during the breeding season. We investigated the chemical composition of echidna secretions, including cloacal swabs and solid, "waxy" exudates from the cloaca and spurs. Scent samples from 37 individuals were collected over a 1-year period and analyzed using a range of different analytical techniques. A total of 186 compounds were identified, including volatile carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, methyl esters, ethyl esters, terpenes, nitrogen- and sulphur-containing compounds, alcohols, and aromatics. Long chain and very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and sterol esters were identified as the major constituents of solid exudates, some of which have not previously been described from any animal skin gland. There was a high degree of composition overlap between male and female cloaca swabs; however, there is significant variation, which could mediate echidna mating behavior. Many of the volatile and nonvolatile chemicals detected are used for communication in other species, suggesting that chemical signals have important and diverse functions in echidna social interactions.


Asunto(s)
Odorantes/análisis , Tachyglossidae/metabolismo , Animales , Cloaca/química , Exudados y Transudados/química , Femenino , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Masculino , Conducta Sexual Animal
15.
Br J Haematol ; 129(4): 520-30, 2005 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15877734

RESUMEN

Summary Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) was used independently to reveal chromosomal abnormalities of prognostic importance in a large, consecutive series of children (n = 2367) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The fusions, TEL/AML1 and BCR/ABL, and rearrangements of the MLL gene occurred at frequencies of 22% (n = 447/2027) (25% in B-lineage ALL), 2% (n = 43/2027) and 2% (n = 47/2016) respectively. There was considerable variation in iFISH signal patterns both between and within patient samples. The TEL/AML1 probe showed the highest incidence of variation (59%, n = 524/884), which included 38 (2%) patients with clustered, multiple copies of AML1. We were thus able to define amplification of AML1 as a new recurrent abnormality in ALL, associated with a poor prognosis. Amplification involving the ABL gene, a rare recurrent abnormality confined to T ALL patients, was identified for the first time. The use of centromeric probes revealed significant hidden high hyperdiploidy of 33% and 59%, respectively, in patients with normal (n = 21/64) or failed (n = 32/54) cytogenetic results. The iFISH contributed significantly to the high success rate of 91% (n = 2114/2323) and the remarkable abnormality detection rate of 89% (n = 1879/2114). This study highlights the importance of iFISH as a complementary tool to cytogenetics in routine screening for significant chromosomal abnormalities in ALL.


Asunto(s)
Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Subunidad alfa 2 del Factor de Unión al Sitio Principal , Análisis Citogenético , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Proteínas de Fusión bcr-abl/genética , Amplificación de Genes , Reordenamiento Génico , Genes abl , N-Metiltransferasa de Histona-Lisina , Humanos , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ , Lactante , Interfase , Proteína de la Leucemia Mieloide-Linfoide , Proteínas de Fusión Oncogénica/genética , Pronóstico , Proto-Oncogenes/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Factores de Transcripción/genética
16.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 41(3): 266-71, 2004 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15334550

RESUMEN

Rearrangements involving the MLL gene at 11q23 occur in a clinically relevant subgroup of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at all ages, and therefore their accurate identification at diagnosis is important. It has become commonplace to screen ALL patients for rearrangements of MLL using a dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. We report on 12 ALL patients with an unusual FISH result consisting of the following signal pattern: one 5' green, no 3' red, and one/two fusion signals. This configuration is consistent with a MLL translocation and simultaneous deletion of 3' MLL-a well-established phenomenon-which has been interpreted as a positive result. G-banded and complementary metaphase FISH analyses confirmed an 11q23/MLL translocation in 8 of the 12 cases, whereas in one case, the identification of a del(11)(q23) was restricted to G-banded analysis only. In three cases, an MLL rearrangement was excluded by extensive FISH analysis and/or Southern blotting. In conclusion, the loss of the 3' MLL signal should not be assumed to be the result of a concurrent translocation and deletion event, and such aberrant FISH signal patterns should be investigated further by alternative methods for determining their MLL status.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Eliminación de Gen , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Proto-Oncogenes/genética , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Translocación Genética , Southern Blotting , Niño , Preescolar , Bandeo Cromosómico , Cromosomas Humanos Par 11 , Femenino , N-Metiltransferasa de Histona-Lisina , Humanos , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ , Lactante , Cariotipificación , Masculino , Metafase , Proteína de la Leucemia Mieloide-Linfoide , Estadística como Asunto/métodos
17.
Br J Haematol ; 125(5): 552-9, 2004 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15147369

RESUMEN

This study of children and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the largest series of patients with hypodiploidy (<46 chromosomes) yet reported. The incidence of 5% was independent of age. Patients were subdivided by the number of chromosomes; near-haploidy (23-29 chromosomes), low hypodiploidy (33-39 chromosomes) and high hypodiploidy (42-45 chromosomes). The near-haploid and low hypodiploid groups were characterized by their chromosomal gains and a doubled hyperdiploid population. Structural abnormalities were more frequent in the low hypodiploid group. Near-haploidy was restricted to children of median age 7 years (range 2-15) whereas low hypodiploidy occurred in an older group of median age 15 years (range 9-54). Patients with 42-45 chromosomes were characterized by complex karyotypes involving chromosomes 7, 9 and 12. The features shared by the few patients with 42-44 chromosomes and the large number with 45 justified their inclusion in the same group. Survival analysis showed a poor outcome for the near-haploid and low hypodiploid groups compared to those with 42-45 chromosomes. Thus cytogenetics, or at least a clear definition of the modal chromosome number, is essential at diagnosis in order to stratify patients with hypodiploidy into the appropriate risk group for treatment.


Asunto(s)
Aneuploidia , Cromosomas Humanos/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Cariotipificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Análisis de Supervivencia
18.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet ; 148(2): 159-62, 2004 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14734231

RESUMEN

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by recurrent clonal chromosomal abnormalities, with numerical abnormalities being a common feature especially among children. Case reports in the literature suggest that one such recurrent numerical abnormality is the gain of chromosome 5 (trisomy 5) as the sole abnormality; due to the rarity of these cases, however, little is known about their incidence, clinical features, and prognosis. We have identified seven cases with trisomy 5 as the sole or primary chromosomal abnormality from a total of 3,400 karyotypes collected in the Leukaemia Research Fund UK Cancer Cytogenetics Group Karyotype Database. All cases had a precursor B-cell immunophenotype and there was a male predominance. Five patients were children aged between 7 and 14 years old. Four of the six patients with a reasonable follow-up period had relapsed, indicating a poor prognosis. We conclude that trisomy 5 as the sole numerical abnormality occurs predominantly in older children, may be associated with a poor outcome, and may represent a distinct, albeit rare, cytogenetic subgroup in ALL.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos Par 5 , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Trisomía , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Análisis Citogenético , Femenino , Humanos , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ , Masculino
19.
Blood ; 102(8): 2756-62, 2003 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12829593

RESUMEN

High hyperdiploidy (HeH) (51 to 65 chromosomes) is found in one third of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and is associated with a good prognosis. Cytogenetic features may further refine this prognosis and identify patients with a poor outcome. We examined the effect of sex, age, individual trisomies, modal number, and structural abnormalities on survival among 700 children with HeH. Univariate analysis showed that age. sex, +4, +10, +18, and a high modal number were associated with survival. Multivariate analysis however, revealed that only age, sex, +4, and +18 were independent indicators. Hazard scores for predicting relapse and mortality were constructed. Three risk groups with 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rates of 86%, 75%, and 50% (P <.0001) were identified. The high-risk group comprised boys older than 9 years, boys aged 1 through 9 years without +18, and girls older than 9 years without +18, while girls aged 1 through 9 years with +18 had the best EFS. In terms of mortality, those younger than age 10 years with both +4 and +18 had an improved survival (96% vs 84% at 5 years, P <.0001). These findings confirm that the outcome of children with HeH is heterogeneous and that specific trisomies can identify patients with the greatest and least risk of treatment failure.


Asunto(s)
Diploidia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Niño , Preescolar , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ , Lactante , Cariotipificación , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidad , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Trisomía
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